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M.D., F.R.S.,— BEING 









VOL. 11. 


Henry S. King & Co. 
65 CoRNHiLL, & 12 Paternoster Row, London. 


N\juL ;?;?^.^.5' 





\AU Eights Heserved.] 





Again in Paris— The Jardin des PlanteB— Gay-Lussac's lectures on 
iodine — Baron Cuvier — Relaxations of the capital — Baron Hum- 
boldt — Baron de Stael— Comte de Mejean — How Prince Eugene was 
betrayed — Infamy of General Pino — Soiree at Lady Westmoreland's 
^The Chamber of Deputies — ^Monsieur Pinchon— Return to Eng- 
land 1 



Resume my duties in England — Lady Davy's letter from Rome — Lecturer 
on Chemistry at the Westminster Medical School — Accident with 
clilorine — The crown of Italy offered to the Duke of Sussex— Flight 
of Napoleon from Elba — Resign the lectureship— Correspondence of 
Dr. John Davy 14 


Pistnicci the sculptor — His personal appearance — Strange story of a 
cameo— Mr. Payne Knight imposed upon by Bonelli — Discovery 
of the deception — Pistrucci succeeds Mr. Wyon at the Mint — De- 
signs and engraves the George and Dragon coin and the Waterloo 
medal — Canova in Paris — Shuffling of Talleyrand— Restitution of 
works of art to Italy 27 


Accident to Lord Castlereagh — Canova's account of the success of his 
mission — He comes to England — Contributions to literature — Guy ton 
de Morveau — A philosopher seldom successful as a practising 
physician — Letter from Sir Humphry Davy — Sir Walter F^g^iuhar 
— His great success, and death — Result of his advice ... 40 





Sir Walter Farquhar's advice — Remove from London to Paris — De- 
plorable state of my health — Cure for dyspep&ia — Couise of studies 
in Paris— Method of taking down a lecture — The Institute of France 
and the Royal Society 53 


Life in Paris — Cicerone to English visitors — M. Gerard — The English 
Geological* Society — Cuvier's lectures on generation — ^The Darwinian 
theory — Contributions to English journals — Dr. John Davy in the 
East 68 



Illness of Madame de Stael — Curious phenomenon — ^Her death — Lord 
Ellenborough arrives in Paris^ Visit to La Salp^tri^re — Description 
of the establishment — Visit to a French court of justice — Disgust of 
Lord Ellenborough . ' 85 


- - 1817. 

The Countess Rumford — Her soirees — Curious calculation — The Abb^ 
Gr^goire—Anecdote of Laplace and Bonaparte — The Wellington Ball 
— Story of Morrison of pill celebrity — The Prince Regent's burgundy 
— Letter from Sir Joseph Banks— A note on Gout .... 97 



Visit London to attend Dr. Clarke's lectures — Pass an examination before 
the Royal College of Physicians — Elected a member of the Royal 
Society— Return to France— Farewell to friends in Paris — Hum- 
boldt's sketch of Cuvier — Cuvier's vanity — Arrive "too late" in 
London — Death of Princess Charlotte — Elected physician accoucheur 
to a dispensary — In Savile Row — The first case — A physician's 
attire — A i)rofe!ts5ional incident 114 



1818— .19. 


Mrs. Siddons — Her insomnia^ — Practice at the Westminster General Dis- 
penaary — Reform the midwives — Annual reports- -Proceed to Cam- 
bray— Military quarrels— Return home— The Due de Brancas— 
Death of Lord Ellenborough— How to reconcile a large practice 
with absence from London — Illness of Lady Ellenborough — A 
sojourn in Italy recommended — Pisa selected for the winter — Pre- 
pare for a trip as travelling physician— A suburban medical oracle . 131 



Continental travelling in 1819— Antwerp — Fatal event at Brussels- 
Waterloo— The Rhine— Pestalozzi's Institute— Turin— The Madonna 
of Carlo Dolce— Reach Milan— Visit Como— Arrival at Pisa— Set 
out to return by Paris— The bearer of despatches from Sir Charles 
Stuart — ^Exciting race — Safe arrival at home . , . .146 



Government slow to settle accounts — The half-way house — Parliamentary 
committee on the quarantine laws — Edit the '^ Medical Intelligencer" 
— ^Accept the editorship of the '^ London Medical and Physical 
Journal " — Origin of the use of prussic acid in medicine — Its intro- 
duction into Enghmd — Decline to act as interpreter on the trial of 
the Princess of Wales — Establish a dispensary for sick children . 168 



An event in the history of the Royal Society — Sir Humphry Davy suc- 
ceeds to the chair — Letter from Mr. Hamilton — John A. Ransome — 
A Persian satrap in London— A lady scidptor — ^Anecdote of Dr. Baillie 
— Great success of prussic acid — Saves the Hfe of the Countess of 
Onslow — Rapid journey to Wilton House — Happy result . . .186 



Gratifying results of the journey to Wilton House — Elected to a second 
medical institution — Ovariotomy performed for the first time in 
England — Contributions to science — An Egyptian mummy — State 
of obstetrical science in England — The Royal Institution in 1832 — 
A chapter in the history of the Royal Society ..... 202 





Count Woronzow— Serious illnefls of Dr. Hutchinaon— He is succeeded 
by Dr. Lee — Elected a member of the Athenaeum Club— Parlia- 
mentary committees— The Gardner Peerage -Statistics for friendly 
societies — Death of my father— Accept a proposal to go to Russia — 
Incidents of the journey— Capo d' Istria— EflFects of flowery pekoe- 
Return to England . . -227 


The Admiralty and the medical officers — How to trick them out of their 
haK-pay — I am selected as a victim, and defrauded of my subscrip- 
tions to the widow and orphan fand — ^The insult of a jimior secretary 
contradicted by his superior — Oatbreak of cholera in England — Pub- 
lish the " Catechism of Health " — Viscount Palmeiston seized with 
cholera — Novel mode of treatment — ^No rest for a foreign secretary 
— Another minister attacked 251 



Complexity of Incidents — Statistics and contributions to scientific know- 
ledge — Insanity — Martin's plan to improve the Thames — His 
scheme adopted in part by the Metropolitan BoaM without ac- 
knowledgment 268 


Theodore Hook — His expose of Lord Brougham in "John BulP — ^Facts 

of the case — How to secure an election — The dedication of the 

. ." Catechism of Health " — Lord BroughaJn and La Senora d'Acuiia — 

A dinner in the company of two lord chancellors — Mr. St. John 

Long— Counter-irritation — Miraculous cure 285 



Jo.seph Bonaparte— My relationship to the Bonaparte family — Jerome 
Bonaparte— Prince Louis — The affair at Strasburg — Interview be- 
tween uncle and nephew — Joseph seized with apoplexy — Prince 
Louis' parole (Vhonmur — The landing at Boulogne — Shock to Joseph 
— A chapter of secret history— Diplomatic Spies .... 309 




Singular absence of infortnatdon on a subject of importance^— A tour 
among the' springs of Germany — Presentiment of my son — His 
death — ^A visit to Buxton— The mineral springs of England- 
Bournemouth — Excuses for leaving England — Kissingen : efficacy 
of its waters— Gastein — German mode of treatment — Dr. Grimm . 336 



The British Association at Newcastle— Miss Martineau — Sir John Bow- 
ring visits the Continent at great cost to government — The Duke of 
Northumberland at Alnwick — An epidemic in London — Lord Pal- 
merston again a sufferer — His sanctum at the Foreign Office — 
Sketch of his character — The Italian Question — Letter to Charles 
Albert 361 



A journey to Russia — Icebound — Reception by Prince TczemichefF — 
Society in St. Petersburgh — A Russian christening — The Waterloo 
medal — Its acceptance by the Emperor, and singular disappearance . 375 

The close of a Medical Life 406 

Appendix 421 

Index .425 






Again in Paris — The Jardin des Plantes— .Gay-LuBsac's lectures on iodine — 
Baron Cuvier — Helaxations of the capital — Baron Humboldt — Baron de 
Stael — Comte de Mdjean — How Prince Eugfene was betrayed — Infamy 
of General Pino — SoirSe at Lady Westmoreland's — The Chamber of 
Deputies — Monsieur Pinchon — Betum to England. 

Ten days after leaving Turin I found myself, on the 22nd 
of August, in Paris, in the Hotel de Saxe, Faubourg Saint- 
Germain, which I was destined to revisit two or three years 
later for some months, when my professional and scientific 
pursuits would render it necessary that I should live in 
what was then denominated the Pays Latin. Here I had 
a very neat and well-furnished apartment, for which I paid 
only forty francs a month. I mention this trifling circum- 
stance to contrast it with what one is now obliged to pay 
for house room. 

My first care was to write a long letter to my wife, and 
another to Mr. Hamilton, announcing my proximate return 
to England. My brother-in-law. Monsieur de Lafolie, 
came to see me, and I may say that a great ^art of the 
time during my stay in Paris was spent with him and my 
eldest sister Julia, his wife. They had a house in the Bois 
de Vincennes, whence he used to come to Paris every 

VOL. 11. ■ B 


morning to attend at hie oflBce, as " Consersrateur des 
Monuments Frangais/' and to discharge the functions 
likewise of assistant-secretary to the Prefect de la Seine. 
I took advantage of his perfect knowledge of the city 'to . 
go in his company to deliver the letters of introduction I 
had brought from Italy. A few of the visits which most 
interested me I repeated alone; among them were those 
to the laboratory of Chevreul, at the Jardin des Plantes. 
This chemist was then building up his well-gained repu- 
tation as a first-class analyst by his chemical researches for 
first principles, such as the astringent in vegetables, and 
sur les carps gras^ the world being indebted to him for 
numerous useful applications of chemistry to the most 
important wants and requisites of life. 

In the same vast scientific establishment of the Jardin 
des Plantes, I visited, during one of his brilliant lectures 
on iodine, Professor Gay-Lussac, who rose very soon to a 
well-deserved and high renown. He was kind enough to 
give me a small portion of that substance, just discovered, 
in a glass tube, which I was the first to exhibit at one of 
the meetings of the Royal Society in London, handing it 
over to Doctor "W^ollaston, who had heard of the discovery, 
but had never seen the violet vapour emitted by the 
substance when slightly heated. 

I happened to m^et an Italian physician. Doctor Pantoli, 
settled in Paris, who knew almost all the most eminent 
professors of the Ecole de M^decine and principal hospitals, . 
and through him I was presently made personally known 
to Dubois, Dupuytren, and Pelletan, three first-rate surgeons. 

To a man devoted to science, nothing can be more 
interesting than a visit to the Jardin des Plantes when you 
have the good fortune to be known to the professor or 
curators, gentlemen, every one of them, remarkable for 
their politeness in receiving strangers and treating their 


pupils. Such was my fortune with regard to Baron Cuvier, 
in whose gallery, all his own work, I spent several hours 
under his own eyes, and assisted by his ready and eloquent 
dissertations. I shall have to say much more of this most 
eminent naturalist in a later part of my history, and must 
dismiss him for the present, together with many of the 
sommitSs in the world of letters, science, and the fine arts 
with whom I became acquainted, and of whom I shall 
record the names and acquirements before I leave Paris. 

I will not pretend to make my readers believe that I did 
nothing more while in this gay metropolis than attend to 
science and literature. No. I took also my full share of 
pleasure, accompanying my sister, alone or with her 
husband, to the opera or the Theatre Franjais, where we 
enjoyed that naive and exquisite real representation of 
human life on the stage which French actresses alone can 
so perfectly exhibit. As for the Op^ra Comique, it is 
caviare to me, but the Italian Opera was fortunately open 
at the Academic Royale de JIusique, Rue de Richelieu, and 
there I enjoyed often that famous quartet " Chi mai pu6 la 
vita amar" in the " Cosl fan tutte." 

Frenchmen are proverbially courteous and well bred ; 
they are even punctilious in etiquette? I was not surprised, 
therefore, at receiving calls from many of the persons on 
whom I had left my letters of introduction. Among them 
I felt much pleased and honoured when on my servant 
announcing Monsieur le Baron de Humboldt, I beheld 
before me the great naturalist, traveller, and explorer, at 
whose residence in Paris I had left a letter of introduction 
from Lady Davy at Geneva. He impressed me at once as 
a person of very agreeable manners, with a most amiable 
mode of address, and great facility of expressing his wonder- 
fully copious and learned opinions on many subjects familiar 
to himself and highly interesting to his hearers. He was 

B 2 


above the middle height, with a well-Bhaped head, a square 
forehead, and a look which in any accomplished and hand- 
some woman would be called malin^ but in a philosopher 
like Humboldt would be more correctly considered asi the 
scintillation of genius,' with the additional pleasantness of its 
hieing invariably accompanied with a smile. It is unnecessary 
to say that he spoke French perfectly, and with less of the 
Germanic twang than the best-bred Prussians even are not 
free from, as was the case with the late Baron Goltz, for 
example, the great diplomatist. 

Baron Humboldt kindly offered to introduce ine to the 
principal French savants^ with most of whom he was on 
friendly terms, and I may say companionship, as, for instance, 
with Arago and Gay-Lussac, but I stated that to most ot 
them I was already personally known. While speaking of 
his travels in South America, I inquired of him in Spanish 
whether he h^d found the mountaineers on the Cordilleras 
speak the same language as th« dwellers in the oak forests 
of Xalapa, or in the plateau of Caxamarca and in Cuba. 

Referring to my own political explorations in Italy, and 
having had occasion in my replies to mention the name of 
my friend Sir Robert Wilson, and the part he had to act in 
that country, he assured me that often on conversing with 
the Emperor of Russia, he found that General Wilson had 
considerable influence with that sovereign, by whom he was 
much esteemed ; so much so, he added, that " a note from 
him to Alexander, inveighing against the slave trade — that 
abominable disgrace of society, of which I have been a most 
distressed witness in South America — would have a great 
effect in the determination of the question soon to be brought 
before the public. 

" With regard to your native country, my dear doctor, I 
sympathize with you. Lhave been in many parts of it, and 
I agree with you that it needs only a spark to set it all in 


flames. Should King Murat, as he is on his way now, 
under the pretence of uniting his troops with those of the 
allies, oflfer the command of them to his imperial brother-in- 
law, and conjointly proceed to combine their own with the 
armies of the father-in-law, who would then tell the Congress 
at Vienna what your Minister for Foreign Affaifs, Lord 
Gastlereagh, said at Chatillon, * Messieurs, le Conseil est 
remis k une autre ^poque '? What then ? " * 

The next visitor I received was also from the north of 
Europe, a man of title, but of very diflferent calibre, the 
young Baron de Stael. He came by desire of his mother, 
who had given m© a letter for him when I left Geneva, to 
inquire if he could in any way serve me, and I learned some 
intelligence of his mother's state of health. He was exceed- 
ingly courteous. He had never accompanied her in any of 
her journeys either in Italy or Germany, and did not see 
her until her return to Paris in the year of my interview 
with him. As a pupil of Auguste Schlegel, he could hardly 
help becoming a well-informed man of ability. His turn 
of mind was towards agriculture, which science he had 
cultivated assiduously ; and he was also a strenuous op- 
ponent of the slave trade. We also know that he became 
in time the editor of both Necker's and his mother's works, 
a task which he accomplished just before his death at 
Coppet, in November, 1827, ten years after his mother's 
death. The baron offered to introduce me into a very 
fashionable house of that day, that of an Italian lady 
married to an English gentleman many years settled in 
Paris, and who was supposed to be an amte intime of 
Benevento. I thanked him, and excused myself. 

On the following Monday (29th), after spending the 
Sunday with my sister and brother-in-law, I came into 

* Singular coincidence with my own fantastical surmise mentioned in a 
letter to Mr. Hamilton^ quoted in the first volume. 


Paris, and accompanied by him I paid a visit to the Comte 
de M^jean, who for many years had filled the post of prime 
minister and chancellor to Prince Eugene, Vice-King of 
Italy. He had the good fortune to possess the best as 
well as the most comprehensive collection of the Aldine 
editions, from the very first specimen issued by the elder 
Aldus ; a collection said to be unique and almost priceless. 
Of course we talked much of Italy, and I found him very 
communicative as well as a pleasmg speaker. In his 
manner and dress he reminded me of the old aristocratic 
days. He seemed to be on most excellent terms with his 
former secretary. Monsieur de Lafolie, and we learned 
from him part of the intrigues that had preluded the recent 
history of the Italian revolution. He gave us a decree to 
read, drawn up by the viceroy when he learned that the 
Emperor Napoleon had abdicated. In his turn the viceroy 
abdicated likewise, but previously to that act he ordered a 
provisional government to be installed which should govern 
the country, without, however, altering the existing laws in 
any manner until the Electoral College should be assembled 
extraordinarily to provide for the exigencies of the state, 
and that in the mean time two deputies should be sent to* 
the Allied Powers to demand the independence of the 
kingdom of Italy within the limits fixed by the Treaty of 
Luneville. This decree of Prince Eugene, which had been 
placed in the hand of General Pino for publication, was 
never made public, but the general could not possibly 
pretend ignorance of it, as Count Alberto Lilla of the 
provisional government of Milan assured Count M^jean 
that it had been read at their board, and confided to Pino 
for promulgation. This general commander-in-chief of the 
Italian troops, who acted thus treacherously, had received' 
fi-om the viceroy a few days before the abdication the sum 
of fifty thousand francs, of which Count M^jean possesses 


the receipt in due form, and the obtaining of which sum 
waa due to Count M6jean's personal intercession with the 
viceroy, who with the intercessor had taken pity on the 
embarrassed state of the general's finances. 

So far as to the honesty and patriotism of the late heroic 
commander-in-chief of the Italian Army ; and now for the 
honesty, candour, and patriotism of the late president of the 
provisional government, Count Melzi, a nobleman not likely at 
all events to act traitorously from embarrassed circumstances. 
This nobleman pretended that he had endeavoured to 
influence the Electoral College to name the viceroy to the 
vacant throne after the abdication of his stepfather ; but 
when accused of such an act by the Austrian authorities, he 
pretended and asserted that he never intended or wished it, 
and that he had acted by superior orders ; whereas the real 
fact was, as attested by a letter in the possession of Count 
M6jean from Melzi, that he had solicited the viceroy's 
authorization defaire cette d-marche. 

Before I continue my narrative, let me stop to inquire 
of my English readers of the present day, after perusing 
all I have set forth concerning the trials, sorrows, and 
grievances my fatherland has been subjected to by both 
French and allied powers for many years, after the destruc- 
tion of all institutions and of a well-regulated society by the 
one party, paralleled in every respect by the extortions, 
imprisonments, exile, and .persecution of men of letters, 
science, and philosophers of the other party — the facts now 
confirmed by the disclosures and authentic docimients of 
Count M^jean — I would inquire whether they do not regret 
that, when their own government had before them in 1848 
the opportunity of helping to bring about the present 
glorious reality of an Italian kingdom of twenty-five millions 
of souls (a kingdom whose friendship or the contrary will 
henceforth be a subject of serious diplomatic consideration) 


they, their said government, instead of lending a helping hand 
and sharing in the smallest degree in the glory of having 
accomplished such an act, preferred rather to turn a deaf 
ear to the counsellor who had whispered " courage" to Lord 
Palmerston to help Charles Albert, and hoped for persistency 
in aiding the bolder measures of^ Victor Emmanuel ? * 

On the day following the interesting conversation with 
the late prime minister of Vice-King Eugene just related, 
and after despatching some letters and writing my previous 
day's memoranda, I drove out to return the visit of Baron 
Humboldt, whom I fortunately found at home and in con- 
versation with Mr. Clarkson, the strenuous advocate of the 
slaves, who inspired Wilberforce and other marked men by 
his own zeal in behalf of that persecuted race, in whose 
interest he had devoted half his fortune. Gay-Lussac 
entered soon after, and seemed to be very intimate with 
the baron. I was introduced, and we entered at once 
upon chemical subjects, I having mentioned to him my at- 
tendance at his lecture on iodine two days before. He then 
stated that since that lecture he had discovered a permanent 
iodic acid, which acid, according to a letter received from 
Sir Humphry Davy, dated Rome, February 16th, 1815, I 
am imformed he considers to be a creation of Gay-Lussac's 
own imagination, as I believe Sir Humphry showed after- 
wards in a paper sent to the Royal Society. 

Our whole party then adjourned to the Salle des Stances 
at the Institute adjoining the library, open to members 
and their friends. There was a meeting of the Section 
of Science going on, and there were present not a few 
illustrious savants^ with some of whom I became acquainted. 

* I reaUy crave the forgiveness of my readers for this broad allusion to my 
own two published letters to Viscount Palmerston, " On the Italian Question," 
1848. It was then in the power of the British government to bid the Italian 
kingdom rise and acknowledge its existence to the powerful diplomatic 
influence of England, rather than at last to bloody victories. 


Business was conducted much as at the Royal Society in 
London. Among the visiting strangers I recognized Mr. 
. Konig of the British Museum. 

In the evening, after dinner at Vary's, I went home to 
dress, when the young Baron de Stael came to accompany 
me to Lady Westmoreland's, where I found assembled a 
number of distinguished guests. In the general company I 
was not a little surprised to meet Sor of Malaga, who was 
at that very instant accompanying on the instrument he so 
delightfully handled, one of the identical Spanish romances 
of the day, " Accuerdate bien mio/' which we had so often 
tried together years before in his own country. We mut- 
ually rejoiced at this fortuitous rencontre^ and recounted to 
one another some of our most recent adventures. Later 
in the evening I accompanied him to his lodgings. 

There was another gentleman at Lady Westmoreland's 
with whom I was acquainted; and who, as Mr. King, was 
well known in London society under a very expressive 
sobriquet. I called on him in the Rue de la Paix, where I 
met Madame Grassini, who, with the free manner and with- 
out any ceremony, peculiarly her own, and also with the ex- 
cuse of being a compatriote, imposed on me the commission 
of trying to recover for her " a large Indian shawl, worth 
eighty louis, which that giddy-headed maid of mine has for- 
gotten in my apartment, No. 21, Argyle Street. It is of a 
chocolate colour, with large branches in the pattern." Of 
course I promised to do my best. 

From her house, where I called next day, I drove to look 
at a new establishment, '*Le Mus6e des Monuments Fran- 
jais.*' There I met my brother-in-law, the conseiDateur. 
It is really a superb establishment, open to visitors on 
Sundays and Thursdays, and to foreigners every day from 

10 A.M. till 4 P.M. 

I paid another visit to Baron Humboldt, where I again 


met my friend Mr. Konig, the mineralogist. The baron was 
all courtesy, and most communicative. He showed us all 
his works in course of publication, as well as those yet in 
manuscript which he was preparing for the press. "This 
baron is really a most extraordinary man ; he knows 
everything, and everything admirably." Such is the 
opinion I find inserted in my pocket-book, written at the 

As I was en tram for business I presented myself at the 
Chamber of Deputies at the Palais Bourbon, to observe how 
the new Bourbonist deputies managed pubKc matters. By 
sending in my card to one of the deputies with whom I was 
acquainted, I was soon admitted under the gallery of 
strangers, where I had a full ' opportunity of taking notice 
of the sitting, which happened to be rather an interesting 
one, as a rumour had gone abroad that there might be a 
change of ministry. 

I dined, and went home for letters, and to dress for a 
soirSe at Gerard's, the great popular painter of the day, 
whose full-length portraits of Napoleon in his imperial 
robes, and of his brother Joseph as King of Spain, similarly 
attired, have become universally known through some 
splendid engravings of considerable size. There were not 
many persons present : I saw Visconti of Milan, the anti- 
quary, and Rovedino of London, who gave me news of the 
Italian Opera there. To Count and Countess San Antonio 
of. London, who were among the guests, I made my bow. 
The count felt mortified that in Paris they did not consider 
him so great a nabob as he was thought to be in Hanover 
Square. A young French demoiselle, named Deschamps, 
who was about to come out at the Opdra Franjais, and the 
charming Signora Morandi, prima donna seria, were present. 
" A prima seria " like this at Gerard's, and the like of which 
there are many others in fashionable houses in Paris, con- 

SOIREE AT Gerard's. 11 

stitutes a wide distinction between the Parisian and the 
London beau monde. 

One gentleman I must mention more particularly, who 
was pointed out to me at Monsieur Gerard's, and that was 
Monsieur Pinchon, who had resided many years in the 
United States as French consul, and who had refused to 
lend or give any money to Jerome Bonaparte when in that 
country, in consequence of which refiisal he had been 
^ recalled and much persecuted, until, by one of those whims 
which were so frequent in Napoleon, he was appointed 
Minister of Finance of the kingdom of Westphalia, governed 
by a sovereign to whom he had refused to lend money. 
Monsieur Pinchon was now Avocat au Conseil. In stature 
he was a short person with a sickly face and grey hair. He 
had just published a work against his royal master under the 

title of " L' Administration de B ," &c. What interested 

me more, was a short conversation I had with Madame 
Dubahors, who was in their company, well known as a 
writer of light articles in various Parisian journals, and who 
was gifted with much genius and judgment, but old. ugly, 
and a slovenly dresser. An exceedingly pretty English 
widow was with her, daughter of Dickinson the engraver, 
for some time settled in Paris. She was one of the most 
admired of the company, which was honoured towards the 
end by the presence of Baron Humboldt. 

As I was nearing more and more the date for reaching 
my English home, I seemed to become more inclined to 
accept acts of politeness and courtesy from English people, 
especially old acquaintances. Thus I became inseparable 
the last two or three days from Captain Rae of the Marines, 
an old messmate of mine in the Maidstone frigate, with 
Colonel Pallen, and Lieutenant Eamsay of the Guards, 
whom I had not met for years, and I accepted gladly an 
invitation to breakfast with the Misses Cockerell, daughters 


of the architect, at whose house in London I had often 
visited with Mr. Hamilton, and whose son Robert distin- 
guished himself in his father's profession, to all of whom in 
the present instance I tried to be of service by escorting 
them to diflferent places in Paris, acting the part of a 
cicerone and thus preparing myself to use again the charm- 
ing language that had become partly rusty. 

The first use I made of that language had been to perform 
the duty of announcing my arrival in Paris to him who had 
enabled me to proceed to Italy in a semi-official capacity, 
giving him at the same time a brief " account current " of 
sums received and expended. Looking to the results, I do 
not think that any public auditor will decide that so modest 
a sum of the secret-service money of the Foreign Office as 
that I spent for services rendered in an important cause can 
be called in question. The government obtained reliable 
information, which should have been turned to good account, 
but was not. They were told that there existed every 
indication of the probable escape of Napoleon from Elba not 
long after Christmas, unless England and the other guardian 
powers looked sharp to prevent it. They did nothing of the 
sort, and Napoleon flew on the wings of his formidable eagle 
(a few weeks only after the day predicted) from steeple to 
steeple from Frejus, until it lighted on the central pavilion 
of the Tuileries ; veteran companions in arms and new in- 
surrectionists, renegade marshals, and old faithful adherents 
following in the track of that wonderful triumphal flight. 

The first of September, 1814, found me still in Paris, and 
I lingered a few days longer, seduced Ky a succession of 
invitations fi'om savants and old E^iglish acquaintances, all 
eager to get some intelligence they could rely upon concern- 
ing "Za pauvre Italie^'^ as they called it. However, I 
decided at last to go by a new way to England, and willing 
to investigate every mode of travelling in France, I took my 


passage in a towing boat on the Seine to Rouen, whence I 
proceeded in the coup^ of a v^lociftre to Dieppe. 

I found my snug little dwelling at Brompton very com- 
fortable, albeit small and mesquin after having visited large 
edifices and dwelt in magnificent palaces in Italy and Paris. 
But none of those residences contained the treasures I 
found in my own snuggery — a good wife and two children, 
all in excellent health, and very happy to embrace me. 
Equally, and almost as warmly, was I welcomed at Mr. 
Hamilton's by himself and children. The latter I was glad 
to find had been put under a writing-roaster, and were 
having their elementary arithmetical knowledge cultivated. 
I think there is one advantage in caligraphy which has 
escaped attention, and which in my opinion serves as an 
encouragement to a free and more correct composition. 
Literary composition which flows freely from the pen is 
read and pleases the composer as he proceeds; he is 
encoirraged thereby to go on, and expressions follow readily 
as he reads them. This satisfaction is lost, or is but 
stintingly vouchsafed, to the writer of a scrawl difificult 
to be deciphered even by the writer himself without taking 
extraordinary pains to understand what he has written. 
Therefore caligraphy is necessary, and also a source of self- 



Resame my duties in England — Lady Davy's letter from Rome — Lecturer on 
Chemifltry at the Westminster Medical School — ^Accident with chlorine 
— The crown of Italy offered to the Duke of Sussex — Flight of Napoleon 
firom Elba — Resign the lectureship— Correspondence of Dr, John Davy. 

I WAS again in London in September, 1814, after a lapse 
of three months, at the same post I had filled with sedulous 
attention at midsummer, full of vigour, and as eager as at 
the first moment to pursue the work I had undertaken, and 
fulfil the engagement into which I had entered with certain 
wishes and projects concerning the fortunes of my native 
laud, all of which the lapse of a few weeks had sufficed to_ 
efface from my mind ; partly because of their accomplish- 
ment in some instances, and partly because of certain 
expectations my new experiences had led me to form as to 
their ultimate and entire success. During that same brief 
space of time, more knowledge of men and circumstances 
had accrued to me, and thus far, I may say, I sat down to 
my old work a new man. 

As my every day's morning occupation according to the 
original arrangement left me a number of hours unem- 
ployed — a condition my natural temperament could never 
brook patiently — 1 set about to find how to apply to some 
useful employment the many leisure hours at my disposal. 
I certainly did not require any further medical instruction, 
since the test of repeated examinations had declared me 
worthy of a membership in the Royal College of Surgeons 
of Loijdon, formerly the Worshipful Corporate Company of 



Barber Surgeons. There was still the College of Physicians 
I should have to encounter if I wished to practise as a 
member or licentiate. I would scorn to offer myself as a 
candidate for public confidence in the capacity of a practis- 
ing physician, except under the sanction of the ruling 
medical authorities of the kingdom. True, I possessed a 
diploma of M.D., but a foreign diploma alone did not 
entitle the possessor to practise in London ; therefore I 
was perfectly aware of my obligation, and sorry to postpone 
the needful steps for obtaining the right until such time as 
I could easily spare the heavy fees demanded on tlje occa- 
sion. ^^ Expectamus et speramus'^ I said to myself. In 
the mean time, let me apply myself to any pursuit that may 
turn out profitable both for honour and distinction, as well 
as for more ordinary worldly advantages. Accordingly, I 
undertook the lectureship on chemistry in the medical 
school .of St. George's Hospital, held at the old Hunter's 
Museum in Great Windmill Street. I was succeeding 
Doctor Davy, agreeably to his brother's wishes as expressed 
to me at Geneva, and to his own still more earnestly im- 
parted desires made known to me as I have aheady 

While in Paris I had received a letter from Sir Humphry 
Davy in Rome to his brother, in reference to this negotia- 
tion, wherein he alluded to a letter I had written to Lady 
Davy, in which I had occasion to refer to my transaction 
with her brother-in-law. In acknowledgment of this, she 
addressed me a courteous reply, which I produce, to show 
that our accidental meeting at Geneva was not soon erased 
from memory by the gifted and fair writer : — 

" Rome. Nov. 6th, 1814. 

" My dear Sir, — Your letter from London to Su: Hum- 
phry, by some. strange accident reached him two days 
before that you were so obliging as to write from Paris, 


which found me, and indeed reached me only yesterday. 
I have many acknowledgments to make for your recollecting 
the commission, and I am sure my English taste would 
have been satisfied by the elegance of your choice had the 
flowers arrived in time for my admiration. Still, I expect 
some friendly conveyance may forward them, and at all 
events your attention claims my thanks. I am not sure 
that I can renew my forgiveness for your shabby visit to 
Geneva^ since the date of your letter shows me how easily 
you could have prolonged it. 

*' I avail myself of the permission you have given Sir 
Humphry, to enclose under your cover. The letter for 
my mother contains a paper of some importan(^e. If you 
should be tempted to deliver it, instead of sending it by the 
twopenny post, it will procure her and Mr. Farquhar the 
pleasure of your acquaintance, which I am sure they will 
thank me for. 

" I am glad to be again at rest, after nearly two months' 
journeying, which was, however, through exquisite scenery 
at a plenteous season, and with an almost invariable con- 
tinuance of fine weather. Our winter here promises to be 
brilliant as to society and talkers, rather than dancers, 
which will suit a gouty lady best. English are come and 
coming by dozens, and some worthy to represent the 
superior advantages of our education and instruction, if, 
unluckily, their Italian may not weaken the effect of their 

" I have occasional longings for the cleanliness, the 
carpets, the convenience, the comfort of dear England ; yet, 
windows open and a bright sun at this season weigh some- 
thing in the other scale. 

" Lucien Bonaparte's ball on Thursday was the best I 
can mention, — a princely house and full company were to 
be seen ; but also little gaiety. His seeking a Roman title, 


and his bearing his honour in striking liveries and forward 
pomp of manners, shock the Romans, and his vanity must 
damage v^hat popularity he possessed before. His brother 
Louis is here likewise; but with modest and unassuming 
manners seeks no observation, and does not offend. I know 
not if sickness claimed sympathy, but I liked him far better 
than the prince and poet. 

" I charge you with all that is most kind for Mrs. A. 
Hamilton,** whose skill and contrivancels I wish I pos- 
sessed, for then one of our numerous rooms here, now all 
comfortless, might be made supportable. Tell her I have 
learned to like comfort, but my genius never supplies 
substitutes where, as in Rome, the reality cannot be 


" Yours sincerely, 

" Jane Davy." 

As Doctor Davy was no mean authority in chemistry and 
science generally, I thought it best to prepare my lectures 
carefully, and to deliver them from a written text instead 
of orally, as I could have wished to have done. But, before 
the end of the course, I insensibly got into the latter mode, 
which seemed so much to the taste of my audience, that at 
the second series I dismissed entirely the written process. 
Nor was it a matter of much difficulty for a teacher who, 
from the- circumstances of the times, as regards modern 
chemistry, had chiefly to confine his instructions to the 
development of new subjects referable to recent discoveries, 
with which, his foreign travels and intercommunication with 
foreign professors had made him familiar, such as Volta's 
pile, chlorine, sodium, hydrocyanic acid, &c. ; all of which 
were- perfectly new subjects to the majority of my English 

* Daughter of Sir Walter Farquhar, and mother of the late Bishop of 
Salisbury : the two ladies were most intimate friends. 

VOL. n. c 


I did not, however, expect that in my endeavours to 
make my hearers familiar with the labours of Sir Hum- 
phry Davy concerning the real nature of chlorine, a subject 
so perfectly new, I should in my own person exhibit how it 
could produce the actual annihilation of one of the principal 
senses. I had prepared and carefully collected in the 
presence of my class, a considerable volume of chlorine gas in 
a globular glass vessel, intended to show the physical not less 
than its cheraical properties, when the assistant on my right 
hand had occasion to pass sopiething over to "George" 
(if any member of my class survives, he will quickly have 
in his mind's eye the bulky form of poor old George, a 
laboratory assistant equal in usefulness to Mr. Faraday's 
honest "Mr. Anderson"), whose fat hands were too clumsily 
shaped to keep fast hold of the profiered object. It fell 
into the glass recipient, breaking it, as a matter of course, 
and releasing the imprisoned gasj which went straight 
into the nostrils of the lecturer, who thereupon fell Uke a 
lump of lead to the ground, alarming not a little the whole 
class, which happened to be numerous. The first who 
rushed to my assistance, raised and placed me on a chair, 
windows were thrown open, cold water was poured on my 
head, liquid ammonia exposed under my nose, and a glass 
of brandy poured down my throat ; the whole process 
ending in my recovery — but completely deprived of my 
sense of smell, which I have never recovered since. Some 
readers may feel disposed to exclaim, " So much the better 
for you, doctor, who will have to go through so many un-' 
savoury matters." " True ! but how much more shall I not 
- \ miss the smell of the rose ! " 

"— I shall only add another trifling physiological fact, from 
its curiosity, and also because I have never been able to 
explain it to my satisfaction. It was about ten years after 
the chlorine accident, and of the deprivation of my sense of 


smell, that driving with my wife towards Harrow, and 
while passing what were then fields celebrated for carpet 
beating, but now crowded with houses and Streets, I became 
suddenly sensible of the delicious smell of new hay, which 
was in the process of being made that day. I pulled up my 
horse, and remained some time perfectly enchanted with 
delight (I don't exaggerate) at my recovered sense. We 
remained nearly an hour motionless, and I drove off towards 
Harrow, proposing to come back the same way at sunset, 
hoping to enjoy again the same delicious sensation. In 
this, however, I was disappointed, nor have I ever enjoyed 
it since. 

As may be supposed, one of my first cares after I was 
again installed in my own* little house in Brompton, was to 
pay my respects at Kensington Palace. His Royal High- 
ness the Duke of Sussex was pleased to express the pleasure 
he felt at seeing me returned, and he at once entered into 
the subject of Italy's wrongs. Mr. Perry of the " Morning 
Chronicle " had from time to time informed the duke of 
what was going on in that country, and of the part I had 
taken in sending home communications for his periodical, 
which had in fact made the British press the particular 
organ devoted to the Italian cause, not only by inserting 
in its columns such articles as were communicated by 
myself, as for example those under the dates of the lltli 
and 20th of October, 1814,, but also by the able leaders 
from the clever editor himself, inspired as he was no doubt 
occasionally from high quarters. The duke suggested a 
renewal of his literary and political dejeuners^ an honour I 
accepted too readily, oblivious at the moment of the very 
serious engagements I had in hand elsewhere. Neverthe- 
less, I was able to attend some of the meetings, at which 
the earnest manner of the Marquis of Buckingham, together 
with the energetic opinions of the royal, duke, greatly 

c 2 


encouraged me in the political course I had adopted. Little 
did I expect that a subject of paramount and extraordinary 
nature would be brought under discussion at one of our 
quiet meetings. This was no less than the arrival in 
London of a deputation from the provisional government 
at Milan, composed of such persons eminent for birth, 
wealth, station, and intelligence as Duke Serbelloni, 
Colletti, and others, who came to make an ofier of the 
Italian crown tp the illustrious duke, instructed at the same 
time to waive all objections as to diversity of religion. 
General Colletti having brought a letter to myself, de- 
manding my patriotic assistance in the matter, I undertook 
to inform the royal duke of the arrival of the deputation, 
and ascertain whether and when it would suit his con- 
venience to receive either the general alone, or the whole 

** Oh, the latter," was his prompt reply ; " it will afford 
me much satisfaction to become acquainted with such dis- 
tinguished Italians, whose patriotic views I highly approve, 
as every Englishman would and should." Accordingly, the 
deputation was presented to the duke on the following day 
at noon. 

Their proposal was so thoroughly unexpected, and con- 
sidered as so improbable, that no intimation of the duke's 
feelings on the subject could be expected, other than that 
he should consult his friends and consider. In fact. His 
Royal Highness did not appear to realize his projected 
position in Italy. 

General Colletti was an officer in the Neapolitan army, 
who had come to Milan to offer his services to the provi- 
sional government,, by whom they were deemed so im- 
portant . with regard to the organization and discipline of 
the troops intended for the service of the new crown of 
Italy, that they were at once accepted by the provisional 

napoleon's flight from ELBA. 21 

government, who appointed him Inspector-General of the 
Forces, with certain specific duties. 

So far as my own political notions were concerned, I 
confess that, inasmuch as the proposed scheme had for its 
basis a monarchical and not a repubUcan intention, I had no 
objection to it. However, financial difficulties intervened 
at the same time, respecting which the intended royal 
candidate was so decided, highly to his honour, that the 
whole scheme was abandoned, and my own more favourite 
one respecting a sovereign of Italian race remained as 
before the preferable one. 

But at this conjuncture the intelligence of the flight of 
Napoleon from Elba came upon us like a sudden clap of 
thunder. Here, in Kensington Palace, the news startled 
the royal inmate not less than his noble visitors. The 
prognostication of the " political doctor," communicated to 
the ** Monthly Chronicle," at the same time that it was 
forwarded in a letter to the ministers, who had considered 
the anticipations as idle dreams not likely to be realized, 
had actually taken place, and yet not one Power was found 
ready and prepared to adopt the best and only course 
proper to be followed in so great an emergency. 

However, my principal care at the moment was of a 
more homely character, namely, that of upholding, as far as 
any individual exertion in the capacity of one of its lecturers 
could accomplish it, the character of the Windmill Street 
school, at the head of which we reckoned Mr. Brodie, 
certainly the most able as he was the most honest member 
of the association, for thus was the medical school in Wind* 
mill Street designated. After my second course, however, 
I had occasion to notice circumstances of such a nature as 
to induce me to relinquish all further connection with it, the 
more so as I expected to be obliged soon to return to Paris 
for a short time. Upon announcing to the Principal my 


intention of relinquishing the lectureship, an offer was made 
to Mr. Thomas Brande, who accepted and succeeded me in 
the chemical chair. But before the offer had been made to 
him, Mr. Brodie called on me \yith a round-robin he had 
received from the pupils of the school, protesting against 
the change of the lecturer, and requesting the head of the 
association to prevail on me to withdraw my resignation, 
with many flattering expressions of attachment fi'om the 
pupils. My answer was, that I was likely to be obliged to 
absent myself for the summer months on business ; and to 
say the truth, I had reason to Suspect the unsoundness of 
the plan on which the school was conducted, as may be 
gathered from the following letter to me from Sir Humphry 
Davy's brother, some time after my resignation : — 

" Head Quarters, Paris. Nov. 7th, 1815. 

** My dear Granville, — I expected long before this to 
have had the pleasure of seeing you, and of communicating 
vica voce ; but that pleasure is postponed for three weeks, 
when I hope to leave Paris for London, to prepare for a long 
expedition, of which perhaps you have already heard. I 
am about to engage in no less than a voyage to Ceylon, and 
residence there of several years, in the double capacity of 
staff medical officer with the prospect of rapid promotion, 
and of physician to the Governor with the ftirther prospect 
(some of my friends tell me) of a rapid fortune. But let 
me defer my particular views till we meet and have nothing 
more interesting to consider. 

" There is another subject that troubles my mind. How 
shall I express my indignation at the conduct of certain men. 
whom you emphatically but rather ironically call 'our 
friends ? ' How is it possible that they can act in such a 
clandestine manner, with their pretension to science and 
j)hilosophy and liberal sentiments ? Philosophy, I suspect, 


IS with them a cant word; science a stepping-stone; liberal 
sentiments vox et prceterea nihil. You are fortunate, in 
my opinion, in being out of the trammels of the set, and in 
having no more concern with the Windmill Street school 
party. The only one circumstance which consoles me for 
the trouble you have been at on my account, is the know- 
ledge you have acquired by lecturing of your own powers, 
and the resolution you have formed of establishing a school 
of your own, where science will be taught, and scientific 
knowledge, I have no doubt, extended." 

In a subsequent letter, still dated in November, he goes 
on to tell me — 

"I saw Professor Brande to-day at the Royal Institution. 
The weather is cold, but we, to each other, colder. New- 
man*^ too, I have seen, and have learned that the old 
Windmill Street school is defunct; that Harrison has left 
England ; and what surprises me not a little, he has left it 
with accounts unsettled ! I am just from Paris, but I bring 
with me no news either political or scientific, except Ney's 
defection, and his impeachment of five or six of his brother 
general officers. What a villain ! In a quarter of an hour 
I shall set out for Cornwall, to join my brother at Penzance, 
and shall remain there probably three weeks, and then 
return to London to prepare for my Ceylon expedition. 

" Yours, 

'' J. Davy." 

Doctor Davy was right. I had delivered two courses of 
lectures on chemistry, for which the flight of the treasurer 
prevented my receiving any compensation ; but the satis- 
faction of having done it with general approbation, and the 
conviction I had acquired that at all events I possessed the 

* A very ingenioufl and scientific philosophical instnunent maker, the best 
of his day. 



ability of communicating my owg knowledge, whatever it 
might be, to other people intelligibly and eflFectually, was a 
great satisfaction. 

As I did not for many years after receive any letter from 
this clever and successful man of science, about to fly off" to 
the extreme confines of southern Asia, I shall here insert 
two more letters received from him, both within a little 
more than a fortnight of one another, containing some 
interesting information. 

" Paris. Nov. 1815. 

"Dear Granville, — I was wrong in stating that Paris was 
barren of scientific news. I have just learned that several 
curious facts have lately been ascertained. Cuvier, I have 
been told, has discovered that the ova of birds and mam- 
malia, as to structure and development, are perfectly similar. 
Dulong has obtained a fourth oxide of lead, — the protoxide, 
which contains only half as much oxygen as litharge, and 
which when treated with acids is resolved into metallic 
lead and the deutoxide itself, being incapable of entering 
into saline combinations. The same ingenious chemist has 
observed a curious fact respecting the oxalate of lead. 
When this salt, perfectly dry, is gently heated, there is a 
rearrangement of the constituent parts, all the hydrogen 
of the acid unites with as much oxygen as the oxide of lead 
contains, water is formed and is evolved, and a new com- 
pound remains, in the examination of which he is at present 
engaged. What is curious is, that when the compound is 
more strongly heated it is decomposed, and converted into 
metallic lead and carbonic acid, which are the only products. 
Now the queries are, what is the nature of this combination ? 
Is it a direct combination ? Is it a direct compound of lead 
and carbonic acid, or of oxide of lead and carbonic oxide, or 
a ternary compound of lead, oxygen, and carbon ? 

"Perhaps you have heard of Gay-Lussac's paper on 


prussic acid, published a fortnight ago iu the * Annales de 
Chimie/ As usual, it is elaborate and ingenious, and ap- 
parently brilliant, abounding in interesting results and happy 
analogies. As you will soon have the original, if you do 
not already possess it, I shall mention merely the leading 
features. The more important fact is the discovery of the 
basis of prussic acid, a pennanently elastic fluid possessed 
of many singular properties ; an acid by itself, and capable 
of forming acids by union with inflammable substances, and 
capable of uniting directly with metallic bodies. It is com- 
posed of azote, carbon, and though compounded (according 
to Gay-Lussac), analogous to simple substances, and to 
oxygen, chlorine, and iodine in the part it performs ; hence 
he thinks that it deserves a simple appellation, and hence 
also, as it is the basis of Prussian blue, he calls it cyanogen ; 
and prussic acid, the constituents of which are the substance 
cyanogen and hydrogen combined, he calls hydrocyanic 
acid; and he calls cyanuret of inercury a combination of 
cyanogen and metallic mercury. Such is the nomenclature 
he employs. Like his last dissertation, this is evidently 
written in haste, as if in dread of his results bein^ antici- 
pated, in consequence of which too many parts of this essay 
are extremely imperfect ; especially the latter, in which he 
commences the investigation of the nature of prussian blue, 
but finishes his paper before his experiments have brought 
him to a certain conclusion. 

" I hope to have the pleasure of seeing you in about three 
weeks, and of talking over the preceding and many other 
interesting subjects. 

" My dear friend, yours respectfully, 


" Penzance. December 16th, 1816. 

"My dear Granville, — Your last letter afforded me great 
satisfaction. In whatever you attempt, you must succeed. 


This is the prerogative of genius. I am sorry that I can 
give but little information respecting the objects of inquiry 
that my brother has recommended to your attention on 
your own account. This is of little consequence. You 
enter on a field hitherto almost entirely unexplored. I once 
made the attempt to form a combination of phosphorus and 
carbon, but without success, I need not inform you. Only 
t)ne method I tried, and that was analogous to the process 
of Lampadius for procuring the sulphuret of carbon. I was 
but a young chemist, and perhaps it may be worth while to 
repeat them by following some other course. By exposing 
phosphorus on carburetted hydrogen, may not there be a 
probable^means of forming the compound required ? These 
are but crude ideas. 

" I am very happy to hear that you are about to examine 
a collection of pulmonary concretions. The subject is inte- 
resting, and hitherto, I believe, little attended /to. The 
result of my experience in the subject is scanty, but such 
as it is I must not withhold it. It is briefly this, that the 
few concretions I have analysed, expectorated from the 
lungs, have been similar to bone in composition ; at least in 
their most important ingredients — like bone, being composed 
chiefly of phosphate of lime and albumen, with a little car- 
bonate of lime, but in what proportion I do not recollect. 
Instead of paying me for the galvanic battery, you will 
oblige me by paying Newman, that the money may be 
r.emitted as soon as possible to Professor Brande. 

" In about three weeks I hope to have the pleasure of 
seeing you in London. 

" My dear friend, yours respectfully, 


• • 



Pistrucci the sculptor— His personal appearance — Strange story of a cameo— 
Mr. Payne Knight imposed upon by Bonelli — Disco veiy of the de- 
ception — Pistrucci succeeds Mr. Wyon at the Mint — Designs and 
engraves the George and Dragon coin and the Waterloo medal — Canova 
in Paris— Shuffling of Talleyrand— Restitution of works of art to Italy. 

On leaving for Italy in 1814, 1 had let my house furnished 
to the celebrated cameo engraver from Rome, Benedetto 
Pistrucci, who was tempted to try his fortune in the British 
metropolis. Italy had long ceased to give enough en- 
couragement to real genius, either artists or authors, as we 
have seen in the case of the ill-fated author of the " History 
of America,'' and as was the case in the present instance of 
the most eminent cameo sculptor in Europe. With this 
gifted artist, the lasting friendship which subsisted to the 
day of his death has been of too intimate a nature to admit 
of my dismissing him with the bare mention of his name. 

Pistrucci came to me as his fellow-countryman in a 
strange land, looking for such support in his career from me 
as my then position in London enabled me to give him. 
He had his own great reputation to back him, and the aid 
of my tried friend Mr. Hamilton, to whom I introduced 
him, who at once took him by the hand and stood by him 
like a staunch advocate and defender. Yes, defender, 
against the many vexations an ahen is exposed to in 
England ; for no sooner were the unrivalled merits of this 
great artist divulged, than enemies or invidious rivals, 


fellow-artists, started up to oppose him in all things, and 
by all possible or impossible methods. 

Pistrucci was my junior by one year ; a robust, hale 
man of a square form, though tall, and with a head of 
the true Roman type, so oftep seen in the busts of Roman 
emperors. His innate love of the arts interfered with his 
father's desire to impart to him a knowledge of the Latin 
language, which he deemed essential to a sculptor. " Why, 
waste," asked Pistruoci, " so many years^ or even months, 
in translating poets, historians, and philosophers from the 
Latin originals, when I can gather all the information they 
can afford me through the many translations in our own 
hella lingua Romana ? I can employ the hours more use- 
fully with my crayon or my scalpel." 

Yet Pistrucci's imagination was fervid, full of bright 
ideas, and often approaching eloquent vivacity in speaking 
of objects dear to his taste. His general manner and be- 
haviour were appropriate to the gravity and steadiness of 
his personal appearance. No human figure could be more 
striking than Benedetto Pistrucci in his morning costume as 
he entered his studio. I have seen strangers visiting it for 
the first time stand transfixed on the threshold as he came 
in to receive them and show his models and statues, looking 
up to him speechless as the most imposing specimen of his 
museum. Yet he had playful words and lively sentiments 
at times, which reminded one of pages in the life of his 
antitype, Benvenuto Cellini, whom he was fond of copying 
and ambitious to imitate. He was his equal in diction and in 
the manner of narrating his own adventures, as in describing 
his own work. He was naturally master of his own lan- 
guage, not unfrequently, however, mixing Roman provin- 
cialisms pronounced with the peculiar inflexions of voice and 
tone which reminded one both of the trans- und the cis- 
teverene dialects. Unless suffering firom some momentary 


illness; of whicli his sedentary life and continuous confine- 
ment indoors had rendered him susceptible, he would be 
playful and even humorous ; many of his repartees indi- 
cating unmistakable signs of genuine wit. With all this, 
a bonhomie of character that made him an easy prey to 
designing men desirous to make his talents and abilities the 
handle for their own fortune. 

Precisely such an attempt on the part of one of his 
fellow-citizenS of Rome was the cause which brought 
Pistrucci to England. I have had occasion to name the 
person I refer to in a former transaction as a sort of picture 
dealer who had succeeded in palming on a wealthy London 
merchant a pretended original picture of Correggio. The 
occasion of Pistrucci's advent in the British capital was this. 
When at Rome this same picture dealer, now turned into a 
cameo merchant and dealer in gems, cast his eyes on Bene- 
detto, and soon devised a plan for making him the means by 
which to gain no trifling benefit in his trade. He first pre- 
sented himself to the artist as a well-to-do dealer in gems, 
well acquainted with all the connoisseurs in London, in which 
capital he urged the artist by all means to go and settle, as 
the only place where his great merits would be properly 
estimated. In the mean time he would himself be the 
willing harbinger of his fame if he would intrust to him 
some choice specimen of his work to carry to England with 
him. He produced at the same time a sm^U .portion of a 
hard oriental stone with a fractured end, and said, " Cut me 
out of this stone the head of some mythological goddess, a 
nymph, or some female head known in ancient times, but 
do not put your name to it.'* , 

The commission was executed. Cento scudi were paid 
on the demand of the artist as the price of his work, on 
which he cut his own private mark, as he used to do on all 
his own works ; and a head, to which the name of Flora 





was given (from the circlet of flowers which surrounded it), 
was the result. The notion that his work might prove the 
means of bringing him to England, the land of promise for 
all foreign artists, served to stimulate Ahe hand and genius 
of Pistrucci to excel himself in his performance. So 
Angiolo Bonelli (for he was the cameo, as he had been the 
picture dealer) set ofi* for London, where it was not long 
before he parted with his Roman cameo to a wealthy 
purchaser who enjoyed the reputation of being the most 
knowing and keenest connoisseur of antiques in the country, 
and who, after some slight discussion as to the history of 
the fragmentary cameo, where it had been discovered, 
and also concerning its intrinsic value, willingly paid to 
Signer Bonelli fifteeh hundred pounds ! 

The precious cameo, as a i:ecent Roman discovery, became 
the subject of general conversation at all the meetings of anti- 
quaries and learned societies, as well as among the higher 
circles. The London purchaser, Mr. Payne Knight, whose 
private collection of antiquities was well known, and who 
was jtn hahitu4 at Sir Joseph Banks's Sunday conversazioni^ 
was not a little flattered at being soHcited by the numerous 
visitors to exhibit his precious antique, which he did, care- 
fully ensconced in a modest plain morocco case, when every 
one, including myself, admitted the perfection of the gem, 
and agreed that no modem artist could ever hope to achieve 
so perfect a work. I well remember hearing of nothing 
else for many months but Mr. Payne Knight's Flora after 
its first appearance in private society, in which I probably 
had occasion to see it exhibited a hundred times. 

At length the Roman proUgS of Signer Bonelli (who by- 
the-by had contrived to delay by every means and subter- 
fuge in his power the realization bf the projected visit of 
Pistrucci and his settlement in London) reached that capital, 
came to me, was introduced to Mr, Hamilton, and by him pre- 


sented to Sir Joseph Banks at one of his Sunday meetings. 
He was made acquainted with the discovery of the antique 
cameo, and a promise was made to him of an early opportunity 
to examine it, at which Pistrucci seemed deHghted and thank- 
ful. Mr. Payne Knight made his appearance by chance 
that same evening, and at Sir Joseph's request produced his 
fragmentary cameo, handing it to Signor Pistrucci, who 
started as he opened the case, viewed it in every position 
and in all lights, took from his waistcoat-pocket a lens, 
turned the fractured end of the cameo towards and close to 
the flame of a candle, directed his lens to the flowers of the 
circlet, and quietly handing the cameo to its owner, said 
deliberately, " Questa h opera mia!" (That is my own 
work !) 

The general murmur that followed, not unmixed with 
^rcastic exclamations, was put an end to by Mr. Knight 
asking Pistrucci rather pettishly how he would prove the 
assertion. " Easily," was the reply. I will repeat in 
English what followed. " Look," he said, " between the 
rose immediately over the left eyebrow and the leaf of 
another rose adjoining, and you will find my private mark, 
which I invariably put to all my works.'' 

"And what is your private mark?" *'This," and he 
made a design in pencil, consisting of only two lines. 
Instantly everyone who had a lens directed his eye to 
the spot indicated. Some could and some could not dis- 
tinguish the lines. Sir Joseph did, and likewise his 
secretary and librarian, the great botanist, Kobert Brown, 
and many more ; lastly, Mr. Knight himself, without the 
least hesitation, after looking at the spot, admitted the 
existence of the private symbol. Still he was incredulous, 
and prepared to show how possible it was for Signor 
Pistrucci to have been acquainted with the antique relic 
when first discovered by Bonelli, to have examined it nar- 


rowly, and having found out the particular mark, deter- 
mined to appropriate to himself the authorship of the 
fragment. Politeness, however, to a stranger forbade Mr. 
Knight expressing a suspicion of such duplicity to Pistrucci, 
and it was finally proposed and adopted that certain 
persons, of whom Mr. Hamilton was one, should form a 
committee of inquiry, for the further elucidation of the 
facts. The report was in confirmation of Pistrucci's as- 
severations, but he disdained to accept it as a complete 
expurgation of his character, and at once declared he would 
make another Flora as like as the nature of the stone (sup- 
posing he could find one like) would allow, without looking 
at the original or any species of model of it. 

The proposition was accepted, and the work executed in 
less than a fprtnight. The similarity of the two Floras was 
really so striking, that Mr. Knight was unwilling that his 
own should pass into the hands of the person who held the 

' replica mounted in a case of the same form, lest there 
should be no possibility of distinguishing the one from the 
other. This replica^ or second original, quite equal to the 
first, was by Pistrucci presented to Mr. Hamilton, who in- 
sisted on the artist accepting one hundred guineas. Thus 
ended this extraordinary transaction connected with the 
fine arts between an eminent antiquary and an illustrious 
artist, into the particulars of which I deemed it but just to 
both parties to enter minutely, from the fact of my having 

been almost daily in communication with Mr. Hamilton and 
Pistrucci, and frequently meeting also Mr. Payne Knight, 
and so assist in divulging the commencement as well as the 
end of Signer Bonelli's escroquerie in cameos, as I had 
done in another of his dealings in pictures. 

In a very clever work on gems and cameos, illustrated 

with exquisite representations of all such objects of art 
(most of them being the works of Pistrucci), published by 


a very learned medical canfrhre of mine, Dr. Billing, a 
sketch of Pistrucci's biography is inserted, full of interest, 
for the writer was well acquainted with the artist, at whose 
house I often met him. To myself, however, appertained 
the satisfaction of having attended professionally both the 
great sculptor himself, his wife, his sons, and his two 
youngest daughters (both inheriting their father's skill) as 
long a^ the former lived, and until the latter removed 
from England to Rome. I cannot conscientiously say that 
my highly-gifted countryman met in this country all that 
consideration and fortune which he had been led to expect, 
and which his talents unquestionably deserved ; still, he 
found such encouragement, support, as well as employ- 
ment under government, as to render his life comfortable 
and his intercourse with the great world friendly as well 
as agreeable. Of his public works executed in England on 
behalf of the British public, the great Waterloo Medal and 
the St. George and the Dragon coin were the principal and 
best known. 

Being presented to the Master of the Mint, Mr. Wellesley \ 
Pole, afterwards Lord Maryborough, and a cabinet minister 
in 1816, Pistrucci suggested that beautiful design as a 
better reverse than a coat of arms. He produced the said 
design cut in jasper as a model, which he was directed to 
execute in steel. The following year, Mr. Wyon, the chief v 
engraver of the Mint, died, and the post was offered to and n> 
accepted by Pistrucci, with a salary of five hundred pounds 
a year, and one of the houses within the walls of the Mint 
appropriated to the officers of the establishment. 

To such as were admitted to the privilege of entering his 

sanctum, which he soon found the means of establishing on . \ 

a far grander scale than his predecessors, having with the 

consent of the Master added premises to his own studio for 

. the working and display of larger works in sculpture, either 




^ projected or executed, it is unnecessary to remind them how 
/ . industriously and indefatigably ertiployed they used to find 
his handsome and portly person in his working attire, 
moving about from one department of his studio to another, 
J now with chisel and mallet in hand, working at the colossal 
[ bust of Wellington in Carrara, and then quietly seated 
\ before his lathe, with tiny and microscopic steel points 
working out in steel, or on a hard oriental stone, the most 
delicate lineaments of a lovely female countenance of his 
\^ own design as a cameo. Here in this comaculum^ vast, 
and of his own devising, would Benedetto Pistrucci be 
/ working eighteen out of twenty-four hours, and my own 
professional testimony may add, injuring all the time his 
constitutional health, and damaging that still more precious 
gift of God, his eye-sight,' for the sake of which I have 
more than once forbidden the use of his eyes, and conse- 
quently the prosecution of his works. During such painful 
-X intervals, it was a real work of charity to him for some 
\ chosen intimate to visit him and read out select passages 
A from Dante and Machiavelli, the one to remind him of the 
! sublime poetry of his native tongue, the other to nourish his 
\ own innate love for terse language breathing a true affection 
\ for a cherished fatherland. 
*" Of the more important of the two works before men- 
tioned, executed for this country by Pistrucci, namely, the 
Waterloo Medal, I shall have to write more at length in a 
subsequent part of these memoirs, for from one of those 
strange combinations of circumstances which intervene at 
times when nothing either existing or prospective indicates 
the possible occurrence, I found myself involved in the 
destination and application of a unique first copy in soft 
metal, gilt, of this magnificent work of art ; one certainly 
unique, in itself, and superior to the best efforts of the 
ancient Roman cameo engravers, whether as regards genius 


in the invention, size, and grandeur of work, or lastly, in 
the exquisite finish of its execution. 

But I am now approaching the epoch in which objects of 
art of a far more transcendant importance were about to 
come under public notice, through the compulsory restitu- 
tion on the part of conquered France, to Rome and other 
cities and provinces of emancipated Italy, of the several 
articles of statuary and painting forcibly removed from 
museums, galleries, churches, and private mansions in my 
native land, during the temporary domination of the French 
military for the last years which closed the eighteenth 

By the end of August, 1815,JBritish sentinels were placed 
throughout the galleries of the Louvre, in which nearly all ^ 
the purloined treasures of art from Rome and other parts of 
Italy had been assembled for many years. Bliicher, on the 
part of Germany, had directed similar measures for their 
own precious national objects. England was acting on 
behalf of the Pope and Italian princes and cities, as well as 
for some of the minor friendly powers. 

Two agents froni Florence arrived in Paris to reclaim 
both statues and pictures, and many antique manuscripts 
taken from that city twenty years before. One of those 
agents was the renovmed painter Benvenuti, whose name I 
have already had occasion to commend' in a previous part 
of my narrative. At the same time, later in August, a 
much more illustrious artist came also to Paris, II Cavaliere 
Antonio Canova, on the part of the Pope, to clahn the 
restitution of the objects that had been carried away from 
the public buildings and palaces of that metropolis of the 
Christian world. The Paris journals were desired to 
announce that Canova had come to execute a bust of the 
Emperor Alexander, it being intended to keep tlie real 
object of his mission a profound secret, a design in which 

D 2 


the " French authorities might have succeeded but for a 
humorous circumstance worth narrating. 

Being myself at the time in Paris, and within a few days 
of my departure, I was walking early one morning on the 
Boulevard opposite the H6tel du Ministre des Affaires 
Etrangeres. Issuing from that house I beheld a gentleman 
clad in ' an embroidered . court dress, with bag and sword, 
who had the appearance of a foreigner and an entire 
stranger, staring about as if looking for his carriage, and 
uncertain which way to proceed. I guessed him at once an Italian, and accosting him in his native tongue, I 
asked if a countryman could be of any service to him. 
Rather startled at the suddenness of my address, he simply 
replied that his carriage seemed to have left him ; " No 
doubt," he added, " with the intention of returning in good 
time to convey me back to my residence after the audience 
I had come hither to attend at the office of Sua Eccellenza 
il Principe di Talleyrand, which audience it was expected 
would last long, but which terminated in a few minutes, the 
minister not allowing me a moment to explain the business 
of my mission, for which I sought a private audience." 
" And which is," I added, " to reclaim the objects of art 
violently abstracted from Rome and other parts of Italy, in 
virtue of certain articles of the Treaties of Paris and Vienna, 
and I have the honour of speaking to the celebrated Signer 
Canova" Having said which, I mentioned my own name, 
reminding him of a letter addressed to me not long before 
from Rome by his brother, TAbbate Canova, with which 
our acquaintance had commenced. 

The chevalier, finding that his carriage did not return, 
gladly accepted the proposal I made of taking a fiacre^ and 
accompanying me at once to the residence of Mr. Under- 
Secretary Hamilton, then also in Paris, with the view of 
obtaining through him a better support for the envoy^ ot 


His Holiness than the shifty Talleyrand had vouchsafed 
to him on the presentation of his credentials from the 

Of the two quoUbets which the French journals of that 
day permitted themselves the liberty of perpetrating on the 
occasion, I verified only the first on inquiry as to their truth 
from Canova himself, who, it appeared, had on the day I 
met him coming out of the ministerial hotel of Talleyrand, 
been made the object of a disgraceful trick by that un^ 
scrupulous diplomatist. On presenting his credentials to 
that minister, Canova had desired to have an audience of 
the king. Talleyrand seeing the honest simplicity of the 
envoy, told him that he should receive the usual notice 
when to present himself at court ; accordingly, on the day 
I had met him in his gala dress, Canova had received a 
ticket from the Lord Chamberlain, admitting him to see the 

y king pass through the gallery to mass, thus shuffling off 

Canova as a private individual, instead of presenting him 

j as a public envoyi. 

Thus far I can vouch for the anecdote as verified to me 
by Canova hiniself, but not so as regards the additional 
particulars published, namely, that feeling indignant at the 

I unworthy trick of the minister, and upbraiding him in 

becoming language of his own country for insulting His 

! Holiness' ambassador, the brazenfaced Benevento replied : 

" Pardon, I mistook you •for the Pope's Ernballey/r " 
(Packer). I repeat this hon mot of Talleyrand, which, 
luckily for the reputation of his wit, is contrad^pted. 

J, In a volume of modfest dimensions recently published, an 

account is given of Lord Palmerston's visit to Paris in 1815 
and 1818, wherein it is hinted that his lordship had a hand 
in the restoration of the objects of art reclaimed from 
France. I am in a position to gainsay such an insinuation. 
That Lord Palmerston should have felt equally interested 


with every enlightened Englishman in the restoration to 
Italy of her stolen treasures, I admit to be possible ; but to 
Lord Castlereagh alone, acting at the instigation of his 
under-secretary, and on the personal solicitation of Canova 
himself, belongs solely the glory of having achieved an act 
of political justice which the wary Benevento had deter- 
mined to thwart by every possible shuffling; LordPalmerston, 
moreover, a simple Secretary at War, would have had no 
official influence or power while in Paris in 1815 as a mere 
visitor, compared with the weight which attached to the 
will and opinion of both the Secretary and Under-Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, for Lord Palmerston (to use an 
expression of Ben of^ Israel in *' Tancred "), " Only sat in 
the queen's second chamber of council." 

Mr. Hamilton was delighted to see and know Canova, 
with whom a friendship commenced from that very moment 
of the warmest kind, for the quiet, modest, and ingenious 
character of each harmonized entirely with the talent of the 
one and the learning of the other. 

A day or two after our fortuitous meeting, I received the 
following note from the famed sculptor: — " Stimatissimo 
Signore, — Aurei bisogno estremo di conferire un momento 
con lei, onde la prego indicarmi il quando io potrei trovarlo 
in casa. Io resto qui sino alle otto ; poi sarb deir Am- 
basciatore di Ecuador. S' ella vi si trovasse tan to meglio 
bavero, io paper6 doniani mattina per tempo da lei. Mi 
scusi e mi creda contutta V estima suo amico, Canova."* 
It seemed that some difficulty had arisen with respect to 
the officials at the French Foreign Office, where Canova 

* " My very esteemed Friend, — I have a great wish to confer with you for a 
moment, if you will kindly mention where I can find you. I am here till 
eight o'clock ; afterwards I shall proceed to the Ambassador of Ecuador. 
Should you be there also, so much the better, else I shall call on you in the 
morning early. Excuse and believe me, with much esteem, your friend, 
Canova." This was dated, Paris, 2nd Sept. 1816, 6 o'clock, p.m. 


had previously deposited his credentials for their, preliminary 
inspection by Monsieur Talleyrand, preparatory to their 
being presented to the king ; and that on applying to the 
employSs for their restoration, he had received a long French, 
official note, which, as being himself little conversant with 
the French language, he was desirous I should interpret 
for him, and suggest at the same time such a reply as 
might be deemed necessary according to the nature of the 

I waited on him early in the morning, as I had been 
prevented from attending the soiree of the envoys from 
Ecuador. I read the note to him in Italian, and had no 
occasion to point out to him in particular the art of the 
writer, whose object was first to delay the operations of 
Canova, and next to cause him to fail altogether if possible. 
At his request I sketched out in pencil there and then a 
reply to Talleyrand, much in the style of his own Jesuitical 
missive, and left it to Canova to have it copied and for- 
warded by a special messenger direct to the minister. The 
credentials came before the close of the day ; after which 
everjrthing with respect to Canova's business proceeded like 
a ship under prosperous gales, and his mission was crowned 
with complete success. 



Accident to Lord Castlereagh— Canova's account of the success of his miiKion \ 

— He comes to England — Contributions to literature — Qnyton de 
Morveau — ^A philosopher seldom successful as a practising physician — 
Letter from Sir Humphry Davy — Sir Walter Farquhar — His great 
success, and death — ^Result of his advic^. 

In the " Morning Chronicle" of the 11th of September, 
1815, in which journal, under various dates, a good portion 
of the notices of facts and letters herein recorded have ap- 
peared (they having been regularly communicated to that 
journal by myself), the following will be found : — 

" Despatches were on Saturday received at the Foreign 
Office by Doctor Granville. This gentleman brings an 
account of an accident which has befallen Viscount Castle- 
reagh. His lordship was walking in the Champs "Elys^es 
on Tuesday afternoon about five o'clock, when a led horse 
passing by threw out his legs and struck his lordship, abom 
the knee fortunately. The contusion on one limb is re- 
ported as considerable by Dr. Granville, who left his lord- 
ship on Wednesday aft;ernoon in good spirits, and thinks he 
is not likely to be confined by the effect of the accident 
more than a few days. The knee has escaped fracture, but 
was otherwise injured. Doctor Granville was desired on 
leaving Paris to inspect the injured limb, that he might be 
enabled to give an accurate account to his lordship's friends 
of the present state of the case on returning to England." 

Before I left Paris I thought I would place my new friend 
in the hands of a stout-hearted Italian, a man of brain and 

SUCCESS OP canova's mission. 41 

of great experience, who could be of service to his illus- 
trious countryman in many things respecting which he 
could hardly expect to obtain the desired aid from his more 
ostensible patron, the Under-Secretary. Canova most thank- 
fully accepted the proffered acquaintance of my friend Signer 
Angeloni of Frusinate, whom I duly introduced to him 
before I took my leave. 

It was agreed with Canova that he should keep me in- 
formed of his proceedings as regards the restitution of the 
statues and pictures he had come to claim ; accordingly, on 
the 31st of September, I had the satisfaction of receiving a 
letter from him, of -which I shall here insert a literal 
translation : — 

"Paris. 26th September, 1815. 

" Cako Signore, — By the courtesy of Signer Hamilton I 
received your kind letter, together with the enclosed article 
relative to the object of my mission, written in English by 
yourself, as I am informed, with much energy and eloquence, 
showing the spirit of a true-hearted Italian. I tender you 
a thousand thanks, as I ought, and as far as I am able, 
albeit a work of pure love and inclination finds its best 
reward in the soul that inspired it. I abstain, therefore, 
from enlarging on an argument which sheds light and glory 
on itself without a word from myself. 

" The more strictly to follow your advice and my own 
wish, I sent oflf yesterday by an extra messenger your 
original article to the Cardinal Secretary of State at Rome, 
who will be most thankful for it I am certain, and will have 
it translated in the * Giomale di Roma.' The cause of the 
Fine Arts is at length safe into port, and it is to the generous 
and unremitted exertions of the British minister, Lord 
Castlereagh, and Mr. Secretary Hamilton, that Rome will 
be indebted for this triumph of the demand I came hither 
to make in her name. What gratitude ought we not to 


feel towards the magnanimous British nation ! Fully does 
she deserve that the arts, in return for this generous act, 
should join hands to raise a perpetual monument to her 
name. But the best and most enduring memory will be 
engraved on the heart of every Italian, who on beholding 
the sacred objects torn from his counto^y again restored to 
his land, will remember the nation that stood forth as her 
advocate for this restitution, and will call down upon her 
the blessings of Providence. 

" Your very affectionate friend, 

"Antonio Canova." 

A week or two later. Can ova tells me — " We are at last 
beginning in earnest to drag forth from this * Vasta Cavema ' 
of stolen goods the precious objects of art taken from 
Rome. Among the many fine paintings we removed yester- 
day, I may single out that stupendous production, *The 
Transfiguration ; * also the * Virgin of Foligno,' the ' Com- 
munion of St. Jerome.' Other choice paintings came away 
two days later, as well as other precious objects, such as 
the group of ' Cupid and Psyche,' * The two Brutus,' aind 
the very ancient bust of Ajax. Yesterday, again, the 'Dying 
Gladiator' left his French dwelling, and the Torso. To- 
/^ day, the two statues, unique in the world, * The Apollo,' 
and the * Laocoon,' were removed. To-morrow * Mercury ' 
will quit the Louvre, between ' Flora ' of the capitol and 
the * Venus.' The Muses will follow next, and so on to the 
close of this portentous procession." 

In a later epistle, he tells me — "Your own dear Lom- 

bardy has been well cared for. All the precious and most 

valuable objects belonging to Lombardy and Piedmont have 

, been recovered, and - among them the famous Venetian 

horses. I am happy to be able to add, for I know how 


much you will rejoice at it, that even all our ancieDt MSS., 
medals, &c., will be included. 

" Do not believe all the lies which the French papers are 
instructed to publish respecting the * Venus de Medici.' 
She is still as she was before, salva et incolumv^. 

*' A. C." 

In a postscript to the last letter, Canova says — " I beg 
you to do me the favour to presently respects to His Royal 
Highness the Duke of Sussex, whom I remember well when 
he passed through Rome as Prince Augustus. Also thank 
him for the goodness he manifested towards me in wishing 
me to be presented to him at that time. Continue your 
friendship for me, and believe in the attachment and grati- 
tude with which I remain your affectionate and sincere 
friend, ' "Canova." 

Dismissing now my pleasing ^nd gratifying reminiscence 
of the great artist, 1 will sum up the rest of my intercourse 
with him in a few lines. He was able at length to cross 
the dreaded Channel and come over to be almost stupefied 
at the sight of the vast Babylon of houses and other build- 
ings that presented themselves in interminable masses of 
structures, among which one grand and magnificent build- 
ing — Westminster Abbey — arrested his attention and called 
forth his admiration. But he used to say that the indefinite 
limits of the enormous metropolis, with its myriads of 
dwellers, formed of themselves the most striking monument 
that a city could present. 

^ His friend Mr. Under-Secretary Hamilton, who had pre- 
ceded Canova to England, lavished every species of courtesy 
and hospitality on him, and procured him an opportunity of 
visiting Windsor Castle, Queen Charlotte having happily 
expressed her desire to know him. I was commissioned to 



escort him down in a royal carriage and four from London 
to the castle, where I left him in the hands of the queen's 
chamberlain. Canova was delighted with the interview, 
and in ecstasy at the grand old pile, through all the apart- 
ments of which he was conducted, ending with partaking of 
some light refreshment, at which one or two of the princesses 
were present, carrying on a conversation with their cele- 
brated guest in his own language. I in the mean time 
sauntered about Windsor, and had some luncheon in the 
ap^irtments of the queen's lord chamberlain, with whom I 
was well acquainted at the time. 

Some days after this presentation Canova was solicited 
by Mr. Hamilton to sit for his portrait to Sir Thomas 
Lawrence, who was himself flattered at the opportunity of 
knowing the illustrious artist, and to be the means of per- 
petuating his lineaments, in which he was very successful, 
' as the portrait in possession of the Hamilton family testifies. 
Finally, every object of his mission to France having been 
satisfactorily completed, and his visit to the capital of 
England and the most distinguished of her people being 
concluded, Canova and his brother " TAbbate," who had 
^'oined him {defunctus officii) afi;er accomplishing all his 
work in Paris, departed from England, taking their way 
homewards through Flanders and Germany, not caring to 
pass tlirough the heart of exasperated France.** 

It was not long before the news of my return to England 

* The following year, 1816, 1 was surprised and gratified by the arrival of a 
most valuable proof t)f Canova's friendship, a portrait of Vesalius by Titian. 
The' painting, 3ft. 3in. high by 2fb. 7in. wide, was bought by Canova at Venice 
in the early part of his life, while engaged in the study of the profession he had 
at first selected, namely, that of a painter in oil colours. Few portraits by 
Titian exhibit the vigour and beauty of that inimitable master in a higher 
degree than this likeness of his great contemporary and friend Vesalius, the 
celebrated anatomist at Padua. The picture possesses one great additional 
value, there being an autograph inscription attached to the back of it, fastened 
with seals of red wax, where it is still to be seen* 


became known to the authorities of such public institutions as 
I had been personally connected with, and who were likely to 
have again use for my servicea At the Royal Institution, 
a journal entitled " The Journal of Science and the Arts " 
was just about to be published, under the direction of 
Professor Brande, who requested me to assist him with 
some original communications. I complied by sending him 
for his first number an analytical paper on a new vegetable 
substance called Malambe bark, recently brought to Europe 
from South America, and carefully examined and analyzed 
by Vauquelin of Paris, member of the Institut of France. 

A second paper I contributed soon afterwards, which I 
had read before the Geological Society of London, of which 
I was foreign secretary. The paper consisted of an ex- 
haustive report on a curious memoir by Monsieur Methuon, 
on the manner in which earthy as well as metallic crystals 
are formed. I continued to supply the editor with contri- 
butions in each successive number of his journal. One of 
the most important contributions from my pen was an 
account of the life and writings of Baron Guyton de 
Mor veau, the promoter of that , complete revolution in the 
nomenclature in chemical science, which perhaps many 
judges of such matters may feel disposed to consider as the 
first and most eflectual step towards that gigantic progress 
which theoretical chemistry has made since the commence- 
ment of the present century. With Baron de Morveau and 
his interesting wife I had been on habits of intimacy, and 
when death came to snatch him almost suddenly from us, I 
endeavoured to console the bereft widow by expressing the 
conviction that his surviving colleagues would do proper 
justice to his memory. But the baron's name had been 
found on the list of the regicides, and the Bourbonist 
savants of the day shrank from the task of commending the 
high scientific deeds of their revolutionary fellow member. 


I timidly ventured to ask the disconsolate baroness 
whether she would confide to me the grateful task of 
putting before the world the works and scientific services of 
her husband through the English press. The offer was 
instantly accepted, and a collection of papers, diaries, and 
memoranda on many subjects was in a few days placed in 
my hands, by which I was enabled to draw up the bio- 
graphical account of Baron de Morveau previously alluded 
to. It is flattering to the writer to report that the late 
eminent philosopher Doctor Thomas Young, having under- 
taken in a new edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica the 
, article " Guyton de Morveau," at once declared that he 
could not follow a better guide than Dr. Granville's a£ccoun,t 
in the " Journal of Science." 

' Another paper I contributed to the same journal was a 
translation of the Abb^ Monticelli's description of the 
eruption of Vesuvius in December, 1813 ; besides a report 
from Vauquelin's experiments on the ergot of rye, a sub- 
stance which I afterwards contributed in introducing as a 
valuable medical agent in obstetrical practice. Moreover, 
to each number of the same journal I used to forward 
monthly returns fi'om the best scientific journals of the 
Continent. Willing also to assist two medical friends. Dr. 
Man Burrows and Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson, who had 
conjointly started a new medical journal under the name of 
the " Medical Repository," I communicated several articles 
to its pages, among which will be found one mentioning for 
the first time in medicine (1815) the name of prussic acid as 
a remedy. It was this subject that led me by degrees to the 
introduction of my own views and experience in the employ- 
ment of the new and valuable medicine in a more extensive 
work a few years later (1819-20), which work served to 
stamp the character and promote the adoption of that 
remedy in the practice of medicine in England. To the 


same journal I contributed extracts from most of the foreign 
periodicals on medical subjects. 

At this time I was in my snug Uttle house at Brompton, 
my tenant and friend having recently removed to the Royal 
Mint. He had succeeded the elder Mr. Wyon as principal 
engraver of coins, notwithstanding a strong opposition on 
the part of the managers, who pretended that the appoint- 
ment was invalid from the circumstance of Pistrucci being 
an alien, forgetting at the same time that of the last ten 
successive engravers to the Mint, more than two had been 
foreigners and unobjected to? 

All these various and other occupations, however much 
they might add to my reputation for general knowledge, did 
not afford me the smallest qhance of succeeding in the object 
I had in view, of settling in the metropolis as a practising 
physician. Far from it : I had lived long enough to find that 
a man of science who was a physician seldom succeeded in 
settling himself down profitably in practice if he insisted at 
the same time in maintaining the character of a savant. I 
can instance two striking examples of this truth, in the 
persons of WoUaston and Dr. Tliomas Young, who seldom 
earned a physician's fee with their great reputation of men 
of science ; and I can well remember also Mr. Owen, when 
in his capacity of a naturalist and professor at the Hunte- 
rian Museum in the Collfege of Surgeons,, in which he had 
succeeded his father-in-law, Mr. Clift, addressing to me a 
protest because I had stated in my " History of the Royal >,^ 
Society " that he might become illustrious and popular as a A 
man of science in that post, but never would be employed as 
a practical surgeon, for which profession he had been edu- 
cated. Every contemporary surgeon well knows Professor 
Owen for what he is, a most distinguished naturalist; but 
can they quote a single surgical operation he has been 
called in to perfoim ? 



Some of Mr. Hamilton's friends, and his own family and 
relatives indeed, I attended when occasion required, and in 
one or two instances the novelty and boldness of my 
practice (contrary to a long-adopted treatment by an ordi- 
nary London physician which had failed, whereas in my 
case the treatment had saved the patient) served to help 
me forward, but the prospect of being once reckoned as one 
of the well-known physicians in the metropolis was so little 
encouraging that I almost gave it up in despair. Occasions 
fox keeping myself before the- public as one connected with 
science occurred pretty frequently, and my position as a 
member of more than one learned society aflforded me 
ample scope to maintain a certain position in the scientific 
world. Sir Humphry Davy, by kindly making me the 
means of communicating with the Royal Society, inspired 
me with the idea that, with some further exertion in behalf 
of general science, I might some day venture to aspire to 
I the honour of the three inystical initials. Sir Humphry 
V afforded me another opportunity of approaching the magic 
circle, by forwarding to my care a valuable memoir of his 
from abroad, which he destined for the Royal Society. As 
the letter refers to some other work of Sir Humphry, I 
shall transfer it to the present pages : — 

« Rome. Feb. 16th, 1815. 

" My dear Sir, — Many thanks for your kind letter to 
Lady Davy, and many thanks for what you inform her you 
have been so good as to .do for me in Thomson's journal. I 
had not the least idea that my theory I mentioned in a 
private letter on the volcano of Pietra Mala would be pub- 
lished, and my observations on that subject belong to a 
series of volcanic observations that are yet in progress. I 
send with this letter a third paper to the Royal Society. My 
two last were on the colours of the ancients, and on anew solid 
compound of iodine and oxygen, showing that Gay-Lussac's 


iodic acid is a creature of his own imagination. By his 
process nothing but a compound of sulphuric acid and 
oxyiodine can be obtained; and even this substance he 
cannot have procured pure, for it does not agree with his 

" My third paper contains an account of the gas produced 
by the action of sulphuric acid on hyper-oxymuriate of 
potassa, which, though composed of four proportions of 
oxygen and one of chlorine, is not an acid. 

" I return my thanks for your kindness to my brother. It 
will always give me great pleasure to hear from you. The 
bustle of setting out for Naples prevents me from writing at 
this moment a longer letter. 

" I am, &c., 

" H. Davy." 

It was on the 16th of May, after receiving this letter, that 
I became acquainted with a man eminent in his profession, 
whose good counsels at length set at rest all my doubts and 
fears, and who was the cause of my ultimately adopting 
that course which led to my final establishment in the 
metropolis in the position I have occupied as a physician for 
upwards of half a century. Sir Walter Farquhar, physician 
to the Prince Regent — and to the entire Red Book I might 
say, for a more prosperous or more popular practitioner did 
not exist in London — ^was induced to take special interest in 
the young aspirant in medicine, from the fact of a personal 
recommendation from his daughter, the wife of the Rev. 
Anthony Hamilton, incumbent of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 
and brother of my friend the Under-Secretary. Although 
Sir Walter had of late years relinquished the actual out-of- 
door practice on account of old age, he retained the more 
honorific branch of home or written consultations. When 
I became intimate with the family, as I did, I had the 



curiosity (very natural as well as excusable in one who was 
about to court the upper ten thousand) to count up the 
visiting cards left in the hall in the course of a few weeks, 
when Sir Walter's indisposition had been made known and 
his absence from Carlton House noticed. The cards and 
inscriptions in a visitor's book, which were meant for an 
inquiry after the baronet's health (among which a royal 
message from the Regent was daily conspicuous), showed 
that the sick man on his expected and hoped-for recovery 
would have to despatch many hundred " return thanks for 
kind inquiries." 

How was such extensive popularity achieved among the 
most fastidious classes of high-born and highly-educated 
people, the like of whom foreigners fail to meet with in 
their own countries ? Sir Walter Farquhar had not made 
himself known, as most London physicians try to do, by 
writing, or by zealously assisting in the management of 
public institutions, hospitals, or scientific academies. The 
whole of his attention was given to the consideration of the 
many difficulties that encumber the path of the practical 
physician in this country ; in solving those difficulties, and in 
rendering their solution as bearable to the parties interested 
in them who happened to be the sufferers as it was satis- 
factory to the other parties whom Sir Walter's wisdom, 
prudence, tact, and irreproachable trustworthiness had 
relieved of a load of anxiety and apprehension ; and all this 
carried on by Sir Walter in the quietest and most unassum- 
ing manner, a smiling, joyous, and faith-inspiring counten- 
ance, which alone must have greatly aided him in securing 
to himself an amount of popularity that accompanied him to 
the very last day of his life, which terminated at the age of 
eighty-five years on the 26th of March, 1819. He died 
with his head resting on my left shoulder as I sat in a 
chair near him, where I remained every day after watching 


him during the night, which I almost invariably passed in 
his house. In the morning I had to attend the consultations 
with his medical friends, Dr. Baillie, Sir Henry Halford, Sir 
William Knighton, Sir Gilbert Blane, Dr. Warren, and 
others. At these consultations I used to present a written 
report of the preceding night, mentioning the steps I had 
adopted in certain emergencies, especially in regard to 
either cupping or a small bleeding from the arm, which 
invariably aflforded instantaneous relief from a sensation of 
suffocation and pain in the region of the heart, for Sir 
'Walter was in fact dying from severe pneumonitis compli- 
cated with angina pectoris. 

In the several private chats I had with him, he used 
to refer to these two maladies under the conviction that they 
had had their origin in a violent blow he accidentally received 
on his chest when a young surgeon of a cavalry regiment 
in garrison at Gibraltar. 

In my eagerness to give a continuous and true account of 
Sir Walter Farquhar to the end of his successful career, I 
find I have leapt over nearly two years, from the time of my 
introduction to him down to the time of his death already 
alluded to. Those two years by his advice I had spent in 
Paris, following punctually the course he had pointed out to 
me with the intention of securing my success in London, 
instead of leaving it to chance. That advice was given to 
me at a private interview in May, 1816. By adopting it 
for a period of nineteen months, it brought me back' to 
England quaUfied for my new duties at the commencement 
of 1818, in time to go through the various scenes in Conduit 
Street (the residence of Sir Walter) which I have already 
described, and in which I took a most earnest part from 
feelings of gratitude as well as of true affection. 

The issue of that private interview with Sir Walter 
in 1816, as I have before said, changed the whole tenor of 

s 2 



my Kfe, established me permanently as one of the successful 
medical practitioners in London, gave me a character, 
helped me into the principal scientific bodies of the capital, 
made my name familiar to the public, brought appUcations 
from noble families to escort them as medical attendant in 
their foreign travels, and finally enabled me to transfer legi- 
timately, and with my patients' good will, from their sachels 
to the custody of my own bankers — Messrs. Coutts & Co. 
during the first part, and next to the London and West- 
minster Bank during the second part of half a century — 
four score thousand pounds and upwards of English money; 
a pleasing contrast with the few hundred piastres given to a 
travelling physician in Greece, or with the amount of pay of 
a Turkish hekim-bashi. 




Sir Walter Farquhar's advice — Remove from London to Paris — Deplorable 
state of my health — Cure for dyspepsia — Course of studies in Paris — 
Method of taking down a lecture — The Institute of France and the 
Royal Society. 

The meeting on the 16th of May had produced all these 
results, and more. It had taken place at Sir Walter's own 
suggestion, pressed by the anxiety of Mr. Hamilton to see 
me settled, and it consisted of the following dialogue, as put 
down almost verbatim on my return home : — 

Loquitur, Sir Walter. — " My dear doctor, every one of 
your friends (and you will allow me to reckon-myself as one 
of them) in England see with regret the great difficulty, if not 
the impossibility, of your settling as a stranger in this great 
city as one of its prosperous physicians. Few persons 
without a connection with one of the great hospitals, or the 
support of a leading medical man, can hope to establish for 
himself a practice at once honourable and profitable. Your 
progress would be so slow, and produce such scanty means 
of living, that in two or three years you would become dis- 
couraged, if not disgusted. Your experience has chiefly 
been in the surgical department of the navy. Naval 
surgeons, however respectable, cannot cope with the able 
and dexterous surgeons we have in every hospital. No 
one can hope to succeed as a pure surgeon in London, 
unless in connection with one of our great hospitals ; and 
then only could you hope 4o obtain a large connection. 
When I came to London as a retired army surgeon, I saw 


at once how useless it would be to contend with the great 
dons of the day for a share of their practice, and I therefore 
joined a respectable firm of what were then called apothe- 
caries, at present styled general practitioners, and continued 
thus until by an interposition from the highest quarters I 
was admitted to pass my examination at the Royal College 
of Physicians, and practised ever after as one of them. But 
I had already had, in the inferior grade of the profession, as 
I may say, the run of the town, which made me not only 
well known, but also popular. You do not feel inclined to 
try such a career, and indeed I am not sure whether you 
would not have a swarm of hornets about you should you 
make the attempt. You will say that this is a very dis- 
couraging and desperate prospect : so far I adtnit it is so. 
But there is an opening for you, nevertheless ; one which 
to a man of such various information, antecedent studies, 
frequent intercourse with the higher classes in so many 
courts, great energy as you can boast of, offers the greatest, 
indeed I may say a unique chance of success. We want at 
this moment in London a scientific physician-accoucheur. 
The members of the profession who practise as such at 
present, much as I respect them as men, are mere men mid- 
wives. I hold midwifery to be more than that ; and we miss 
amongst them that degree of science and physiological know- 
ledge which, combined with the dexterous use of manual 
or mechanical aid, overcomes the many difficulties and 
dangers of which we have had so many striking and 
unfortunate examples in the last few years, since the 
Smellies and the Hunters have passed away, and the 
Sims and the Denmans have become aged. Now I am told 
that in Paris there is a grand school of theoretical and 
practical midwifery, in a vast establishment called La 
Maternity. I know from good sources that the instruction 
given by the professors attached to that establishment — 

BiK Walter's advice. 65 

Dubois, Capuron, Marcus, Chaussier, and others — ^is not 
only of the ablest, but the most decidedly scientific, owing 
to the eminent and earnest character of the instructors, who 
are also able physicians. Go to Paris for a year, or a year 
and a half; give yourself up entirely to the acquirement of 
obstetrical skill and cognate sciences, including the know- 
ledge of female complaints and the diseases of children, 
practically as well as theoretically. We will take care in 
this country to let people know in the mean while that you 
are gone for that purpose to Paris for a time ; gone again 
to school, in fact, with the object of being made perfectly 
familiar with all the diflBculties and resources of a profession 
which in its exercise entails a double responsibility on the 
practitioner who has two lives at the same moment in his 
charge, those of the mother and the child. A thorough 
acquisition of such art, coupled with the vast knowledge 
your education in medicine and experience in surgery have 
given you, will entitle you to consider yourself as fadU 
princeps among the practitioners of that art in London, and 
to look with confidence for a complete success. Such is the 
advice I give you after much consideration as to what can 
be done in your behalf, as most kindly urged by all your 
friends in England, and by no one more so than by our 
common fiiend Mr. Hamilton, to whom I communicated 
my idea, which he thinks an admirable one, and towards 
ensuring the success of which he voluntarily will afford 
every assistance in his power. * I am,' Mr. Hamilton said 
to me, * the cause as it were of his coming to this country, 
to seek employment in the profession he had fully mastered, 
and I feel bound to see that he be not disappointed.' " . 

My reply to Sir Walter was very brief, for I was deeply 
impressed with the truth of every syllable the venerable 
physician had addressed to me. " Say not another word, 
dear Sir Walter. I feel the justice and the whole import- 



ance of your advice, which I shall proceed at once to put 
into execution." 

That promise I fulfilled in the course of the week, by 
ordering the same apartments I had before occupied in the 
Hotel de Saxe, Kue du Colombier, to be prepared for my- 
self, my wife, and now three little children. I should thus be 
within reach of the Ecole de M^decine, the Matertiit6, and 
the Hopital des Enfants Malades ; in fact, I should be fixed 
in the Pays Latin. 

Such . readers as have followed me thus far must have 
thought it rather singular that during my many adventures, 
risks, escapes, and scrapes, I should never have given a 
hint, or the smallest firaction of a hint, as to the state of my 
own health. This reticence in the life of a physician is 
rather peculiar. Well, the answer is as short as it is satis- 
factory (to myself, at all events, and doubtless to many 
good-natured readers and friends). My health, with the 
exception of a tumble from my horse at Larissa, in Thessaly, 
which lamed me for a couple of days, the Theban fever at 
Athens, the plague at Stamboul, and the yellow fever at 
Port "Royal, Jamaica — my health, I say, with those excep- 
tions, has been of the best ! Even the loss of the sense of 
smell I look upon as a punishment (and not a malady), for 
not having taken care to engage a less careless assistant 
when I was about to embark on some delicate experiments. 
Therefore, under such circumstances one has a right to say, 
" As to my health, it has always been good, and I have 
nothing to complain of But while on the point of being 
again displaced, and advised to move from one quarter to 
another far different, the story I had to tell was all the 
other way. Few people suffered more than I did at that 
moment. I was both dyspeptic and low ; to such a degree, 
indeed, as to disturb the whole nervous system to the 
extent of affecting the functions of the heart so seriously, 


that the professors of medicme, both in England and in 
France, who kindly offered their advice to a suffering 
brother, came to the conclusion that my cardiac function^ 
were out of trim, and mayhap the organ itself out of gear. 
In fact, the good friends, two of them especially (great 
authorities in the line), had convinced themselves that the 
doctor of Michael's Place, Brompton, would die of a disease 
of the heart — a diagnosis and prognosis which the stiff- \ 

necked ?ind brazen constitution of said doctor has protested 
against, and with success up to his eighty-eighth year ! To ,. ^ 
say a good deal in a few words, I found myself in the 
following state at the period of breaking up my London 
establishment to proceed to Paris : a violent headache from 
early morn until after a full repast with quantum mff. of 
brandy and water or port wine. No appetite, and the 
most obstinate constipation; added to this a constant 
palpitation of the heart, with an occasional pain in that 
region ; nausea at times ; the surface of the tongue like 
a dry, rough, yellow pasturage that requires mowing, and 
tormented with the blues all day. So ill was I, in fact, 
that the mere raising of my arm to give a knock at a door, 
or the doing of anything requiring a little exertion, would 
bring on a paroxysm of nervousness enough to alarm an old 

In such a state, then, and without the least exaggeration \ 
thus infirm, was I called upon to help to pack up and travel 
to Dover, cross over to Calais, be dragged to our Paris 
hot^l, and get into a French bed in which in those days I 
ran the chance of being smothered in feathers and eaten up V 
by B flats ! Yet I went through it all. I knew I was j 

sound ; I did not believe there was anything seriously the 
matter with my heart, though at that identical moment \ 

palpitations were almost choking me. I persevered ; did all 
that was needful ; nay, more, I presented myself next morn- 







ing in the proper quarters, took out all the necessary 
tickets for attending lectures and hospitals, struggled 
through all- the requisite exertions, patiently listening to 
prosy as well as to eloquent lecturers, or aflfecting an im- 
passibility of feelings at the bedside of hospital patients from 
day to day, commencing at six o'clock in the morning (as is 
the wont in Parisian hospitals), from week to week, and de 
mense in mensem^ during which time of excitement and 
bustling fatigue, and I may add useful and successful em- 
ployment, I continued to get better until I felt once more 
quite well Yes, perfectly well. All palpitations gone ; 
headache disappeared ; digestion perfectly regular ; appetite 
moderate ; tongue spotless, and the power of attending to 
lectures, as well as to hospital patients, with now and then 
some night watching at the bedside of some poor female' at 
the hour of danger. Now what is the secret of all this ? 
How does my medical knowledge explain this strange 
valetudinarian puzzle? The progressive narrative of my 
life during nineteen months passed in Paris will serve 
not only to explain the puzzle, but also to supply some 
practical and effectual notions to people suffering fi-om 
nervous dyspepsia, how to overcome it without the profuse 
drugging on which authors on disease of the stomach pub- 
lished in England at the time in such abundance were in 
the habit of insisting. 

— It is not my intention to give either a diary of, or to 
enter minutely into, all my proceedings while in Paris ; so 
many were the objects of my pursuits, so serious the com- 
binations that followed, and so important the results obtained, 
that a separate volume alone could do justice to the subject. 
Such a volum'e I had indeed prepared at the termination of 
my residence, and all the materials collected for that object 
remain yet in my possession, regretting, as I have never 
ceased to do, the hasty resolution I adopted, at the sug- 


gestion of timorous friends, of abandoning the idea of 
publishing a full " History of the State of Science in 
France during the Revolution." No one had ever thought 
of writing such a work, and mine would have been the sole 
authentic record of one of the most brilliant epochs of 
national genius, elicited by the absolute privation of all 
resources in devising means to supply every deficiency. 
The work I allude to was to be accompanied with copper- 
plate designs of public scientific edifices, of establishments 
for the industrial as well as for the fine arts, museums, 
hospitals, and useful popular contrivances. As these designs 
became useless after my determination to suppress the MS., 
I found a suitable receptacle for them with the Institute of 
British Architects, which, with some other engraved illus- 
trations of another work of mine, the members were pleased 
to accept I hope that this Uttle digression will be pardoned 
as a reminiscence of the exertions I had made to promote 
the true interests of science at a time when I was myself 
seeking at her hand, in one particular class of studies, as 
much benefit on my own account as I could obtain in 

The following letter, addressed to my friend the Under- 
Secretary, will better show how my time and faculties were 
employed : — 

' Paris. 6th August, 1816. 

" Dear Mr. Hamilton, — ^We are at length settled and 
comfortable in this puzzling and perplexing metropolis ; but 
not without some difficulties in regard to finding suitable 
and permanent apartments. In this I have succeeded, and 
I am satisfied both as regards price and the rest of it, the 
whole being within the Kmits of my means. My little Julia 
posted with me and my despatches all the way, and did not 
suffer in the least. Sir Charles Stuart received me very 
cordially, and mentioned immediately that there could be 


no objection made by the police to my residence here. M. 
de Ragneval, for whom Baron de Montalembert had given 
me a letter of introduction, promised to wait on Monsieur 
de Gazes (the minister), which he did, and from him I 
received the strongest assurances that I should not be 
molested in the least. The Due de Chartres was also 
very polite. * Je vous prends sous ma responsabilit^ pour 
ce qui a rapport au gouvemement Fran^ais,' * he said, and 
' begged I might use his influence whenever likely to be of 
service to me. Both the duke and Ragneval inquired very 
particularly respecting Alexander's sad accident, and how 
he was going on. Of course I was able to give them .the 
best as well as the latest information. Mackenzie was 
friendly, and promised to forward the object of my visit 
here. - Newnham took my address : he may perhaps want 
me shortly. Mrs. Morier is likely to require my services. 
Should I be fortunate enough to gain their confidence, my 
future projecf will be rendered more encouraging. I take 
every pains at all events to deserve it. Sir Walter, to 
whom I write by this courier, was perfectly right in sending 
me here for that object. No place on earth ofiers such 
multiplied opportunities for becoming both able and dexter- 
ous in a particular branch of the profession. The private 
instructions I receive daily, from two of the most eminent 
professors of the Hospice de la Maternity, where I am a 
constant visitor, would be sufficient, with common under- 
•standing, to make me, what I desire to be, an accomplished 
practitioner. To all the interesting cases that may occur to 
them in their practice, I am to be called, either by day or by 
night. This gives me necessarily plenty of occupation, but 
absque labore nullum lu^um. My instructors are Capuron, 
well known for his capital elementary work on midwifery, 

* I make myself responsible for you as far as the French govemment is 



and the other is M. Deveux, pupil and relative of the late 
eminent obstetrician Baudelocque, whose genius and 
originality of ideas he inherits. I like his theory much : a 
great part of it is new and highly plausible. With this I 
thought proper to combine a good deal of practical know- 
ledge of the diseases of children and women, for which 
purpose I am in close attendance with the physicians of the 
Hopital des Enfants. I do the same with regard to the 
Hopital des Femmes. There are now under my daily 
inspection (for I have been named Sieve interne) two 
hundred and more diflferent cases of female diseases con- 
nected with that branch of the profession I came hither to 
learn. Twelve months thus spent must, I should hope, 
quahfy me for the position my friend in Conduit Street 
intends me to occupy in the metropolis. The remainder of 
my time I spend in attending a course of chemistry and 
mineralogy ; and another of medical police and jurispru- 
dence at the Ecole de M^decine. I work an hour or two 
practically,' three times a week, with Vauquelin in his 
laboratory, which happens to be just opposite to our hotel ; 
and now and then Monsieur Barruel gives me an instructive 
private lesson on analysis. In the evening I occupy myself 
in visiting and taking down notes of all I have seen and 
learned in the course of the day. 

** Believe me, sincerely yours, 

'' A. B. G." 

The acquisition of all this practical knowledge, however, 
was not the only object to which I would confine my atten- 
tion or study while I enjoyed the good fortune of finding 
myself in this redundant focus of knowledge.' There were 
several hours of the day yet unoccupied, and the temptation 
to devote some of them to other scientific pursuits around 
me were so numerous, and at the time so irresistible, that 


I soon determined to draw up an additional programme of 
daily occupations. 

Men of European reputation were lecturing at that unique 
establishment, dear to the memory of BufFon, the Jardin des 
Plantes. Here Cuvier was teaching zoology and compara- 
tive anatomy ; Desfontaines and Jussieu were developing 
the sciences of botany and vegetable physiology. To the 
celebrated crystallographer, the Abb^ Hatty, was committed 
the teaching of mineralogy and the doctrine of the forma- 
tions of crystals ; while natural history acknowledged for its 
interpreters Geoflfroy St. Hilaire, Daubenton, and Dolomieu. 
What men were there equal to these in any part of Europe ? 
All these eloquent lecturers did I, as a matter of course, 
attend, for none clashed with another. To all these lectures 
in public institutions, and to many others I have yet to 
mention, I was admitted and recjeived as a foreign savant^ 
member • of the Royal Institution of Great Britain ; but 
above all as Foreign Secretary to the Geological Society of 
London, to which I , had recently been elected, for the 
French have a great regard and attach much importance to 
the office holders in learned societies, and especially in the 
Geological Society of London, at that particular time much 
esteemed and valued in Paris ; so much so, indeed, that 
those Frenchmen whom in my official Capacity I had 
recommended as worthy of being elected foreign members 
of our Society, were unbounded in their acts of courtesy 
and thankfulness for the distinction. 

I may state at once that the particular privilege thus 
spontaneously bestowed upon me, accompanied me in all 
the circumstances of my Parisian scientific and professional 

My thirst for learning seemed to increase in proportion as 
I succeeded in certain departments, when I became eager 
to profit equally and succeed as well in others. Vauquelin, 


Gay-Lussac, Th^Dard, a stupendous triumvirate of che- 
mistry, were just then shedding immense lustre on the 
science 4hey had made their own. One of them lectured at 
the College de France, another at the Jardin des Plantes, 
and the third at the Ecole de M^decine. Thither I re- 
paired in turn at the proper hour, and brought away ex- 
tensive notes of air the lectures. I will explain how, not 
by way of boasting, but simply to show what real zeal in a 
pupil can accomplish with the view of more fully compre- 
hending and profiting by the instructions of his teachers. 

I invariably attended each lecture a quarter or half an 
hour before its commencement, prepared with small quires 
of writing paper, pen behind the ear, and ink-horn suspended 
from a button-hole in my coat. As there was always a 
collection of objects, machines, and utensils, simple or com- 
plicated, on the table before the lecturer, I at once proceeded 
to delineate the same in their minutest details in ink-lines, 
which an acquaintance with descriptive geometry had made 
me familiar with. By the time the lecturer entered,, my 
work was done, and as he proceeded in the description of 
his apparatus, which I had set down in writing, I was able 
to apply distinguishing letters of the alphabet, or Arabic 
numbers, to the various parts of the said apparatus. With 
regard to the text of the lecture itself, which was delivered 
of course in the purest and most fluent French, I translated 
it mentally, and wrote down actually in English full sen- 
tences and the import of every phrase or observation. 

The professor at whose lectures I was the most zealous in 
seizing his words by such a method was Gay-Lussac, for, 
besides being a profound philosopher, he was a great and 
methodical experimenter, affording me full time for a suc- 
cessful accomplishment of my own part of the lectures, the 
results of which I look upon with some pride to this day, 
when I open the very thick volume of the different quires of 



notes taken as described, and now bound together The 
same process I adopted at all the other lectures, though 
I admit not quite so sedulously. _ , 

Next to chemistry, the knowledge I wished to revive m 
me and improve while in Paris (the very ideal place for 
such a knowledge) was practical anatomy, which, however, 
as far as my specific ohject was concerned I chose to con- 
fine to female anatomy. In the anatomical pavilion of the 
Ecole de MMecine, or rather, I ought to say, Hospice 
de Perfectionnement ; " Rue de I'Ordonnance, especially 
adapted for the purpose,* and in a private room m the 
H6pital de la Pitf^, complete scope was afforded me for a 
I could desire in that branch of investigation ; the result 
bein- that the knowledge I was very desirous to possess 
I eSned most completely. 1 also obtained interesting 
anatomical preparations, which I was entitled to remove to 
mv own quarters wheA completed,, as I had paid my 
respective contributions in money to secure then: possession. 
Of these I made good use after communicating upon them 
to the Royal Society, which communications that scientitc 
body deemed worthy of a place in their " Transactions." 

I have thus passed in review the leading and principal 
heads of human knowledge which I an M.D. of thurteen 
years' standing, a member of the Royal College of Surgeons 
oi England for half that number of years, came to seek and 
> obtain in the French metropolis. Yet time remained sti 1 
at my disposal, for say that the number of hours for work 
in each day was eighteen, the lectures never lasted beyond 
one hour and anatomical investigations were not consecu- 
Ve but' only occasional, while my own attendance at 
hWpitals was limited to the few hours during which the 

i« viciBsitude. of this anatomical theatre are rather curious. It was 
ori^rrvenn it became a manufactory of saltpetre, and ultunately the 
v^^^whene^ the cut-throate sallied forth on.the ever-memorable 10th 
JftS^^t^^--*^ their murderous work against the Tuileries. 


attendant medical men were on duty. Now this surplus of 
disengaged or leisure hours afforded opportunities for some 
straggling courses on geology or mineralogy by Brogniart, 
on mechanical philosophy by Biot or Beudant, or on 
astronomy by Arago, toxicology by Orfila, and pure phy- 
siology by Magendie. 

But there were two hours in every week which no literary 
or scientific temptation, no matter from what quarter, could 
seduce me to devote otherwise than I did. I allude to my 
attendance at the meetings at the Royal Institute of France 
(for that public body had descended from imperialism, to 
royalty without forfeiting, however^ one iota of its import- 
ance, respectability, or renown). Yes ; each Monday, at 
2 P.M., saw me nailed to a seat among the limited 
number of strangers admitted as visitors, which seat had 
been by signal favour allotted to me, for I was not yet a 
fellow of the Royal Society of London, which would have 
secured me a peculiar place within the inner circle. In that 
private seat I never failed to appear, pencil and paper in 

The arrangement of the salle de rSumon is so admirably 
planned, that the visitors from their loftier benches can take 
a general as well as a special view of the members seated 
before their own particular tables, and hear distinctly when 
they address the choir, or vice versa, or discuss academically 
some important subject, or any of the members reads his - 
own special memoir or essay. The witnessing of all tTiese 
operations was immensely attractive for one who never 
failed to take notes and give a full and faithful account to 
one or other of the English journals of science. 

Few people at all conversant with science are ignorant 
that the Institute of France, which has become so famous, 
is an institution established by the first Napoleon, who 
borrowed the title from a public establishment in Italy, as 




stated already in another part of these memoirs. Tlie 
number of members, who are chosen by election (scrutin)^ 
to be approved by the sovereign, and invariably confirmed, 
is limited to persons who are publicly known to have dis- 
tinguished themselves in some special branch of scientific 
knowledge. The system is one best calculated to secure 
the creme de la creme of the scientific world for the dignity 
of member of the institute ; and not only that, but likewise 
to elect for each' branch of scientific knowledge one whose 
name alone represents the science by cultivating which he 
has rendered himself famous, and thus eligible for member- 
ship. Thus, if we name Arago, or Delambre, we say 
astronomy ; if Th(5nard's name or Gay-Lussac is spoken of, 
we understand that they are the lights of chemistry ; and so 
of the rest. Now, in a cognate society in London, such is 
not the case. If we name a particular person to be a 
F.R.S., that does not suffice to acquaint the public for what 
particular reason he has so been honoured with those 
initials, the majority of the fellows being content with 
being considered as " lovers " or " patrons of science." 
As regards the Institute of France, on every Monday that I 
took my seat among the visitors, and I looked down on the 
different seats filled by the members, I sank the idea of the 
man, and only beheld in him the representative symbol of 
this or that other particular science. All have worked ! 

1^ Is that so in Burlington House ? For a reply, let the tables 
I published in a work entitled " The Royal Society in the 
Nineteenth Century " be consulted. That work offended 
some people because it proclaimed undeniable truths. 
Nevertheless, it brought about the many salutary reforms 

' it had suggested, and the name as well as the working of 
the English Royal Society since the publication of that 
volume has risen, to use a mercantile expression, fifty per 

1 cent, in the estimation of Europe. Compare the names of 


the fifteen fellows elected yearly at present, with those of 
the shoals of candidates proposed and elected before the 
appearance of the hated volume. Or place side by side 
ten or twenty of the last tomes of the Pliilosophical Transac- 
tions with an equal number of those previously published, 
and look at the importance of the subjects treated, the 
number and beauty of the illustrations, as well as of the 
paper and printing of the latter as compared with the 
former ; and, above all, consider the various references by 
government to the society for counsel and help in scientific 
matters, and you will be able rightly to judge of the real 
worth of our present standing in the opinion of the scientific 


F 2 



Life in Paris — Cicerone to English visitors— M. Gerard-— The English Geo- 
logical Society — Cuvier's lectures on generation — The Darwinian 
theory — Contributions to English journals — Dr. John Davy in the East 

Having determined to remain in Paris steadily occupied 
with the principal objects of my mission, I set about ar- 
ranging my domestic * affairs in the manner best suited to 
my many engagements or occupations. It was therefore 
settled that my wife and children should live independent 
of me every day of the week except Sunday, which we 
invariably passed together. On other days I was to take 
both my breakfast and my dinner at a restaurant^ as I 
left home too early for the little family to be ready at the 
former meal ; as for the second, as I never could be sure at 
what time I might possibly return home, I was obliged 
to take my chance of such hours as suited my engage- 
ments, leaving the family at home to settle matters in the 
English way. We had a French cuisim^re and an English 
servant, and the three children had an English nurse, 
whom I soon changed for a French bonne, for the sake of 
the language. 

My own principal repast, when I had time for one, I 
partook of at one of two restaurants famous for the great 
attendance of medical students in the Pays Latin. Like 
them (for I fraternized with many of the best), I took tickets 
for dinners d vingt-cinq sous. My readers in 1871 will hardly 
believe it, but that sum procured me soup, two dishes of 
meat, and les quatre mendiants (almonds and raisins, figs. 



and French plums). ' Half a bottle of vin ordinaire some- 
times, but generally water, was my drink. 

Besides the relatives of my sister s husband, we had a 
number of charming Parisian families with whom we were 
intimate, Mrs. Granville speaking French fluently. We 
had invitations of course to Lady Elizabeth Stuart's soirees ^ 
and now and then a dinner at the Embassy. As it was 
known that I had come to Paris for a specific purpose, and 
that in London I held a certain rank among the learned 
societies, I received a not stinted amount of French civility, 
for which I felt grateful, and which enabled me the better 
to be of use in the character of a friendly cicerone to those 
of my friends coming from England to lionize Paris. I 
soon found myself in greater requisition than I had leisure 
for. Still I tried to do my best, especially with regard to 
studious and' inquisitive physicians and surgeons, who would 
have been lost without some one to guide them through 
what they had come to learn. In this manner I was pre- 
paring for myself on my return to London a number of 
fellow medical men, some grateful, others not quite so. 

But there were also other applicants from England, of a 
very different class, whom I was happy to assist, as I con- 
cluded that their countenance would be of service to me 
after my re-settlement in thie English metropolis. It was 
thus I enjoyed the good fortune of becoming better ac- 
quainted with the nearest relatives of my friend the Under- 
Secretary. Endowed all of them with that worldly know- 
ledge and tact which good society demands, and in which 
more than one of the four sisters excelled — while the brother, 
the incumbent of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, earned the 
golden opinions of his parishioners, and the respect of his 
clerical superiors — they formed a striking group, set off in 
the case of the sisters by the most refined manners, and in 
that of the brother by the true bearing of a dignified clergy- 


man. If I add, that in their intercourse with society they 
all exhibited that affability and graciousness of address 
which I have had occasion to mention when speaking of 
their elder brother, my friend, no one who has had the 
pleasure of their acquaintance will gainsay me.* 

These relations of Mr. Hamilton I had the satisfaction of 
escorting to every part of Paris that afforded any opportu- 
nity either for mere admiration or for instruction, and no 
group of travellers eager for both or for either object enjoyed 
a better or fuller opportunity of indulging their wishes. 

One of the private establishments we visited, which af- 
forded me great personal gratification, was the atelier of the 
eminent and highly popular painter Gerard, whose name 
one reads on so many large engraved views of the incidents 
in Napoleon's eventful life. In reply to a request from 
myself to be permitted to introduce Mr. Hamilton and his 
family to visit his atelier, and have the honour of making 
the great artist's acquaintance, the following reply came in 
his name written by his very intimate firiend Baron Humboldt, 
by which the party gained the additional advantage of 
becoming personally acquainted with another illustrious 
character, and of learning from him his own as well as the 
world's opinion of the principal member of their party : — 
' Je rends mille et mille graces h M. de Granville pour son 
aimable souvenir. II sait combien M. Gerard et nous 
aimons h, recevoir ses ordres. Rien ne pouvait nous etre 
plus honorable que la facility de voir de pr^s M. Hamilton, 
dont le nom 6tait d^j^ si c^lebre parmi nous, et qui r^unit 
au degr^ le plus Eminent la finesse des vues et T^l^gance 
attique de I'^locution et des maniferes k I'^levation des senti- 
ments. Monsieur G6rard s'unit k moi pour vous prier 

* These gifted sisters travelled afterwards to Italy, and visited my eldest 
brother, the governor of the city and province of Beiiganio, at whose residence 
he had the gratification of entertaining them. 


d'agrder, monsieur, les expressions de la haute consideration ; 
et de ma part pour vous, monsieur, celles de ma recon- 
naissance et de mon attachement inviolable. — Humboldt. 
Paris. Octobre, 1817."* 

This intimate daily association made the cicerone better 
acquainted with the members of Mr. Hamilton's party than 
he ever was in England. ^ The natural result being, that the 
cicerone became afterwards the medical counsellor when- 
ever any occasion occurred for his being called in, and I 
have the satisfaction of knowing that through the long 
period of our subsequent intercourse their countenance and 
support never failed me, but, on the contrary, proved in- 
strumental in promoting my professional advancement. My 
next step in life will show this, when on my return to 
London our intimacy was renewed and continued ever after 

By a fortunate coincidence the visits of the great folk 
from London to Paris chimed in very nearly with the 
vacations of Parisian lectures, so that I had more time at 
my disposal. But much, or a good part of it, was required 
for another purpose which my position in Paris had entailed 
on me to a great extent, namely, to keep up a wider circle 
of correspondence with learned societies and academies, or 
with distinguished scientific men from Italy, Germany, 
Russia, Spain, and even France. It is well known how 
much my native land is endowed with public seats of learn- 
ing. Every large city can boast of an institute or academy, 

* "A thousand thanlcs to Mr. Granville for his kind remembrance. He 
knows how entirely M. G6rard and I are at his commands. Nothing could 
be more pleasing to us than to have the opportunity of a nearer acquaintance 
with Mr. Hamilton, whose name is already so celebrated amongst us, and 
who joins in a high degree delicacy of taste and attic elegance of diction and 
manners to the most elevated sentiments. M. Gerard unites with me in 
begging you to accept the expressions of our highest esteem, and on my own 
part that of my gratitude and sincere attachment. 


and at all events of a certain number of men devoted to 
science, litei:ature, and the fine arts and antiquities, with 
not a few universities. Each of these pubhshes transactions, 
and undertakes to work out problems of public utility, by 
oflfering annual premiums and honorific distinctions to the 
successful competitors. They naturally endeavour to keep 
up as much intercommunication with other cognate institu- 
tions, whether in their own country or in foreign lands. 
These public bodies are especially ambitious to be on good 
terms with those of England, as may be seen in the vast 
number of learned and scientific reports and memoirs 
received at our Royal Society from I hardly can tell how 
many Italian seats of learning. Now a knowledge of the fact 
that a countryman of their own, Anglicized, had the good 
fortune to be connected with the institutions of the country, 
either as a simple member or as an official, caused nume- 
rous epistles to be addressed to me for some purpose or 
another, all of which demanded a certain degree of atten- 
tion. The task, however, was a pleasing one, and the 
number of firiends made in the correspondents amply repaid 
the trouble. 

The year before I came to reside in Paris I had been 
elected Foreign Secretary to the Geological Society, which 
had just emerged with a brilliant reputation into the scien- 
tific world. I had succeeded a German gentleman practi- 
cally conversant with and possessor of a splendid collection 
of mineralogical specimens, but not a Hterary man. Find- 
ing the society without foreign intercourse, I pointed out to 
the committee what an advantage it would be to secure in 
many parts of Europe a connection with cognate societies ; 
and I designated a certain number of names of men who 
were eminent geologists and mineralogists, who well deserved 
the honourable distinction of foreign members of our society. 
By a unanimous resolution it was left to me to address a 


Bort of diploma, or nomination by letter, to a certain number 
of such diBtinguished individuals, a work I took in hand 
with great pleasure, and by the end of the London season 
of 1816 the Geological Society was in direct correspondence 
and association with every one of the most renowned scien- 
tific societies throughout Europe ; all nations contributing 
some link of connection. I need not say how gladly the 
recipient parties welcomed and appreciated their nomination. 
But letters of acknowledgment were not the only produce 
of such a measure, for our society had further the benefit of 
receiving books as well as original memoirs, as I may in- 
stance in illustration MonticeUi's description of the eruption 
of Vesuvius in 1822, which the Geological Society requested 
me to translate; or another memoir, on the formation of 
earthy and metallic crystals by M. Methuon, which Gillet 
de Laumont, a most practical geologist, valued justly, and 
a report of which I read before the Geological Society, and 
which was afterwards published in the English journals. 

After the lapse of a few days a particular occasion sug- 
gested another letter to Mr. Hamilton, for I knew how much 
he liked to hear of scientific topics, a portion of which I 
give : — 

« Paris. August 26th, 1816. 

" My DEAR Sir, — I must let you be a partaker of the 
great satisfaction I am at this time enjoying in attending 
closely a course of lectures at the Jardin des Plantes, to 
which I have been specially invited by the learned professor, 
and a seat reserved for me on the professors' side of the 
table, in order that I may not be annoyed by the very great 
crowd of attending listeners. The attraction of the profes- 
sional curriculum in the theatre of the Jardin des Plantes 
received a fortnight ago an unexpected impulse, in the an- 
nouncement that a course of lectures would be delivered on 
the laws that govern animal generation. It seemed as if 


Fortune really intended rae ,to be most thoroughly imbued 
with every essential part of the great subject I have come to 
Paris to master if possible. Here was a chance offered me 
of studying and becoming conversant with the philosophy 
of that particular knowledge, the practical part of which, 
and its subdivisions, I was endeavouring to learn under the 
very best instructors. And who was he who had under- 
taken to unravel to us the philosophy of the most mysterious 
of the phenomena of living nature ? No less a savant than 
the author of the great work in four volumes, just published, 
entitled ' Le R^gne Animal distribu^ d'apr^s son Organisa- 
tion, pour servir de Base k THistoire Naturelle,' well known 
besides for many other former writings on subjects of natural 
history, comparative anatomy, and transcendent geology — 
in fine, Cuvier.'^ 

The course of lectures, two only of which were delivered 
in each week, I regularly attended, the distinguished pro- 
fessor having most considerately assigned to me a place 
within the inner section of the theatre, by the side of the 
lecturer, and presented me with an honorary cachet The 
proceedings were very impressive. The lecturer informed 
us preliminarily that he intended to pass in review before us 
all the classes of animals of which their museum possessed 
specimen preparations, whether moist or dry, but nearly the 
whole of the preparations for the course happened to be of 
organs properly dissected and preserved in weak alcohol. 
These Cuvier undertook to expound io us by a process at 
once simple and most effectual, and his manner of obtaining 
the result was equally satisfactory. He took up a glass 
vessel containing a particular specimen of the animal 
respecting which he was lecturing, and holding it in his left 
hand, proceeded to delineate on the large black board, with 
a bit of pointed chalk, the various parts of the animal 
known to be concerned directly or indirectly with the pro- 

cuvier's lectures. 75 

cess through which the male and female of each species are 
known to reproduce themselves. This was most skilfully 
and ingeniously managed, and the process of dissection, as 
I might call it, was described as the lecturer proceeded in 
tracing the outlines of each part in clear and positively 
eloquent language, which could not fail to be intelligible to 
all, considering that the black board exhibited at the same 
time a finished and accurate drawing of the whole animal 
preparation. No two preparations resembled one another, 
yet they were all alike fit for the production of one and the * 
same act ; and for that act the same means were employed 
by Nature, whether in mammals or in insects. In fact, in no 
other branch of natural history does the studious observer 
discover more palpably evident signs of how rich Nature 
is in resources, in arrangement, and in the development 
t of the laws which govern the act of animal reproduction, 
simple yet complicated, logically inevitable and a matter of 
necessity, yet mysterious. 

Such a mental treat as this course of lectures afforded me \ 
I do not remember ever to have experienced in the course 
of my previous scholastic discipline. Could the Darwin of 
to-day have been present at this eloquent exposition of the 
real, positive, tangible, and uniform laws, and their equally 
uniform development in every species of the animal creation, 
as devised for the replication as well as perpetuation of the 
genera and species, and each variety of species through a V 
diversified organization, yet enacting the same functions, ^ 
he would not have ventured to deny that the evolution of 
the animal creation has been a work cPemhlSe (da veniam 
gallicismo), and not tentative and progressive, as he has 

It is to be regretted that Cuvier's lectures on genera- 
tion have never been published by him. When I run over the 
many pages of notes I took down, and when I study the deli- 


neations I copied from the large black board of the hundreds 
of specimens of the organs, both male and female, by 
which the reproduction of animals of every class or kind is 
achieved, and I behold how very uniform in her means 
Nature obtains a great variety of results, the conviction is 
too strong to be resisted that the Darwinian doctrine must 
be illusory and fallacious. Unfortunately the subject is 
not one on which, in a work like the one I intend — ^to be 
open to all classes of readers of both sexes — I can expatiate 
more . largely, still less to offer the vivid pictures which 
the eloquent professor produced to illustrate and confirm 
his arguments ; otherwise no fiirther discussion would be 
required to convince the author of the " Origin of Species " 
"of his ftmdamental error. 

An engagement had been entered into by me with the 
editor of " The Journal of the Royal Institution," and also 
of the " Medical Repository," to supply them from time to 
time with matter for their respective periodicals. To the 
first, called also " Journal of Science," I used to communi- 
cate all select scientific proceedings of the Royal Institute 
or Royal Academy of Sciences, and also an account of all 
the foreign journals. To the second-named editor, all the 
proceedings of the principal medical bodies in Paris or 
France in general, with a r6sum6 of all the foreign medical 
journals. The first of my contributions was communicated 
to the Royal Institution, and then inserted in the " Journal 
of Science," while the medical contributions for the " Me- 
dical Repository " were first of all read before the Medico- 
Chirurgical Society, of which I was a member, and next 
inserted in the " Medical Repository." It is not superfluous 
that I should dwell on these facts, because on some of them 
depend my means of exposing the plagiarism of some of my 
writings, and they can be appealed to for evidence of the 
priority of my communications to the world on the nature 


of certain questions, or the value or novelty of particular 
remedies. - 

It will naturally be supposed that so much pen and 
brain work was likely sometimes to fail or run short, and 
the following epistle I received on one such occasion, from 
Thomas Brande, professor at the Royal Institution of Great 
Britam, will show how I was stirred up to exert myself : — 

" London (no date). 

" My dear Sir, — ^I was not a little disappointed by your 
failing to send me the account of foreign journals, which I 
relied on as a leading article of this number of the Journal, 
and which is consequently short of its proper quantity. I 
delayed the printing till the last moment, and then received 
your very inadequate excuse ; and if the two young ladies 
you name had not been very pretty girls, I should have been 
yet more angry. Pray send me something very soon for 
No. 8. Give my regards to Gay-Lussac, and tell him that 
his fiiend never called upon me for the particulars of our 
gas apparatus ; so I shall take another opportunity of 
sending them. 

** Murray told me he had answered your letter long ago. 

I trust to your making arrangements for the proceedings of 

the Institute. Barruel has forgotten me. I am just setting 

off for Worthing to see Sir Everard Home, who has been 

daiigerously ill. 

" Yours, &c., 

"W, T. Brande." 

Another letter I had previously received from the same 
gentleman, dated 4th February, 1817 : — 

"My dear Sir, — Herewith you will receive the two 
first numbers of our journal, which I beg you will take the 
trouble to present to the Eoyal Academy of Sciences. With 
the 'Journal des Mines' I shall be happy to make an 


exchange. M. Barruel, to whom you gave a letter of 
introduction, has been a good deal with me, and I am much 
obliged by your making me acquainted with so sensible and 
diligent a chemist. He has greatly extended my informa- 
tion on the manufacture of sodium and potassium. 

" You ask me who was present when I repeated Clarke's 
experiments, or rather, when I failed in doing so. Davy, 
Pepys, WoUaston, Marcet, Daniel, and a score of amateurs 
were in the laboratory at the time. Davy has made a 
curious experiment illustrating the combustion of gases 
without flattie, of which you will hear ' soon. In regard to 
the next number of the Journal, I beg to observe that I 
shall continue the analysis of the foreign publications ; and 
also insert the proceedings of the Academy, and hope you will 
send me. the continuation of both those articles up to the 
1st of March. You do not tell me how you liked the last 
number. Your review of Caventon on* nomenclature will 
be very desirable ; also Guyton de Morveau's life. If it 
should happen that we should have too much matter, which 
of the two articles will keep best for the ensuing number ? 
The fact is, that we have been giving too much for the 
money, and must now retrench a Uttle. 

" I hear of an establishment in Paris for making sugar from 
starch, and then spirit from the same sugar. Is this so? If 
so, can you get me a notice of it ? We want some little 
popular things for the Journal. I will take care to give 
notice of your intended work, which I am happy to hear of. 

*' To all your circle, except Cumer (!), my best regards. 

** Yours, &c., 

"W. T. Brande." 

My other correspondent of the "Medical Repository" 
is equally earnest in securing a supply of information, and 
thankful for what he receives. Under date of the 3rd of 

DR. A. T. THOMSON. 79 

February, 1817, he says : — " I have this moment received 
your letter dated the 29th ult, wth the valuable inclosure, 
which shall be read to-morrow evening at the Medico- 
Chirurgical Society. In the number of the Repository 
which accompanies this, you will find your two first letters, 
which I trust you will not think too much altered. It was 
necessary for the sake of consistency to omit several of the 
introductory passages relating to the Society, as they were 
not generally interesting. I am of opinion the letter begins 
as well as it now stands, and the whole appears of one 
character. The letter I have just received requires no 
alteration, and only a very few corrections of clerical errors. 
" In answer to your inquiries, I have to inform you that 
Clarke gives a summer course of lectures. The College of 
Physicians takes no cognizance of physician accouchers, 
except when they take fees out of their particular line of 
practice, to which they conceive they should be confined. 
For your satisfaction I can tell you that a clever scientific 
physician in that line at present is a desideratum in this 
city. I mention Astley Cooper as my authority, and from 
whom I obtained my information. 

" Yours, &c., 

"A. T. Thomson." 

Those of my readers who followed me through the cor- 
respondence of Sir Humphry Davy's brother, of whose 
friendship I was not only proud, but gratefully pleased 
with, and whom we left as he was about to set off on a very 
distant expedition to fill an appointment, will not be sorry 
to peruse the first tidings I received from him, dated from 
his destination 'in Ceylon, which he had reached in safety. 
The letter, besides its intrinsic value, gave me the first 
reliable notice of the salubrity of the Mauritius I had 
obtained, by which I was enabled to give proper and safe 


advice not many months after to a distinguished patient of 
mine about to proceed to that colony with her husband as 
governor and their children :— 

" Colombo. Sept. 14th, 1816. 

"My dear Granville, — Congratulate me on the con- 
clusion of my long voyage, my safe arrival at this beautiftil 
place, and the pleasant situation which I here enjoy. We 
were six months nearly at sea, and the only places we 
touched at were the Cape and the Isle de France. My 
time will only permit me to notice the geological features of 
each place, and a few particulars respecting the most 
prevailing diseases, subjects I believe in which you are 
particularly interested. The structure of Table Hill at the 
Cape, the most remarkable in the whole colony, is an 
epitome of the structure of the whole country in general. 
The hill, which is three thousand eight hundred and eighty 
two feet above the level of the sea, is composed of three 
different kinds of rocks, viz. : sandstone, granite, and 
killas, which present themselves to view and seem to be 
arranged in the order in which they are enumerated. The 
sandstone, constituting the summit, and indeed the principal 
part of the mountain, is siliceous, and in some places finely 
grained, in others extremely coarse and full of water-worn 
stones, and deserving the name of conglomerate. The 
granite, which occurs immediately beneath the sandstone, 
presents nothing remarkable in its appearance. Its compo- 
sition, like that of most mountain masses of this rock, varies 
in different places ; here abounding in mica, there in quartz, 
elsewhere in feldspar and iron, and very apt to decompose. 
In one place, where a junction occurs of the granite and 
killas, the former rock penetrated by numerous veins of 
different dimensions into the latter, producing a curious 
and beautiful appearance. The killas, which forms the 
sea-shore, and which is the lowest of all, very much 


resembles the killas or clay slate of Cornwall, and I think 
decidedly belongs to the same formation. ^ 

" Let us now pass to the Mauritius. Two spots in every 
, respect cannot be more strikingly different. At the Mau-i 
ritius there is an infinite variety of scenery, and of the most 
beautiful description, but only one kind of rock, and this 
apparently of volcanic origin, abounding in augite and 
olivine, and very like the lava of Etna. Every circumstance 
I could collect respecting the adjoining islands seems to lead 
to the same conclusion — ^that they were produced by some 
violent convulsion of Nature, and that at no very remote 
period. The kind of rock seemed to show their igneous 
formation. The irregular form of the hills and the dry 
chasms in the rock and the steep narrow glens are favour- 
able to the same idea, which is supported by the fact that in 
the middle of the island, and on the most elevated part of it, 
there is an unfathomable lake very like the crater of a 
volcano; and by another fact, that an active volcano, 
as you wdl know, still exists in the neighbouring Isle de 
Bourbon. That the antiquity of the Isle de France is not 
\ety great, I infer from two circumstances : from th^ detritus 
at the bases of the mountains being inconsiderable, notwith- 
standing the rock of which they are formed being apt to 
decompose ; and secondly, from the water of the lake in 
the interior being, as it is said, perfectly fresh, notwith- 
standing it has no outlet, and by rapid evaporation is 
constantly losing the water which it receives from the 
rocks surrounding it. I had almost forgotten to mention 
that basalt, distinctly columnar basalt, has been observed in 
small quantities in the interior of the country, which is 
an interesting circumstance to those who are satisfied of the 
Plutonic origin of the island. 

"Now for another abrupt transition — from rocks to 
diseases. The diseases known at the Cape are few and of 






rare occurrence, chiefly confined to rheumatism and hepatitis. 
The former may be attributed to the vicissitudes of the 
temperature, which are pretty considerable ; and the latter 
to the average high temperature of the climate during nine 
months of the year, and especially during the summer 
season. The great salubrity of the country, which from the 
medical returns appears to surpass that of any other place, 
may be referred to the nature of the soil, unusually dry, 
sandy, and barren, and to the dryness and warmth of the 
atmosphere, not to mention the plenty there is of all kinds 
of provisions and their good quality and cheapness, which 
insure an abundant supply of all the necessaries of Ufe to 
every description of persons. The only inhabitants who do 
not enjoy good health, to which the country and climate 
entitle them, are the Dutch, and those in particular who 
have been too much favoured by fortune, who Ijiave found 
the means of collecting wealth but not the method of enjoy- 
ing it, plunged in sensuality and gross intemperance. Their 
career is ultimately cut short by dropsy or apoplexy, 
diseases the natural consequences of their debauchery. 
The Isle de France is less healthy than the Cape, and 
probably because the general temperature is higher, its 
atmosphere less dry, and vegetation more rapid and 
much more luxuriant.^ Though not equal to the Cape, 

\ this island has deservedly the reputation of a healthy 


"I have already alluded to the exciting causes of the 
diseases of this island, and as these are few, so are the 
prevailing complaints, which are almost limited to hepatitis or 
remittent fever, the one sporadic and of daily occurrence, 
the other endemic and seldom making its appearance. Of 
the nature of these diseases I have nothing new to remark. 
The practice however pursued is rather novel in the 
eastern world. Calomel is falling into disrepute. It is no 


longer considered the panacea : recourse is had to more 
active measures, and particularly to the lancet, which in 
hepatitis is freely used till the active inflammation is sub- 
dued. The treatment of the remittent fever is regulated 
by the same principles. It is strictly antiphlogistic, and 
almost independent of mercury, and is much more suc- 
cessful than the old plan, which still keeps its ground in 
many parts of the East, to the ' great detrinlent of His 
Majesty's subjects. But more on this subject hereafter, 
when I write to you particularly respecting the diseases of 

" At present I must say nothing of this island, for I have 
been here too short a time to collect any satisfactory or 
interesting information. If you indulge me with your corre- 
spondence, in return for the valuable information I expect to 
receive from you concerning everything that is most inte- 
resting to me in Europe, I shall occasionally communicate 
to you the obseryations I may make, not only on the 
diseases of the people, but on the people and country in 
general, and particularly in certain branches of natural 
history, to which I intend to devote all my leisure 
time. My situation at present is merely pleasant, not at 
all lucrative; my income being little more than £300 a 
year. I am attached to head-quarters, dwell in a house 
ready furnished belonging to the government, and adjoin- 
ing the Governor's residence ; live at the Governor's 
table as one of the family, and enjoy the best society the 
place affords ; and farther^ I live in hope of speedy pro- 

" Adieu, my dear Granville. May I hope for the pleasure 
of hearing from you soon, I mean in about six months! 
Such, alas ! is the meaning of the term in this distant and 
secluded place. Let me but have this pleasure, one of the 

o 2 


greatest I can here enjoy, and you will greatly oblige your 
affectionate friend, 

"J. Davy. 

" P.S. — ^Next week I intend going into Candy, one of the 
most interesting districts in the island. I shall remain 
there a fortnight or three weeks, to explore its mineral 
productions. I shall write to my brother on my return 
from Colombo/* 



lUnesB of Madame de Stael — Cniious phenomenon — ^Her death — Lord Ellen- 
borough arrives in Paris — ^Visit to La Salp^tri^re — ^Description of the 
establishment — ^Visit to a French court of justice— Disgust of Lord 
Ellenborough. n 

During the time I was in Paris a considerable commo- 
tion was taking place in the great world, including even 
the court circle. Anne Louise, Baronne de Stael-Holstein, 
who had recently returned from an excursion into Italy, ^ 
whither she had repaired in hopes of recovering from a 
serious illness, was reported to be getting seriously ill again. 
The venerable Doctor Portal, her friend, spoke doubtfully 
of her recovery. She had become very restless and irritable. 
Impatient when told to remain quiet, and still more so when 
she found that in disobeying orders Nature herself refused to 
obey her ; that, in fact, her power of life was ebbing slowly 
yet surely. She fancied that foreign advice, without any 
previous consultation, would save her. She knew that 
Doctor Thomas Young, a man of congenial' mind with her 
own, was in Paris, and she asked me (who had called upon 
her as a Geneva acquaintance) to send him to her. I did so, 
and he visited her as arranged, but declined to interfere 
with the treatment, which he thought should be a moral 
rather than a medical one. Her listlessness, her desire to 
move from place to place, he thought did not arise from 
physical causes. 

" Call upon her yourself as a friend, and converse with 
her for half an hour, and you will agree with me." I did 
so, and chose the brightest hour of the day, that I might see 


her in that bright light, and watch well her eloquent 
physiognomy. After an interview and a conversation 
which on her part appeared tris-rSfi^cMey I came away 
thinking I should never see her again, but still with an , 
opinion differing from that of my London colleague, which 
was that Madame de Stael was afraid of dying. I, who had 
seen more of her, and had reflected as much as my very 
acute and learned colleague on Madame de Stael's writings, 
could not bring myself to believe that the eccentric behaviour 
she exhibited when near her death should be ascribed to the 
fear of it, but rather to a conviction of her mind, of long 
standing, that " human beings with great names and 
superior intellects should and would be exempt from the 
ordinary laws applicable to animated beings.*' She who had 
been idolized in three of the most intellectual and enlightened 
nations in the world — in Germany, in Italy, in France ; she 
who had fought a mighty duello with the greatest and most 
colossal mind of her time, and triumphed, she would and ought 
not to perish, be extinguished like any ordinary creature, like 
one of her own servants. To such a fate she could not 
reconcile herself. She could not conceive such an ending 
possible. Fear could never have acted on such a soul as 
that of the authoress of " Oorinne/' " Delphine," of a work 
on the influence of the passions, and of the classic volume 
" Sur TAUemagne.'* She was too stiff-necked a Calvinist 
to entertain any fear of the ftiture, of which her co-religionists 
have formed no conception like the Roman Catholics. 
Their faith, truly, had composed a twin-future, a paradise, 
and beneath it a pandemonium of fire and flames. Fear 
such as haunt their death-bed could therefore not enter into 
her soul. But she revolted against the notion of being 
abruptly removed against her will from among the living, 
for whom she believed her presence and her genius must 
be matters of necessity. 


The great Dr. Portal, whose intellect maintained itself 
intact in his ninety-fifth year, and who saw Madame de Stael 
in her last moments (for Dr. Young's and my own visits were 
tributes only of friendship and admiration), is entirely silent 
on her death. Dr. Young, a true philosopher, used to dis- 
cuss with me this metaphysical phenomenon, yet while 
admitting the ingenuity of my conception, he insisted 
nevertheless on his own conviction, that the restless agita- 
tion evinced during the many days before her death — 14th 
July, 1817 — which led the patient to wish to be moved 
from one apartment to another, changing as often as there 
remained untried rooms, until at last the small garden at 
the back of the house was the only shelter left in which 
she fancied that grim death could not find her. These 
were the phantasms that disturbed the death-bed of the 
wonderful daughter of Necker. 

On the 4th of September, 1817, I wrote a letter to Mr. 
Hamilton, begging him to forward an enclosure tX> Sir 
Joseph Banks, and to acquaint Sir Walter Farquhar that I 
had done my best in complying with his recommendation of 
Lord and Lady EUenborough, who had arrived in Paris, 
and to whom I had been showing all the scientific and 
other establishments of note. Lord EUenborough, who 
was much pleased with all the different places of public 
interest in the capital, now signified his wish to be present 
at some criminal trial in the superior courts o( law, and also 
to examine one of the establishments for the treatment of the 
insane. I promised to procure a privileged admission into 
one of these institutions worthy of examination for an 
hereditary English legislator. 

Lord EUenborough had heard much of the Hopital de 
Charenton, but as that was by some viewed as an almost 
private asylum, he would prefer to see an establishment of 
a more popular description. I at once suggested BicStre, 


or La Salp^tri^re. His lordship was delighted at the idea, 
and on my part I was glad to have him to refer to when, 
by-and-by, I addressed to the Lord Chancellor my ideas on 
the nature of the laws which ought to regulate public as 
well as private asylums for the care and treatment of the 
insane in England. 

La Salp^tri^re was the establishment to which preference 
was given, and I set about procuring the necessary per- 
mission from the Minister of the Interior, Monsieur Lain6, 
in whose department all such medical institutions are placed, 
and by whom I had the honour of being known, as having 
accompanied there one of the professors of legal medicine 
who gave a few lectures on the spot upon medical juris- ' 
prudence. Without such an authority I should not have 
been permitted to introduce a stranger into the interior. 
Lord EUenborough being aware that the subject of mental 
maladies was likely soon to come before the Upper House, 
was desirous of becoming practically cognizant of the system 
adopted in France in such matters. I therefore procured 
for him a collection of all the public documents, which in 
France are both numerous and minutely descriptive. In- 
deed, I had myself made such a collection on my own 
account. JBut for the moment the point needed was the 
visit to the hospice before named, the like of which we look 
for in vain out of France. Lord Campbell's account of Lord 
EUenborough is imperfect as respects this visit of the Lord 
Chief Justice to Paris. He states that his lordship " went 
to Paris in 1817, in bad health," and adds nothilig more, 
leaving on the reader the impression that Lord EUen- 
borough, like many more aUing persons who went to Paris 
for their health, continued there a certain time enjoying the 
dohe far niente. That this is an error on the part of the 
biographer, and that Lord EUenborough while in Paris 
applied himself to the acquiring of information that might 


benefit him in his profession, even at his advanced age, and 
notwithstanding his own consummate knowledge, my narra- 
tive will show, while it will rectify the imperfect account 
given by the author of " The Lives of the Chief Justices 
of England." 

The Hospice de la Salp^tri^re for women contains fifteen 
thousand dwellers, divided into eleven thousand insane, 
three hundred epileptics, and three thousand six hundred 
very old women, destitute of everything in the world. The 
insane are separated entirely, and distributed in distinct 
cells or chambers, erected in continuous and parallel lines 
in the centre of a vast area or square, in which are planta- 
tions of lime trees, gardens, and fountains, with dry, well- 
kept walks between the parallel ranges of cells, which are 
built all alike and symmetrically. At night it is usual for 
those who have no regular cell assigned to them to congre- 
gate in one of the dormitories, large and well aired. Al- 
most all the patients who are not disabled either by 
persistent mania or extreme old age have every facility 
afforded to them to walk about at their leisure, an 
arrangement which in a fine clear day affords to a visitor 
permitted to enter within the portals a curious spectacle 
of hundreds of females walking about in all directions, as 
we see bees ramble about within a glass hive — ^up and dowm, 
forwards and backwards, crossways, stopping short, staring 
at one another, sometimes halting to gossip, at other times to 
look each other in the face and then burst out laughing, or 
give a shriek and part. Most of them are alone, some 
in couples, a few noisy, but the majority silent ; and here 
and there a very serious and consequential person, look- 
ing as if she had all the most important and weighty 
matters of this world on her mind. All are uniformly 
dressed, exhibiting more or less coquetry or, art in disposing 
a bit of ribbon or a stray piece of lace. Albeit not easily, 


yet we may distinguish in the throng of very ordinary and 
plebeian physiognomies the youngest from the more ad- 
vanced in life ; and even beauty may be detected conspicuous 
among the crowd. 

Into this vast and bustling Vanity Fair, instinct with life, 
but bereft of reason, I had the privilege of introducing the 
Lord Chief Justice of England on the 1st of September, 
1817, and never shall I forget the surprise he manifested, as 
he advanced a few steps within the gates, to find himself at 
once in the midst of a large number of apparently quiet, 
well-behaved females, some few of whom turned to us as 
we were conducted along by an assistant of Doctor Esquirol, 
one of the physicians, by whom he had been deputed to 
escort us until Pinel, the renowned head of the hospice, 
could join us. 

Lord EUenborough's imposing figure (for it was ever so, 
though divested of his chief justice robes) became soon more 
than an ordinary object of curiosity. Several of the patients 
came nearer to us, to stare and run ofi, either laughing or 
sulking. Many would touch his hands, most of them 
addressed him, to all of whom my lord showed himself kind 
and good-humoured, until one particularly good-looking 
young woman planted herself straight and rigid in front 
of him, while we were slowly walking along one of the 
avenues, followed perhaps by fifty other patients, some of 
whom were conversing with me, whose face was rather 
fisimiliar to them. " Dis done, Pfere fiternel," screamed the 
young woman, " m'as-tu apport^ enfin le permis de mon 
mariage?" "On le prepare, m'amie," I interrupted 
quickly, to save my lord. " Mais c'est que chez nous on 
ne veux pas que je me marie k un Protestant ; et moi, je le 
veux, je le veux," and away she trotted, singing out her 
refrain until she vanished. No further interruption took 
place : all the patients were good-humoured, and seemed 


hardly to require the vigilant eye of the attendant nurses I 
beheld mingled with the crowd, ready to suppress any 
ebullition of temper. 

The manner of arranging the habitations of the patients 
enables the physicians to distribute the insane according to 
the character of their maladies. The cottages or cells in 
the central court, which is finely gravelled and planted with 
lime trees, with a fountain in the centre, are occupied by 
the intermittently insane. Adjoining are the cells of the 
melancholic who are clean in their habits and quiet. * The 
next three courts form a section by themselves, which is 
enclosed both at the entrance and exit by a light iron raiUng 
and gate. Some of these are occupied by maniacs under 
treatment, and the others by the incurables. We saw in 
all three hundred and thirty-one cells, and we went over 
ten dormitories containing three hundred and twenty beds. 
In the first, forty-two beds for convalescents ; in the second, 
ninety-eight beds for melancholic patients having fixed ideas 
and hallucinations ; all the rest were occupied by every kind 
of insane clean and quiet person. There were three 
infirmaries ; one of ten beds for surgical cases, another of 
forty beds for insane labouring under advanced suicidal 
mania. Lastly, one of six beds for extremely feeble 
patients requiring more immediate watching and greater 
care. Besides the new courts which divide the ranges of 
cells, there is a large garden planted with lime trees, the 
whole extent of which is entirely cultivated by the insane 

Lord EUenborough's inquiries extended into all minutiae, 
and he was very anxious to ascertain what particular 
system was adopted in the care and treatment of epileptic 
patients. Respecting the use of baths for the insane, and 
in particular the head-douche, which has been considered by 
professional people to be almost a panacea, we were informed 


that one of the physicians or a senior pupil is invariably 
present during its application, especially in the case of 
epileptic patients, through whose wards we were passing 
when one or two of the poor patients were actually writhing 
under a paroxysm of their dreadful malady. What struck 
Lord EUenborough most, was the kind, incessant, and one 
might add, affectionate care paid to all the various classes 
of demented women. 

There is a physician in chief, and three other physicians ; 
one of them is especially charged with the treatment of 
epileptic patienljs : he has both indoor and outdoor pupils 
under him. The physicians visit the patients twice a day ; 
and their morning visit is to be fully described and reported 
in a register kept for that purpose. When a new insane 
patient is brought in, the physician in waiting examines 
her, writes down all the particulars, and selects the cell she 
is to occupy. He fixes the time when the relations may 
visit the' patient, to whom he alone has the power to give 
permission for that purpose. He fixes the day for her 
discharge when cured, and grants the requisite certificate. 
No stranger out of mere curiosity is permitted to have 
access to the patient; and whenever permission is consi- 
dered necessary, the visitor must be accompanied by the 
doctor or his assistant, and by one of the officials of the 

The entire management of the establishment is under the 
immediate authority of the medical stafi*; and when I state, 
for the information of English medical men, that 'in my 
time the two most celebrated writers on mental diseases, — 
Pinel * and Esquirol — were* the physicians at the head of the 
Salp6tri5re, they may conclude with me that so important 

* The first indication of this eminent man's abilities, before he burst on the 
scientific world with his great philosophical work on mental diseases, was a 
memoir in an obscure journal, in which he treated of what has been caUed 
^^intermittent mania." 

LA SALPjfeTRlEfiE. 93 

and intetesting an establishment could not have been placed 
in better hands. So thought my noble and very learned 
companion, who thanked and congratulated most cordially 
the two eminent doctors who had just before joined us, and 
we both returned home pleased, though not a little tired 
with a four hours' visit. 

Lord EUenborough having expressed a great wish to 
possess some of the statistics which the physicians had 
quoted to us regarding the number of insane women treated 
in the establishment in the current year, I was able to 
procure them for him by the following morning, and from 
the most authentic source ; for happening to be invited to 
dine with the Minister of the Interior, M. Laind, that 
same evening, and having related to him the particulars of 
Qur visit to La Salpdtriere in the morning, his excellency, 
in whose department were all the public hospitals, afiForded 
me the means of obtaining the desired information. 

Meeting Pinel two days afterwards, I informed him of the 
returns I had obtained at M. Lain^'s office, and in refer- 
ence to the causes of insanity, he observed that the malady 
very often baffles the most ingenious or subtle interpre- 
tation of the best and most experienced practitioner. 
" For example," he said, " until the last three years I could 
have shown you at Charenton a patient who was at one 
time a very popular, but who soon became an infamous, 
character by his writings : I allude to M. de Saade, the 
author of one of the most atrocious books which the licence 
of the press in Republican times in France could belch out 
in the midst of a dissolute population. He soon after 
became a confirmed and miserable maniac, often con- 
demned to the cells for ftirious maniacs. He was a monster 
of libertinism; and nothing that ancient history or the 
records of more modern times have mentioned, can be 
compared with the atrocities of this wretched man, who, in 




a novel, the name of which I will not even mention, has 
left behind him the blackest traces of his infamy. He died 
three years ago in Charenton, despised by the good, and 
even more hated by the wicked whom he had seduced into 

What could have been the original or immediate cause 
of this raging mania' in such a case ? I asked the Lord 
Chief Justice a short time after if he could throw light on 
it. But my lord had other ideas in his head just then. He 
had a great wish, which he had communicated to me on 
his first arrival in Paris (a natural wish for one so 
highly placed in the law), to witness how criminal law was 
administered in France. He would much like to be present 
at a trial in a criminal court on some public or political 
subject that would remind him of the one he had lately 
presided over in the case of William Hone, the political 
libeller ; but it must be as a private, ordinary listener, and 
not in his more ostensible character, that he would request 
to be admitted. I mentioned to him that the admission to 
the court was free to the public, but that it would be neces- 
sary to apply to the proper quarter to secure a suitable 
place from which we should ' be able both to see and hear 
what was doing. This I undertook to execute, and by 
applying to the secretary of the President of the " Cour de 
Paris,' ' the required accommodation was secured in a part 
of the court whence we might be able to withdraw without 
remarks, should the trial last longer than we cared to. 

On the day I selected, two criminal trials were to take 
place, one of which (the second) was a political one, namely, 
the prosecution of a certain number of supposed conspi- 
rators against the Bourbon government, who were charged 
with being members of a secret society. We arrived at 
^the termination of the first case. The next cause was 


ushered in with pomp and solemnity. Gendarmes en- 
tered the court, escorting five prisoners, apparently of the 
artisan class, who took their places in the part assigned to 
defendants, and were ranged by an ofi&cial appointed for 
that purpose by the court, the members of which had 
retired for a short time. A great deal of bustle and talking 
pervaded the audience part, which was instantaneously 
checked on the re-appearance of the three judges. The 
trial then proceeded. Lord EUenborough was particularly 
attentive during the whole of these proceedings, which (he 
whispered to me) were " too fussy, and not so simple as in 
English law courts,^' a difference of action which he consi- 
dered as detracting fi^om the proper solemnity that ought 
always to prevail in a criminal court of justice. 

The present defendants were respectively asked their 
age, and whether they admitted the correctness of their 
names as read in the acte cPinstruction and the date of the 
arrest when assembled together in the same place at a 
particular date — all which line of interrogation appeared 
strange to my lord. However, he continued listening 
patiently to what was going on, which seemed a very long 
and tedious operation. Sometimes he would ask me to 
explain to him more clearly words that had fallen fi-om the 
Bench, but in general he comprehended fully what was 
going on, until we came to the cross-examination of one of 
the prisoners, who was supposed to have been the ring- 
leader of the gang. In defending him his advocate again 
inquired what his age was. " Twenty-four," was the reply. 
*' You lie,'^ interrupted one of the judges ; " you gave 
another age to the judge, therefore you lie ! " — " True, 
true," added the Procureur-g^n^ral. 

The cross-examination went on for a short time longer, 
when one of the prisoners, on some question being put to 
him, gave such an outspoken reply as seemed to shock the 


court. I could not well make out the real cause sufficiently 
to explain it to my friend, but the observation of the Presi- 
dent (after silence had been obtained) was too much for the 
patience of the stern EngUsh Chief Justice — " Quelle autre 
chose pouvez-vous attendre d'un pareil coquin? " * 

" No, no ! doctor, I really can't stand this ; pray get me 

away as quick as you can ! " And profiting by the hubbub 

in court, we descended our three steps into the audience 

part, struggled through the crowd, found our way to the 

I outward gate and into the carriage, and drove straight 

. home. Lord EUenborough expressing his wonder that such 

things could pass in a country which boasted of a Code 

I Napoleon. 

* " Wliat else can you expect from such a logue 1 " 



The Countess Romford — Her soirdesr— CuriouB calculation — ^The Abb6 Gr^goire 
—Anecdote of Laplace and Bonaparte — The Wellington Ball— Story of 
Morrison of piU celebrity — ^The Prince Regent's burgundy — Letter from 
Sir Joseph Banks — A note on Gout. 

I HAD the good fortune of an introduction to the distin- 
guished Countess Rumford, a lady who held in my time a 
marked station in Parisian society on account of her ante- 
cedents, her hel esprit^ and the graceful manner with which 
she received two or three times a week at her house, in the 
Rue d'Artois, a hmited number of the 6lite of the learned 
and scientific world, not unmixed often with some ot the 
members of the upper ten thousand. My contemporary 
visitors to Paris will admit the justness of my account when 
applied to the Countess Rumford. Twice a widow, and of 
what husbands ! First Lavoisier, the founder of philoso- 
phical French chemistry, and one of the victims of the 
republican guillotine. Secondly, Count Rumford, who turned 
his United States republicanism into Bavarian aristocracy, 
but who never ennobled himself more surely than when he 
instituted the perennial premium at the Royal Society of 
London for essays on light and heat, or when he founded 
the Royal Institution of Great Britain. The later title of 
Countess she bore with becoming modesty, but she was 
not angry at being called by many of her countrymen 
Madame Lavoisier. 

A sort of magnetic sjmnpathy, I may call it, attracted me 
to her ; the great diflference in our respective ages having 




much contributed to steady and maintain the sjmipathy 
which was soon established between us. She liked me 
because I had studied chemistry under the Lavoisian system ; 
she liked me still better because J could talk to her of that 
institution of which I had become a member two years 
before the death of her second husband, the founder. Her 
'* petits diners bourgeois," as she used to call them, some 
tete-i-tetey but oftener in company with one or two distin- 
guished men, were for me an intellectual treat. Here 
it was I met Grdgoire, the d^froqu^ f!v6que, so conspicuous 
in the revolutionary annals ; Roger-CoUard, Ch&teaubriand, 
and the Prince de Beauveau, father and son, scions of the 
oldest Gallic noblesse ^ the latter of whom I had the pleasure 
of receiving under my own roof in Grafton Street some years 

Madame de Rumford was one of the few Parisian ladies 
who tried to abolish the stupid French fashion of seating 
all the ladies round the room on fauteuils aiTanged in a line 
with the back to the wall, the gentlemen having to stand in 
\ front of those with whom they were acquainted and wished 
^ to address. In her inner salon the assembled guests, after 
having made their bow to the genial hostess, arranged 
themselves in groups or in pairs here and there or anywhere, 
whether on sofas or on chairs or jstanding. The conversa- 
tion assumed the appearance of being general, and this is 
what constitutes the charm of a veritable rSumon^ conver- 
sazione^ or tertulia^ and ought to be so of an Enghsh " at 
home." Of course all the lady guests were not blue, or 
given to learned disquisitions, but a few sang and played 
delightfully without formality or pretension. The countess 
did not admire the reciting or declamation of poems : she 
thought it had too much the appearance of a school distri- 
bution of prizes. She deemed general and miscellaneous 
interchange of thought far preferable. 






To one of these soirees Mr. Hamilton and his brother, 
the Rev. Anthony Hamilton, were asked, both happen- 
ing to be in Paris at the time, but neither had been able to 
be present. The countess was very desirous of making 
their acquaintance. She therefore wrote me the following 
note : — 

« Jeudi 17. 

" J'espfere, cher monsieur, que vous aurez oflFert mes 
regrets ^ M. Hamilton pour mardi dernier. Si la tr^s- 
petite soiree que vous m'avez donn6 ne vous a point ennuy^, 
je serai charm^e de vous recevoir demain, vendredi, k la 
meme heure que mardi, et je desire que Messieurs Hamilton 
me procurent le plaisir de faire la connaissance de Tun 
d'eux, et de continuer celle de Tautre. La Fete du Due de 
WeUington * vous laisse la liberty de votre premiere soir^. 
La beaut6 de Tassemblee ne sera que vers minuit. Je 
montrerai & M. Hamilton les paquets qu'il m'a promis de 
porter ^ Lady Davy. Bonjour. 

*' C^^- DE EUMFORD." 

This soiree turned out to be a very select one, and my 
two friends had an opportunity of making acquaintance 
with some of the leading members of Parisian society. The 
absorbing topic of conversation was one brought forward 
by the ex-Bishop Gr^goire' relative to the voyage of dis- 
covery just completed by the French corvette, the Urarde^ 
commanded by Captain Freycinet, the particulars of which 
it was expected would be communicated to the Royal Aca- 
demy of Sciences, alias the "Institute' The objects of 
natural history collected during the voyage in the South 
Seas were, observed M. Gr^goire, not only numerous, but 
in many instances extraordinary. To this announcement I 

* She alluded to a grand liTall which the Duke of Wellington gave to the 
heau monde of every nation then in Paris. 

H 2 


was enabled to mention a parallel, one contained in a letter 
from Captain William Scoresby, with whom I had the 
honour of being acquainted, who during his voyage in the 
North Seas had discovered floating on the surface of still 
water, certain animalculse consisting of a transparent sub- 
stance of a lemon colour and of globular form, some ap- 
pearing to have very little motion, while others were ^n 
constant action. The water had the appearance of being 
sprinkled over in parts with a mixture of flour and mustard. 
In a single drop of still water, taken promiscuously from 
the surface of the sea, about 26,450 of these animalculae 
were calculated to be present from observations made with 
a powerful magnifying glass upon a single fraction of that 
drop. Now, reckoning sixty drops to a drachm 'of water, 
there would be in one gallon of the water a number exceed- 
ing by one-half the amount of the population of the whole 
globe. At this statement the company started. " But," 
said I, " there is in Captain Scoresby's account a still more 
curious statement concerning the progressive motion of these 
microscopical organized beings, which he found to be about 
an inch in three minutes. Now ornithologists tell us that 
the condor, or the great vulture of the Andes, could fly round 
the globe at the equator, assisted by a favourable gale, in 
about a week. These animalculae could not, in still water, 
accomplish the same distance in less than 8,935 years." 

The ex-Bishop Gr^goire had been a fi-iend of Lavoisier, 
and had taken a great part in the successive revolutionary 
governments that had ruled France. At the time I first 
met him we were carrying on warm discussions with Talley- 
rand respecting the restitution of the objects of Fine Art 
to Italy, and the bishop agreed that their proper home was 
the country from which they were taken, as being the only 
place worthy to possess them ; for, he added, "we in this 
country are not deserving of them. When I was in power 

ABBli GR^QOIRE. 101 

in 1793, I was shocked, in common with the few remaining 
.friends of public instruction, at the acts of devastation com- 
mitted by our mobs and others against the monuments of 
science and the arts. I therefore moved in the Assembl^e 
Constituante a decree of two years' imprisonment against 
any person found to injure or degrade, either through 
ignorance, barbarism, or wilfulness, any object connected 
with the Arts and Sciences, which decree was carried." 

With the ci'devant bishop I had had a short intercourse 
by letter through a mutual friend, himself one of the lead- 
ing characters in the early period of the great revolution. 
I allude to Citoyen Prieur,* a staunch and good republican. 
I forget at this moment what the " ^crit *' was to which the 
good bishop alludes, but here is the letter, written in a firm 
hand, distinct, and showing only a slight token of distrac 
tion (not surprising in an old man) in the omission of the 
first half of the word scmvenir : — 

"Paris. 29 Mai, 1815. 

" Monsieur, — J'ai regu avec reconnaissance, et lu avec 
un vif int^rSt, T^crit que M. Prieur m'a remis de votre part. 
Le venir de votre bienveillance en double le prix. A la 
premiere entrevueje vous sousmettrais quelques observa- 
tions ; et agr^ez, monsieur, mes justes et sinc^res remerci- 
ments, que je me propose de vous r^it^rer incessamment de 
vive voix. 

"Gr4goire, Eveque."t 

* Distinct from another Prieur de la Mdme. The present was member, 
with Canot, of that branch of the Comit6 du Salut Publique which had to 
provide the arms for the army and] superintend aU objects of art and 

f << I received with gratitude and read with great interest the essay which M. 
Prieur gave me from you. The recoUection of your courtesy enhances its 
value. At our first meeting I will submit to you some observations I have 
made, and beg you to accept my sincere thanks, wluch I trust soon to offer to 
you in person." 


This remarkable character, better known under the name 
of " I'Abb^ Gr^goire," was considered a great metaphysician 
and a femous pi^acher. He was originally professor of 
moral philosophy, and has written many essays against the 
theists and " Les Esprits Forts." His conversation was 
pleasing and fluent, but I doubt very much whether his 
erudition was as profound as his loquacity was redundant. 

At the countess's soirie to which I had introduced Mr. 
Hamilton, little more of importance was mooted, but as the 
Cent Jours had been referred to, which had only recently 
terminated, some one introduced the story of what had 
occurred to Bonaparte when First Consul as regards the 
Institut, of which he was amember, as contrasted with his 
conduct after his return from Elba. The object of such a 
reference appeared to me to have been merely a desire to 
expose the cringing disposition of the savants to the- impe- 
rious First Consul in the person of the illustrioHS author of 
the " M^canique Celeste. "^ Bonaparte had been at college 
with Laplace, whom he liked and admired, and appointed 
Minister of Marine (a blunder soon to be rectified by dis- 
missal). Being made First Consul for life, Bonaparte paid 
a visit to the Institut, and happened to arrive at the end of 
a discussion on a paper that had just been read, but of 
the nature and aim of which he was entirely ignorant. 
He nevertheless demanded "la parole" to speak on the 
subject, though unprepared, unfit, and uncalled. Every one 
affected a studied attention ; many laughed in their sleeves ; 
but there were members who saw whither Bonaparte was 
leading — ^the summit of power, which be would not be long 
in attaining. These thought that no time should be lost 
in trying to gain his good graces. Among such members 
Laplace was a foremost one. As little informed as Bona- 
parte himself on the subject-matter of the paper, he declared 
that the First Consul was perfectly right in what he ad- 


vanced, and added that " Les id^es lumineuses du premier 
consul avaient jet^es un nouveau jour sur la question/' 
Most prolific words to Laplace of future results, as they 
made him a " grand cordon," a senator, a count, when his 
college friend had ascended the throne, to be deserted in 
the day of ill-luck. But when fortune brought back to his 
former splendour the deserted school-fellow, and as emperor 
he revisited his favourite Institut to shame the dastardly 
savants who had abandoned him, the. author of the " M6- 
canique Celeste," en grande terme^ his great star of the 
order (le crachat) on the right, according to a particular 
whim of his own, pushed himself forward among the most 
obsequious. One of the attendant ministers pointed out 
the peculiarity. " Oh '/' replied the emperor, "Monsieur 
le Comte Laplace est dans son droit. II a change son 
syst^me de circulation. U a le coeur k droite maintenant, 
au lieu de I'avoir k gauche.'' * 

At this the countess exclaimed, " Well, well, thus men 
of genius cringe before that great parvenu ; " for the lady 
was a determined anti-Bonapartist. 

The company separated. Those who had received invita- 
tions to the grand official ball of the Duke of Wellington 
found their way to it, reaching the duke's hotel in not less 
than two or three hours, the string of carriages extending 
in one direction to the Arc de Triomphe. I might as well 
have saved myself the trouble, for I could not reach beyond 
the first salon. Every part of the vast edifice was crowded, / 
and no chance of moving on. I very soon thought it would 
be as well to retire and return home, which I reached on 
foot at daybreak ; and all for the pleasure of being able to 
say " Yes " to the question every one of my acquaintances 

* " Count Laplace is pexfectlj right : he has changed his circulatory 
system. He has his heart on the right side now, instead of having it on 
the left" 



would ask me on the following day — " Were you at the 
duke's last night ? " 

Yet, after all, a ball with a great crowd and the 6lite of 
the society of Paris may always be collected by any one 
who has a long purse and a great wish to spend its con- 
tents. I need only refer, for an illustration of my opinion, 
to the triumphant success achieved in that line by the re- 
nowned inventor of " Morrison's Pills." This gentleman, 
who in the course of a few years, both m America and 
England, had amassed a fabulous fortune, and whose 
celebrity in London was at the time I speak of in its 
zenith, took it into his head to visit the French capital, 
and once in it, to wish to be introduced into the grand 
monde. The question was, how to accomplish this ? He 
had only his immense wealth to recommend him ; neither 
title, nor rank, nor any ostensible public employment to 
distinguish him. He was in despair, when a wag, well 
acquainted with the fantasies of Paris, suggested to him 
that he possessed the very best title for general acceptation, 
for he was a milUonaire. " Let it be but made known 
through the morning papers that Monsieur Morrison, * un 
millionnaire Anglo- Am^ricain,* had arrived in Paris, and in 
one day your name will be in the mouth of everybody. 

You next " "Oh! I see," interrupted Mr. Morrison. 

" Yes ! yes ! I next send out cards to all the grandees in 
Paris, dukes and duchesses, and noblemen of every degree, 
generals, admirals, ministers, and their ladies, savanis^ 
poets, literary characters, senators, and deputies — 'Mon- 
sieur and Madame Morrison request the honour of M, or 
N. (duke or duchess) at ten o'clock — but where am I to 
receive them ? " Mr. Morrison interrupted himself, " That 
is the question ! " 

"There is no difficulty about that," said the friendly 
counsellor. "Are you prepared to spend five thousand 

c« «.^^«,«^^,»« «*,*^" 


francs for the hire of a splendidly furnished hotel for three 
days, and three thousand more for . the hire of a suitable 
retinue of attendants, all dressed en habit noir et bien 
blancktSj together with about twenty-five thousand francs 
more for refreshments, besides handsome fees to the prin- 
cipal signori of the Italian Opera and of the Op^ra Comique 
with their conductors — in fact, are you ready and willing 
to spend fifty thousand francs on a Jete qm /era Spoque^ as 
we Parisians say?" 

" Quite ready," was the reply, " and delighted." Ac- 
cordingly the announcement of the arrival of Monsieur and 
Madame Morrison was inserted in all the morning and 
evening papers, and a grand hotel, entre cour et jardin, 
belonging to a nobleman, and well known for its splendid 
furniture and choice collection of pictures, was hired in the 
Faubourg St.-Germaih for three days, at the cost of five 
thousand francs. Two thousand -francs additional were 
stipulated for the large retinue of clever and imposing ser- 
vants in full evening dress, quite plain, as Mr. Morrison, in 
his character of a semi-United States man, could not have 
displayed Uveries without an anachronism. 

All the other preparations were made in proportion by 
the kind friend, and the cards sent out as arranged. Mr. 
and Mrs, Morrison knew very well that time must be given 
for people to accept invitations from a stranger, and that 
the intended guests would consult among themselves as to 
the propriety of accepting the invitation. He had there- 
fore fixed on the evening of a distant day in the following 
week, and most assuredly the interval was a period of no 
little perplexity to most of the invited. 

" But who is this Mr. Morrison ? " asked a great lady of 
her own kind doctor, well known in the world. " Indeed, 
madame, I could not tell you, except that he is said to be 
a millionaire ! " " Ma chere," inquired the husband of la 

» > 



Marquise de D., "do you mean to go?" "Certainly," 
she replied ; " the Duchesse de B. is going, and assures me 
everybody will be there ! " 

In another great family all hesitation was done away with 
by an assurance that at the English Embassy Mr. Morrison 
was considered xas a most clever as well as an exceedingly 
wealthy merchant. And so everybody determined to ac- 
cept. They replied accordingly, and sure enough never 
did the quiet and silent streets of the aristocrp^tic quartier 
of Paris present such an unprecedented and tremendous 
mass of smart carriages as conveyed the ilite of the elite of 
the high and fashionable society of Paris to the brilliant 
assembly of Mr. and Mrs. Morrison, both of whom did the 
honours of the evening admirably, especially the lady, who 
appeared perfectly qualified for her position, being both a 
handsome and a ladylike woman. 

At one o'clock in the morning a magnificent supper was 
served, following a most delightful concert, in which the 
best and united talents of the Italian and French operas 
achieved great success. At dawn of day the company 
began to disperse, and as each guest stepped into his or 
her carriage, he or she received a splendid enamelled 
card, with an inscription in French, which the increasing 
daylight enabled the curious to read — "M. Morrison 
remercie, and begs to recommend the never-failing vege- 
table pills sold at the Hygeian Temple, City Road, 

Incredulous readers of this droll story may refer for its 
truth to the Prefet de Police of the time, or to any sur- 
vivors among the employes of the British Embassy in Paris 
in the month of June, 1817. 

One very agreeable acquaintance I made about this time 
was Sir Charles Long, who, indeed, had joined the Ellen- 
borough party in many of our explorations. Sir Charles 

THE regent's burgundy. 107 

honoured me with a visit, having a particular object in 
view on account of the Prince Regent, to whose court he 
was attached, and in which he enjoyed special favour. 
As a mineralogist, it had happened to me to make the 
acquaintance shortly before of Sir Abraham Hume, who 
had a choice collection of minerals. At his house I had 
met Sir Charles, who had married Sir Abraham's only 
daughter and heiress. Sir Charles being commissioned to 
execute in Paris a simple homely commissfon for Carlton 
House, was sent to me by Sir Abraham, and I felt too 
h^ppy in the opportunity of being of essential service in 
enabling his son-in-law to accomplish his mission. It may 
raise a smile in such as peruse the following lines after 
having read this species of serious introduction, when I 
go on to say that Sir Charles, a man of the world and of 
talent, had come to Paris principally to secure the purchase 
of the captured emperor's precious collection of a certain 
exquisite burgundy, which gourmets who had frequently 
dined at the imperial table had extolled to the sky with so 
much pertinacity as to make the Prince of Wales very 
desirous to possess so delicious a wine. It was supposed 
by Sir Abraham that no person in Paris, taking an interest 
in English concerns, could better know how to help Sir 
Charles in his mission than the doctor. And so it turned 
out, for through the means of an Italian long connected 
with the cuisine of the late emperor, we were enabled to 
secure the whole quantity of the Clos de Vougedt left, 
which was forthwith transferred to the cellars of Carlton 
House. I heard a long time after, from Lord St. Helens, 
that the Regent had expressed himself much pleased at the 
slender service I had rendered on the occasion; that he 
enjoyed the Clos de Vouge6t much, which had cost £10 
per dozen ; but that in a year or two the treacherous 
burgundy revolted at the triste and sad climate of Great 



Britain, by becoming spoilt and good for nothing, as all 
Burgundy wines will do. 

I have mentioned this trivial fact because it procured me 
a most agree2|,ble connection with Sir Charles Long, who 
some time after consented to be godfather to my fourth son 
Walter, lately Consulting Architect to the Government of 
India, and Architect to the Government of Bengal** 

In a short time Su: Charles Long became a peer, and 
under the title of Lord Farnborough frequently invited me 
to his delicious Tusculum at Bromley, near London. Here 
I had on more than one occasion the satisfaction of looking 
through a pane of purest white crystal — in a gilt frame 
occupying the lower half of a wide window, so as to have 
the semblance of a picture — at one of the most lovely 
landscapes my eyes have ever beheld. 

At the commencement of my voluntary duty as a reporter 
of the proceedings of the Institute of France to our 
journal of science published by Brande, which reports 
formed not the least important portion of each number of 
that journal, I knew almost all the members by name, and 
many of them personally, with whom I used to converse 
during the day meetings. Being desirous, however, to be- 
come more intimately acquainted with the most eminent of 
,those members, to a few only of whom I was well known, 
I requested Baron Humboldt to introduce me to some I 
named. It was settled in consequence that my object 
should be carried out at the approaching annual assembling 
of the classes of sciences at the Institute, which was to take 

* [ThiB son, Walter Long, was educated at St Paul's School, and afterwards 
received his professional education in Paris and London. He resided in India, 
chiefly in Calcutta, for more than twelve years, where his services were 
engaged for the purpose of designing and constructing the large public 
buildings required by the government. Retiring from his profession on his 
return to England in 1870, he only survived his father one year and ten 
months, dying suddenly in the prime of life, of disease of the heart, January 
10th, 1874, beloved, esteemed, and regretted by all who knew him. — Ed.] 


place in the following week, but a day or 'two beiore I 
received the following note from the baron : — 

" Cher Monsieur, — La stance de la classe des sciences 
de rinstitut a 6t6 transfiSr^e de lundi h, mardi, h, cause de la 
fete. Comme vous d^sirez Stre pr^sent^ Jt quelques savants 
illustres de cette capitale, je vous propose de passer chez 
moi, non k midi, mais vers les deux heures. ' Je vous prie 
d'agr^er Texpression de ma haute consideration. 

-" Humboldt. 

"Ce Mardi. Quai Malaquais, No. 3."* 

With the personal acquaintance of those to whom the 
baron introduced me, and the few I knew intimately already, 
from having studied under them, I was enabled to enter 
more earnestly into the consideration of the actual scientific 
world and its doings in Paris, and of representing it 
accurately as well as correctly to the readers of the journal 
of the Royal Institution. Liberal, and even prodigal, as 
I had been for many months in my communications of 
scientific and literary news sent home, I did not meet in 
return with much alacrity on their part in keeping me au 
fait with what transpired in science in the United Kingdom. 
It was from the fountain-head of science itself, the venerable 
President of the Royal Society, Sir Joseph Banks (who had 
always permitted me to call him my friend), that I received 
the first glimpse of scientific and medical information in the 
following letter : — 

" Soho Square. July 23rd, 1817. 

^* My dear Sir, — In these times of vacation you will, I 
trust, be contented with the small proportion of novelty 
that presents itself. Science is, I trust, at work, but it 
works like a mole out of sight, and will not bring to light 

* '^ The meeting of the science class at the Institute has been postponed 
from Monday to Tuesday, in consequence of the fete. As you are desirous of 
becoming acquainted with some of the most illustrious savants of this capital, 
I propose that you conic to me, not at twelve, but about two o'clock." 



its performances till the Society will meet again. I have, 
however, great pleasure in stating that our Astronomer 
\ Royal has, by an ingenious application of a fixed telescope, 
settled, I trust effectually, the question that was lately set 
afloat by Doctor Brinkley, who supposed that he had been 
able to observe a parallax in some of the larger of the fixed 
stars. This Mr. Pond considers as erroneous, for although 
his apparatus is far better contrived for observing minute 
differences than that of Doctor Brinkley, he is utterly unable 
to distinguish anything that can give suspicions even of 
any parallax being observable. He has given a set of 
observations on this head to the Royal Society, which will 
be continued till the paper must of necessity go to press, 
so that I consider the question is entirely settled, and the 
fact of no parallax reinstated in its ancient place. 

'' I have just taken a step in medicine that has given mc 
great pleasure, after having for several years almost existed 
by means of the Eau d'Husson, which never failed to 
relieve me fi:om the gout, although the returns were at one 
time not more than thirteen or fourteen days asunder. I 
have discharged my last attack on Sunday last by the use 
of the vinum colchi, as it is prepared at St. George's 
Hospital, which mode of preparation destroys the mis- 
chievous power of the colchicum, leaving it power to 
destroy the gout itself. The rationale of the process has 
been read at the Royal Society by Sir Everard Home, and 
will be included in the next volume of the Transactions. 
Eau d'Husson never failed to remove my gout ; but this 
new medicine has acted with still greater energy, and with 
most perfect effect. I am better as I now write, better than 
I could write for some years, and I feel pleasure indescrib- 
able in the share I have had in placing in the hands of the 
medical faculty the certain means of relieving their patients 
from the most painful disease they had to encounter, as 


EAU d'hUSSON. Ill 



well as the most unprofitable. Let the gout be no longer 
called the opprobrium medicorum. Adieu, 

" My dear Sir, 

" Very faithfully yours, 

" J. Banks.* 
" P.S. — Allow me to request the favour of you to forward 
the enclosed to Signer Capini at Milan." 

Part of Sir Walter Farquhar's plan was that I should 
come to London to attend a course of lectures by Mr. 
Clarke, that I might learn the English peculiarities of the 
office of accoucheur where they differ from the French 
practice. I was just now at the end of all the courses of 
my Paris lectures, and therefore the time had come for 
me to cross over to complete the entire programme I had 
promised to follow with a view to secure a suitable as well 
as a reputable station in the capital. 

* I recoUect weU the time when people suffering from gout used to fly 
to the French quack medicine,*which, being a sedative, diminished the present 
pain at the expense of a more frequent repetition of the gouty- attacks. Nor 
have I forgotten that the recommendation of a London general practitioner, 
who pretended to have ascertained that the basis of the Eau d'Husson was the 
seeds or the expressed juice of the autumnal meadow safi&on, brought into 
vogue the infusion of that herb in sherry to mitigate the paroxysm of gout. Sir 
Everard Home, himself a great sufferer, was the first to adopt and eulogize 
colchicum. Next foUowed my exceUent correspondent, who like his adviser, > 

Sir Everard, Sir Qore Ouseley, Hugh Duke of Northumberland, and many 
more I could name (great partisans of the d'Husson, and afterwards of the 
colchicum), died worn out by the increased reiteration of their attacks and tlie 
imperfect manner each paroxysm was suspended by the remedy, so that both 
feet and hands had in* all those instances become monstrosities. Good Sir 
Joseph only survived three years after his psean over d'Husson and colchicum ! 
No ! gout is stiU the opprobrium medkorum ; and so are many other disorders. 

> f 






ViBit London to attend Dr. Clarke's lectures — Pass an examination before the 
Royal College of Physicians — Elected member of the Royal Society — 
Return to France — ^Farewell to friends in Paris — Humboldt's sketch of 
Cuvier — Cuvier's yanity — Arrive " too late " in London — Death of Prin- 
cess Charlotte — Elected physician accoucheur to a dispensary — In Savile 
Row — The first case — ^A physician's attire — ^A professional incident 

Upon my arrival in London I disposed of my little house 
at Brompton, which was still tenanted by my friend 
Pistrucci, and purchased the remainder of the lease of a 
house, No. 8, Savile Row, to commence on the 1st of 
January, 1818, with liberty to put in furniture a few days 
previously. Clarke's lectures, which occupied me about six 
weeks, certainly placed the matter of my intended profession 
in a different light from the French system as regards pro- 
priety and manner, respecting which, nevertheless, I soon 
discovered that I could make ftirther improvements. Still 
Mr. Clarke did me good service, and Anglicized me to 
perfection ; but I got nothing superior to what I had learned 
where I had come from as regards judgment, dexterity, 
delicacy of action, and firmness of nerves, and furthermore 
as to the mode of getting out of unexpected difficulties. 

The next step I had to take was to submit for three days 
to a medical, anatomical, a^d physiological examination 
before the president and censors of the Royal College of 
Physicians, whose home was in an old edifice in the City. 
The president was Doctor John Latham (I know not 
whether the father or grandfather of the present excellent 


physician of that name), and my friend Dr. Paris, whose 
assistant I had been years before at the Westminster Hos- 
pital, was one of the censors or examiners. The examina- 
tion took place in the Latin language. I remember quite 
well having for companions two remarkable fellow candidates, 
namely, the surgeon who had received the last words and 
sigh of Nelson on board the Vtctory^ and a- Doctor Arm- 
strong, author of a treatise on fever which had created quite 
a fiirore among the profession, and had secured an enormous 
practice to its author, for which latter reason he was pulled 
up by the censors and made to come before them for his 
licence. He was however rejected, not from malice, I am 
quite sure, not because he was almost entirely ignorant of 
the Latin language, but really and truly because, however 
successful he may have been in his practice, he appeared to be 
very deficient in his knowledge of anatomy and physiology. 
Doctor Paris told me some time after, that Doctor Armstrong 
had failed to answer almost every question as regards the 
internal organization and functions of the body, although 
they patiently waited a considerable time after every ques- 
tion. " At last," said Dr. Paris, " I thought of one of the 
simplest possible questions that should give him a chance to 
come ofi* well, and so I asked * Die mihi, domine, ubi 
locatum est hepar V *In corpore, domine,' was the imme- 
diate reply ! (Where is the liver placed 1 In the body, 
sir.) "Satis est," exclaimed the president, "you may 
retire, sir," and he was accordingly not admitted. Can 
it be true ?* But Paris was a wag and a true Cantab of 
St. John's. 

Nelson's surgeon, however, passed, and became a M.D, ; 
and so did another naval surgeon at the same time, myself 

* Of the fact of his rejectioB, however, there was no doubt, at which aU the 
medical world stared. 



to wit, who did not require a diploma of M.D., as I had 
presented on my first application for admission a diploma 
from my own alma mater with such signatures as made 
them all . stare, being those of Scarpa, Rasori, Frank, 
Borda, Moscati, and Volta under the great sigillum of 
the Goddess of Liberty and the inscription of " Repubblica 

The next transaction of an equally satisfactory and flatter- 
ing issue followed not many days after, namely, my 
attendance at the apartments of the Royal Society in 
Somerset House. Before leaving Paris this last time I had 
heard that my name had been suspended for ballot as a 
fellow, and that the certificate bore some weighty names. 
I was not aware of any enemies among the Fellows, many 
of whom I knew had worked hard for me. I knew also that 
I had the good opinion of the venerable president ; I there- 
fore presented myself with Httle apprehension of the result 
of the ballot. Indeed, had I then seen, as I was permitted 
afterwards to see, the range of names subscribed to my 
certificate, I should not have entertained the smallest doubt 
of the success of the ballot. I may be excused, I hope, this 
bit of personal vanity if I exhibit the names of the friends 
who in my absence had arranged and brought to a success- 
' ful issue a movement in my favour of which I was not 
) aware till summoned for admission. Here is the copy of 
' the " Certificate in favour of Augustus Bozzi Granville, M.D., 
Foreign Secretary of the Geological Society, Fellow of the 
\ Linnean Society, and Member of the Royal College of 
; Surgeons, well versed in many branches of Science,'* &c., 
: &c. Signed Wm. Hamilton (Under Secretary of State for 
; Foreign Affairs), William Daniel, W. H. WoUaston, J. 
I McGregor, Wm. M. Leake, Thomas Young, M.D., Humphry 
I Davy, Gilbert Blane, J. Solly, P. M. Marcet, M.D., Henry 
^ Holland, M.D., Wm. Blake — being twelve of the Fellows 


who not only ruled but honoured the Society, and were 
justly deemed at that time the Principes Scientiarum. Alas ! 
eleven of these out of the total number of my supporters 
have preceded me into another and a better world. 

The issue of the ballot being known (for I insisted on 
being present as a visitor on the occasion) my name was 
called, and on my ascending the platform on which the 
president and the two secretaries sat, T was most courteously, 
and I am convinced most heartily, addressed by Sir Joseph 
Banks, who welcomed me among the fellows. Here again, 
as at the college in Warwick Lane, I paid my fifty pounds 
composition fee, and, loaded with professional honours, 
I retreated soon to recross the Channel and rejoin my 

In the course of the last few weeks of the concluding 
year I took leave of my kind French friends, learned and 
p others, for our domestic friends had gradually increased in 

number as we were almost considered. as natives, so quickly 
had father, mother, and three small children acclimated 
themselves to Paris,, its manners and language. I was 
rather surprised when the time came for bidding adieu 
to the acquaintances we had made during our sojourn in 
Paris of nineteen months, to find how large was the circle of 
such intimates as had interchanged domestic visits with us. 
My wife and I had been frequently invited to private parties 
as well as to dinners, which afforded us ample opportunities 
of becoming well acquainted with French domestic habits and 
ways of life,* which, although differing from our own English 
habits, were still generally agreeable. We more than once 
spent our evenings with Monsieur and Madame Arago at 
the Observatoire, of which he was the director, which afforded 
us occasions for surveying parts of the heavens or of scruti- 
nizing the surface of a full moon. My young wife had 
made herself agreeable to Madame Arago, with whom she 

I 2 


was a favourite. " Comme elle est aimable, cette jolie 
petite Anglaise ! " she used often to say. 

The last time I dined at the Observatoire, I met Baron 
Humboldt, one of Arago's most intimate friends. The con- 
versation was of course scientific, still lively, for both the 
baron and Arago were rather inclined to wit and humour. 
I however put in a word or two of serious conversation, by 
mentioning how much I had been delighted and instructed 
by the course of lectures given by Cuvier, and expressed 
regret that I did not possess a concise biography of the 
lecturer, which I could introduce into the account I might 
at some future period give of those admirable lectures to 
the English public. " Ne vous inqui^tez pas pour cela, 
cher dgcteur ; je serais charm6 de vous foumir une partie 
de tons les renseignements biographiques de mon ancien 
ami Cuvier, qui est presqu'Allemand.'*** 

Accordingly I received from him next day a short account, 
the translation of which I here insert : — " Baron Cuvier is 
a Protestant, born of respectable but obscure parents at 
Monlb^liard, a town in the Electorate of Wurtemburg at 
the time. He obtained a place in the Court College of 
Stuttgart, where he acquired that stiflf unbending manner 
which never left him ; for being accustomed to a long 
queue, powder, and a cocked hat, it was difficult for him to 
change. Here, having terminated his first studies, he 
required to Tubingen, to prosecute the study of natural 
history ; and it was at this university that bis inclination 
directed him to the study of comparative anatomy, in which 
he had the advantage of the lectures of Professor Killmayer, 
a man than whom no one enjoys a higher reputation as an 
accurate observer and good anatomist, though he has pub- 

* " Do not trouble about that, dear doctor ; I shall be channed to give you 
some biographical information concerning my old friend Cuvier, who is 
almost a Qerman/' 




lished but few things. His MSS., which circulate through 
the hands of his numerous and devoted pupils throughout 
Germany, have served to spread his name. Killmayer had 

fc worked on the moUuscae, for which purpose he made a 

voyage to Holland and to the Italian coasts. Cuvier, by a 
similarity of taste, followed greatly the bent of his master's 
studies and researches, and he has since been put in posses- 
sion of several memoirs on this interesting branch of natural 
history, for which the Germans have raised an outcry 
against him, adopting the words of a number of illiberal 
persons in France, who accuse him of appropriating to him- 
self researches not his own, but which accusation we are 
inclined to consider as unfounded. He may perchance have 
touched upon subjects in common with his old master, and 
become enriched with new and accurate ideas without having 

k copied him. At the fall of the terrorist's reign, Tessier, an 

agriculturist and a savant of mediocre merits, found him a 
preceptor in the family of a * cultivateur ' in Normandy, 
where he had resided some time, making occasional 
tours to the coast, whence he returned with new subjects of 

j inquiry. It was in this quality that he wrote his first essay 

which made him known to the public, *0n the Larynx, 
of Animals.' Propositions were made to him to become one 
of the assistants at the Jardin des Plantes, which place he 
accepted, and immediately filled. Here finding that a con- 
nection With political men was perhaps the only mode of 
getting on in the world, he turned a fierce republican — 
wrote, spoke, and preached the favourite principles of the 
day, and from that moment succeeded in coupling his 
scientific with his political career," &c. — From Baron 
Humboldt, Morin's Hotel, 19th November, 1816. Paris. 

I preferred to cite this brief, able, though laconic, account 
of the great naturalist of Wurtemburg from the pen of the 
great savant and philosopher of Prussia as I received 


it, the writer's sagacity and truth being guarantees of 
the reality of Cuvier's early career, which is after all 
what imports most to my readers as an indication of what 
Cuvier was to be. However, it is the case even with 
regard to a Cuvier to inquire, " Quel est le grand homme 
qui ix'a pas sa faiblesse ? ''* and Cuvier's vanity was 
his. I will cite one or two examples. I cannot vouch for 
the veracity of both, as I certainly was not present when 
the interview between Cuvier and the Prince Regent took 
place, but I can for the second, as an eye and ear witness. 
When Cuvier visited this country, he was of course received 
with the greatest kindness and empressement Much 
attention was paid to him by scientific men, and he was 
presented at Court. The prince, in his very affable manner, 
asked him if he had seen anything to interest him particu- 
larly in the way of public and private collections of scientific 
objects in London, and whether he were pleased with them, 
'* Assuredly, your Royal Highness,'' answered the professor, 
*' there is a great deal well worth seeing ; but it is a pity 
everything is not altogether in one and the same place as it 
is with us." "It is probably the ease with which you have 
formed a Louvre in France, that makes you think so. Mon- 
sieur le professeur," said the prince ; " but we do things 
differently in this country, and are none the worse for it." 
Here the great naturalist did not come out " best." 

On another occasion when Cuvier was driving with an 
acquaintance to a dinner party in the country, the subject of 
conversation fell upon the English orators in parliament. " I 
have heard the best," observed Cuvier, " though I arrived 
but three days before the end of the session," " And who do 
you consider the cleverest — the one who made most impres- 
sion on you ? " " Why, sir, I found Lord Grey's eloquence 
forcible, argumentative, terse, and to the point. Sir Samuel 

• " Wliat great man but has hia weakneas ?" 

cuvier's vanity. 119 

Romilly pleased me greatly: he has a fine presence, good 
action, and a pleasing voice. Of Sir Francis Burdett I 
hardly know what to say, but the man I think the most o^ 
in every particular, is Canning," and he proceeded with a 
magnificent eulogium on Mr. Canning's eloquence ; then all 
at once he asked, " Did you ever hear me in the Chamber?" 
pulling up the corner of his shirt collar. " Never." " Tant 
pis " (so much the worse), was the reply. 

As I had attended all the lectures necessary to qualify me 
to apply for admission as a doctor of medicine^ and also as 
Docteur des Sciences, after proper examination, it was 
expected by the professors both of the Ecole de M^decine 
and at the Jardin des Plantes that I would avail myself of 
the privilege, and they hailed, as they told me, the occasion 
of receiving me as their colleague. But I respectfully 
declined to enter into more engagements with corporate 
bodies than I was already bound to in many ways and in 
more than one country. At the same time I expressed a 
wish to receive from each of my professors who should deem 
me worthy of it, a written declaration of the individual 
estimation they felt disposed to give me of my attainments 
and qualifications. Nearly all the professors and distin- 
guished philosophers accordingly sent me attestations of 
, their esteem and opinion during my career while in Paris ; 
and the history of the destiny of some of those, to me, 
precious documents, through the oblique morality of a late 
illustrious Lord Chancellor and philosopher, will appear 
singular when divulged in a future part of my present 

It was arranged between my wife and me, that with our 
little daughter Julia I should proceed to London, to get our 
new house in Savile Row ready, and that mamma and the 
two younger children should soon follow, so as to be a\\ 
reunited again in old England on a given day, the 1st of 


January, 1818. I had quite determined that, D.V., on the 
night of the Slst December I would sleep under what I 
might properly call my own roof, and wake to the light of 
day on the 1st of January, 1818, which was to be, as the 
Romans used to say to one another, " Annum novum 
faustum felicem mihi" — the commencement of the great 
venture, the attempt to settle in practice in the great 
metropoUs of England. 

Again my connection with the Foreign Office and diplo- 
macy enabled me to take charge of some important despatches 
Sir Charles Stuart had to send home, not one of the King's 
Messengers happening to be at hand. The bags therefore 
were intrusted to me, and with these, and my dear little 
Julia, I set off from Paris on the night of the sixth of Novem- 
ber, 1817. It was with much pain I parted from my favourite 
eldest sister, Madame de Lafolie, for I had noticed the very 
uncertain state of her husband's health, suffering as he was 
from disease of the heart; but I tried to comfort her with 
assurances of my constant brotherly affection, and promises 
to help her should she require aid and I possessed the 
means of giving it — two coincidences which Providence 
permitted to come to pass. 

The crossing was prosperous. At the Ship Inn at Dover, 
my old shipmate, Mr. Wright, gave us some refreshment 
while the chaise was being got ready, and we galloped off 
soon after. Arriving at the last turnpike at the dawn of 
day of the 7th November, while the toll for the four horses 
was being paid, the toll-keeper said, " I suppose you have 
learned on the road the dreadful news?" "What? the 
Princess?" said I unconsciously. "Yes! Dead! Died 
last night in childbed.'' " Too late ! too late ! " I 
involuntarily exclaimed as we drove off. " You need not 
gallop," I called out to the postillions. My little daughter, 
who had been startled out of her sleep at the turnpike, now 


inquired why it was too late, and appeared inclined to. sob ; 
but I soon quieted her by saying we should Tsoon be home, 
and not too late. 

The soliloquy, " Too late ! too late ! " was addressed to 
my own preBumptuous spirit alone. In the course of the 
afternoon of the 6th of November, an evening paper had 
fallen under my notice at Dover, which I bought and took 
with me, and in which I found a paragraph giving an 
account of the dangerous state of Princess Charlotte, in 
consequence of some unforeseen difficulty that had arisen 
which baffled the skill of Sir Richard Croft, her attendant, 
and had rendered necessary further aid, but unfortunately 
aid sought from a practitioner. Dr. Sims, who no doubt was 
called in for his great seniority, and not from his adroitness 
in difficult cases. For how could such be expected from a 
man who had arrived at- a patriarchal age ? Here was a 
case calling for prompt manual dexterity, which the old 
physician had lost along with his youth and vigour, and for 
this reason (applicable equally to the former attendant. Sir 
Richard Croft) two most precious lives were left in jeopardy, 
looking in vain for help. Now, such cases were precisely 
those amidst which I had been practising for so many 
months ; difficulties perilous always, but to be overcome by 
agile and bold interference. Repeated experience gives 
both those faculties to the practitioner, and such was the 
case with myself, who after all the difficulties I had con- 
fronted in the great lying-in hospital in Paris, felt that no 
case could ever present itself which I was not prepared for. 
That the case of the ill-fated princess was one of this 
nature, as I had conjectured, was afterwards asserted by Sir 
Richard Croft's medical assistant. Dr. Herbert, a young prac- 
titioner who was present (as I was informed) in the house, 
though not employed on the occasion. I had therefore, and 
in reality, been " too late ! " Had I arrived (thus reasoned 


my presumptuous spirit), had I arrived one day sooner, Sir 
Walter Farquhar, as physician to the Prince Regent, would 
have recommended that a medical man fresh from a Paris 
lying-in hospital should be called in. The diflSculty once over- 
come that threatened two lives, and these saved, the British 
crown might have descended on a dififerent head. Never 
could it have been worn by one more fitted to fill the 
exalted station than the august lady who now wears that 
crown, only my own fate would have been different, for I 
should have filled the oflfice which fell instead on a brother 
naval officer of mine, the late Sir James Clark, Bt. 

" Pity you did not arrive sooner," was my first greeting 
from Sir Walter Farquhar as I entered his drawing-room, 
where his unmarried daughter, with Mr. Chilver, the 
apothecary, and Sir William Knighton, physician to the 
Prince Regent, were present and re-echoed the observation. 
But I found Sir Walter himself very far from the state of 
health which could satisfy an anxious, friendly, and keen^ 
sighted pathologist. In fact, he was fast verging to that 
state which I described in these pages on my first introduc- 
. tion to him, and the realization of which was now actually 
taking place. I at once ofiered my services, and to take 
my turn to attend upon him, whether by night or by day. 

By the end of December my wife and children were to 
come from Paris to Savile Row. As usual with all English 
workpeople, when they say they have nearly done they are 
only on the eve of postponing the end. Afler a few days, 
seeing what the result would be, I was actually reduced to 
expel them and retake possession of the house furnished or 
unfurnished, for I had quite made up my mind, as I have 
already said, that the first day of the new year should see 
me in my own home. 

During the interval between my arrival and that of my 
family from Paris, good luck offered me an unexpected 


opportunity of connecting myself with one of the first-class 
dispensaries in the west-end. In default of belonging to a 
general hospital, the position of physician accoucheur to a 
dispensary " for the delivery of married women at their 
own habitations " was considered by the profession^ as a 
very important one, as the contested election in which I 
found myself involved fully testified. Dr. Merriman, the 
physician who vacated the office after many years' gra- 
tuitous service, never imagined that any competitor would 
arise to oppose his own protSgS^ assistant, and pupil. Doctor 
Hugh Ley ; still less that a new man firom abroad, un- 
known and a foreigner (for that was the point made most of 
against me), would thus venture to contest the election. Yet 
I did venture to contest it, and carried it by a majority of 
forty-five votes. On this occasion, all the EngUsh ac- 
quaintances I had made in Paris rallied round me and 
canvassed ' for me. Sir Joseph Banks, living and greatly 
esteemed in the very quarter of the town in which the 
dispensary was instituted, and of which he was a life 
governor, not only obtained a good number of single votes 
from the subscribers in the neighbourhood, but went himself 
to vote in person, the chairman going down to his carriage 
to receive his ten votes, as the gout prevented him from 
walking up stairs to the committee-room. The Ellenborough 
family had secured me the aid and advice, as well as the 
votes, of Sir Richard Bimie, the chief police magistrate, who 
in his turn got me the ten proxy votes of the Duke of York. 
Sir Walter Farquhar applied for the Prince Regent's (patron 
of the dispensary) twenty-five votes. Sir Charles Long 
and others, with some members of the Hamilton family, 
became life governors on the occasion, to enable them to 
give their personal votes in my favour. Still, the single 
votes of the dwellers round the neighbourhood and fi'om 
the subscribers came pouring into the committee-room, as I 



could see through the windows when they alighted from 
their conveyaixces. At length the stroke of 4 p.m. arrived, 
when Sir Richard Birnie from the chair declared the ballot 
closed, and invited the two candidates to produce and 
deposit on the table the respective proxy votes they had 
collected. At that very moment a small packet was put ' 
into my hand with the name of " Northumberland " signed 
in the left angle of the packet. His grace was the president 
of the institution, and his were twenty proxy votes. These 
I added to my other packets, and the whole of them were 
deposited before the chairman. The scrutineers, who had 
retired into an adjoining room, soon returned with their 
report. " Doctor Hugh Ley, 423 votes ; Doctor Granville, 
422." Sir Richard then proceeded to open the proxy 
papers, and dictated to the secretary the numbers of votes 
in each paper on either side, and these being afterwards 
summed up by the secretary, and verified by the chairman 
himself (in the presence of a large meeting of subscribers, 
who filled the room), gave a majority of forty-five votes in 
my favour, in consequence of which Sir Richard rose and 
proclaimed me to be duly decided " Physician Accoucheur 
to the Westminster General Dispensary." This result I set 
down as a good omen for the future. 

*'Is this what you call being ready?" exclaimed my 
good wife in mild but astonished accents when, arrived 
with her two small children and their French nurse in 
Savile Row, she surveyed all round the state of confusion I 
was in, without a single article of furniture in its right place. 
I wished to merit the reputation of a real man of business, 
and was determined to be at my post on the first day of the 
year ; so after tea, and desiring the footman to see to the 
resplendent lamp 1 had set up over the street door, that my 
name in large letters on a brass plate, and the smaller one, 
" night bell," might appear conspicuously (there was no gas 


in those days), we retired for the night — ^to rest I can 
hardly call it. 

It might have been about three or four o'clock in the 
morning, when a terrible rat-a-tat at the door and a strong 
pull at the " night bell " startled us all. " Here is the first 
case," I said laughingly to my wife, at the same time starting 
to my feet, for I had lain down with only my coat off. I 
threw up the window-sash and demanded, " Who is there? " 
" Oh, sir,"' was the answer, " I wish you would come at 
once to my wife. Mr. Stone, her doctor, is out of town, 
and Mr. Clarke, who recommended him to us, at whose 
house I have just called, refuses to go out at night to any 
patient, and I fear there is no time to lose ; so pray do 
come, sir, for God's sake ! " " And where do you live, and 
what is your name ? " "My name is Wagner, the hatter 
in Pall Mall, No. 15, and I voted for you at the Westminster 
Dispensary last week." " Enough ; I'll follow you imme- 
diately," I cried, as I closed the window. 

I did so, arriving almost as soon as the man himself. I 
attended to the lady, and after remaining a certain time, 
was about to leave, with a promise to visit the patient again 
at noon, when I supposed that Mr. Stone would resume the 
charge of his patient. " No, no," said the lady in a sub- 
dued, feeble voice ; " I will never see Mr. Stone again, nor 
Mr. Clarke either, who sent him. The one goes away and 
leaves me, and the other, who has attended me before, 
refuses to get out of bed to come to me. I will never see 
them again. You must return." The husband thought 
she was right, and I acquiesced. " That is blunder number 
one," exclaimed Sir Walter Farquhar to me when I re- 
ported to him the story of the previous night. " You should 
have insisted on Stone being kept in charge of the patient, 
and made over to him whatever fee yoii received. I tell 
X you, doctor, you must be careful not to commit yourself 


again in the same manner. Mr. Stone will from this 
moment hate you ! " Sir Walter was right. I do not say 
that Stone hated me, but he certainly did not love me. 

In spite of all the promising preludes to my practice, I 
confess to a degree of moral trepidation which I experienced 
at contemplating the vast field before me, over which I 
should have to tread cautiously and slowly (probably more 
slowly than I should quite like), considering what I was 
hoping and expecting to achieve in order to secure a perma- 
nent and sufficiently lucrative position in the great metro- 
polis of the most renowned kingdom in Europe, the seat of 
learning, of wealth, popular liberty, and the best-adjusted 
government on earth. Of the large number of competitors 
I had to meet in the race I was well aware ; nor was I 
ignorant of the great weight of their names and authority 
in society. I did not profess to confine myself to the 
obstetrical branch alone of the profession ; but I aimed, as 
by right entitled, to concur with them in the more elevated 
branch of a consulting physician, thus by one single declara- 
tion ranging against me an overawing phalanx of hostile 
competitors. For, disguise it as we may, it is pot the ele- 
vating of the science of medicine that is considered so much 
as the earning of money — the filthy lucre ; and therefore to 
eject any one that might attempt to interfere becomes an 
act of necessity. There were, to begin with, Matthew 
Baillie (himself a host), Warren, Pemberton, Babington, 
Maton, Halford, Bright, Chambers, Blane, and in my own 
particular branch, Croft, Sims, Knighton, Clarke, Merriman, 
Ramsbotham, and a troop of minor celebrities. They were 
one and all known to me, as they were, in fact, to the whole 
population of London. But to them I was an unknown 
cipher. How could I expect any important business to fall 
to my lot ? Yet the sequel of this narrative will show that 
I was wrong in my misgivings, and that my more sagacious 

A physician's attire. 127 

counsellor in Conduit Street was right in his prognostic of 
my success. Mrs. Wagner of Pall Mall was only the com- 
mencement of a list of engagements, some in and some out 
of town, and each case improying in importance and re- 

I had overheard in the course of this increasing connec- 
tion, people, especially husbands and fathers, making.' 
remarks as to my age and youthful appearance. I was not 
descended from the consular family of the Barbati of Rome, 
and my cheeks were very smooth. I had, however, from 
the very commencement of my practice taken care to assume 
the garb of a much older person, by adopting the dress I saw 
Sir Henry Halford, Dr. Latham, and other popular physicians 
wear, at which the sprightly M.P.s of the present day would 
laugh indeed. Yet was that style not only in fashion then, 
but positively expected in a practising physician. So I 
donned a square- cut coat of black cloth, a single-breasted 
black cloth waistcoat, descending low down, showing off the 
well-starched fiill of an irreproachable white shirt, smalls 
with knee buckles, black silk stockings, and buckles in 
shining black narrow pumps. I did not adopt the gold- 
headed cane^ as well, but wore powder and a broad-brimmed 
hat, which completed the dress. It certainly added age to 
my appe?irance, and I was not long in getting used to it, as 
I had done to the more theatrical transformation in the 
Levant, when I assumed the Turkish vestments ; but oh ! 
how different, with the bother of buttons and buckles in the 
present instance ! Fortunately, the dons in physic whom I 
had taken for models soon swerved from the stiff practice, 
to become more modernized in their views, and I was not 
long in following their steps by adopting the more ordinary 
day garb of all gentlemen. 

My fee-book, which I set up along with my medical 
diary, was commencing to display a not inconsiderable list 


of showy names. The name of one flattered me greatly, 
though, after all, in my manner of attending her I com- 
mitted, as Sir Walter rather angrily observed to me, my 
second blunder. Viscountess Melbourne, mother of the 
afterwards renowned minister, had been in a.very dangerous 
state of health for some weeks, and was supposed to be 
dying. Application used to be made daily to Sir Walter 
for advice, he having been originally physician to the family. 
Dr. Warren was in attendance, and I believe a Mr. Jackson, 
a favourite apothecary of the day in the west-end. The coml- 
plaint had been represented variously to Sir Walter, and, puz- 
zled by the diverse accounts they brought him, he thought 
that by sending me to see her I might give him a more in- 
telligible report. Accordingly I walked to Melbourne House 
in Whitehall, the family being prepared for my visit, which 
occupied about half an hour. Putting in practice all the 
means of investigation necessary to ascertain the nature of 
a doubtful complaint, I discovered that the viscountess was 
in fact dying of an unchecked inflammation of the spleen, 
which was considerably enlarged, and exquisitely painful on 
the gentlest pressure. All the rest of the organs appeared 
normal, although there was present a considerable oppres- 
sion in breathing, natural enough considering the nature of 
the disorder. With all this there was present a continuous 
fever, which had never abated. The pulse was very rapid, 
and the radial artery round, full, and hard ; tongue of course 
dry and brown. I made other inquiries of her maid, as well 
as of Lady Caroline Lamb, who had been present during 
the examination, and who explained to me that the doctors 
in attendance had never gone through the same inquiries. 
I said nothing in answer, and very little when we returned 
to the drawing-room. I stated that I considered Lady 
Melbourne's life in danger, but thought not irremediably 50, 
especially after receiving from' the ladies negative answers 


to certain questions respecting the antecedent treatment. 
These answers were given more than once, and without 

It became clear to me, therefore, that no serious view 
had been taken of the disorder, and that consequently no 
energetic measures had been adopted. It is possible also, 
that the medical atfendants were awed by the age of the 
patient ; although I had myself discovered no signs of 
decrepitude. Pressed by the family to state what I should 
have recommended or deemed requisite to do at first, I 
excused myself by observing that it would be needless now 
to consider that point. What was of importance was to 
determine on the measures proper to be adopted at once, 
which I stated, though with regard to internal medicine I 
would not venture to suggest any without a previous con- 
sultation with Dr. Warren, the attendant physician of the 
patient, but who had not seen her for some hours, and was 
not likely to call before his usual hour on the following morn- 
ing. Lady Bessborough, who was present, at once suggested 
that I should go up to Brook Street to see Dr. Warren, and 
consult with him on the case. " My carriage," she added, 
** is at the door, and I shall be happy to accompany you, as 
you are not personally acquainted with Doctor Warren." 
I acceded immediately to the proposition, and we drove to 
Doctor Warren's house. 

By a curious coincidence a stranger was ensconced on one 
of the seats in the front part of the large coach, but him I 
did not observe, it being a dark night and after ten o'clock, 
and the conversation between Lady Bessborough and myself 
went on concerning the case. The present Dr. Kobert Lee of 
Savile Row was the person, and he may remember the 
fact. He occupied at that period of his life the post of 
domestic physician in the countess's family, having charge 
of a young son afflicted with epilepsy ; and he had been 





waiting in the carriage to return home with Lady Bess- 
borough after her visit to her mother in Whitehall. 

Upon sending up my card with a message to Dr. Warren, 
we received a reply that he could not be disturbed, and 
that he was indisposed; upon this Lady Bessborough 
walked up stairs to him, and he agreed to accompany her 
back to Melbourne House, where a consultation took place 
after he had been in to see his patient, whom he reported 
to be still in the same state as he had left her in the morn- 
ing—neither better nor worse ; in fax^t, he said " her crisis 
had not yet taken place." When I Expressed my opinion 
in a few words as to the nature of the complaint, alid the 
means which, after much pressure by the family, I had sug- 
gested — " a step," I added, " which I regret to have taken 
without previously conferring with you " — his curt observa- 
tion to me was, " Oh, there is no occasion for an apology, since 
I disagree entirely with your diagnosis, and of course shall 
not consent to the measures proposed." " In that case/' I 
said, " we need not prolong our interview ;" and making my 
bow to the ladies and to Dr. Warren, I found my way to the 
door, got into a hackney coach, and drove home. 
V Dr. Warren, I learned afterwards, made his observations 
on the nature of our meeting, and wrote a letter there and 
then to Sir Matthew Tiemey to meet him at Melbourne 
House the next morning at 12 o'clock, for a fresh consulta- 
tion on Lady Melbourne's case. Sir Matthew having at- 
tended her conjointly with Dr. Warren. Of course at the 
said consultation everjrthing that Dr. Warren had said and 
done was right, and whatever Dr. Granville had proposed 
would be deemed to be wrong and of no avail. Dr. Warren 
complained to Sir Walter Farquhar that he had sent a 
stranger and a foreign physician to visit his patient, and I 
got a good scolding for " blunder number two." 



Mrs. Siddons — Her insomnia — Practice at the Westminster General Dispensary 
— Reform the midwives— Annual reports— Proceed to Cambray — Mili- 
tary quarrels — Return home — ^The Due de Brancas— Death of Lord 
EUenborough — ^How to reconcile a large practice with absence from 
London — Illness of Lady EUenborough — ^A sojourn in Italy recom- 
mended — Pisa selected for the winter — Prepare for a trip as travelling 
physician— A suburban medical oracle. 

Shortly after the last professional incident a much more 
gratifying one came to pass, not only because the case in 
this instance terminated favourably, but because the patient 
was one with whom to be brought in contact in the character 
of physician and patient was in itself a distinguished honour. 
I allude to the tragic muse of one of our national theatres, 
the inimitable actress who, gifted with a splendid figure and 
a most commanding presence, had become an idol in the 
dramatic world. Received with the most cordial feelings 
night after night on the stage, her every step, her every 
action and eirfphatic diction called forth repeated acclama- 
tions of praise with plaudits the most earnest not less than 
the loudest. So surrounded, so popular, what must not 
have been the temptations which a treacherous world would 
be ready to throw in the way of their idol ? But she resisted 
them all, sustaining the still higher character of a model of 
domestic excellency as a dignified matron in society remark- 
able (as a French biographer said of her) " pour la dignitd 
de sa vie priv^e." Need I name Mrs. Siddons after such 
an introduction ? 

On the 2nd of May, 1818, a simple note with a few 

K 2 


lines from her, then residing on the south bonier of the 
Regent's Patk, signified her wish to consult me profes- 
sionally, a summons which I most cheerfully attended. 
Mrs. Siddons' indisposition waff one of that protean class 
of disorders which ordinary people call " nervous," and 
for which medical science offers but little direct relief, except 
as regards one of the prolific branches of the disprder in 
question, namely, a deranged state of digestion, or a tem- 
porary disturbance in the regularity of the heart's action. 
Any direct medication of the nerves themselves is not at- 
tainable, for they are only affected symptomatically, and 
symptoms cinnot be cured, though the disease they repre- 
sent can. My attendance on this gifted patient lasted some 
little time, but my visits, as in all cases of chronic indis- 
position, were not frequent, and our conversation turned 
principally on the nature of the morbid feelings she had 
experienced in the intervals, with the view of eliciting fresh 
information respecting their origin, or of discovering fresh 
reasons for becoming reconciled to them. 
- Fortunately disorders of this class are the exceptional, or I 
might say from natural laws the exclusive, lot of the culti- 
vated and easy classes of society, to whom alone medical 
explanations can be addressed with any success calculated 
to reconcile the patient to hia fate. If would be vain to 
allege physiological explanations to a boor to account for . 
his " feeling nervous," for such an expression is become 
almost vernacular in England. I have many a time, when 
treating patients differently placed in society, succeeded in 
gradually rendering them amenable, and finally converting 
some of them to my views, by simple, just, and plausible 
explanations. Sucli was the case in the present instance, 
and so fully did Mrs. Siddons see the logic of my reasoning, 
that at a somewhat later period of her life, when she had 
become subject to that most distressing "insomnia," or 

MRS. SIDDONS. " 133 

absence of sleep at night, which afflicts old age, she again 
desired my attendance, that she might have an opportunity 
of discussing with me the cognate questions of sleep and 
dreams, and the assimilation of the latter phenomenon to 
death. To the discussion of those _ points she herself lent 
the valuable aid of references to her own experience,' and 
remarks on the impressions left on her mind by the exer- 
cise of her magic art when pushed to an excess of agonizing 
feeling. The dialogues that passed between us were of an 
interesting character. Mrs. Siddons, sitting erect at. one 
end of the couch on which she had asked me to take a 
place, delivered her often acute and sagacious observations 
with all that dramatic dignity (even to the solemn intonation 
of her .voice) which accompanied her to her last days and in 
the most ordinary transactions of life — a queen to the end. 
In the exercise of my duties at the Westminster General 
Dispensary, which I regularly attended three days in the 
week at noon, I had occasion soon to find, with much regret, 
that the twenty midwives on the establishment were indif- 
ferently qualified either by medical instruction or domestic 
training to inspire much confidence. There were three or 
four of the number who had derived benefit from instruction 
by my predecessors, and had civilized themselves intuitively, 
and these women I encouraged in their work. It was their 
duty to visit such married women at their own habitations 
as were likely to require their services by-and-by, according 
to my instructions contained in a printed letter bearing my 
signature, which was directed to a particular midwife living 
nearest to the patient. The object of such preliminary visit 
was that the patient and attendant should, confer together, 
and make suitable arrangements for the time when the 
attendance would be required, as well as for watching the 
patient for some days subsequently, administering such 
medicine to her provided by the dispensary as I might have 


prescribed. The results of the case and attending circum- 
stances were to be recorded in writing by the nurse, there 
and then as they occurred, in certain columns of the printed 
form inserted at the back and front of the letter. The sum 
paid at the dispensary for her attendance would not be 
allowed and paid by the treasurer unless the blank forms of 
the report had been properly filled up. At every out-of- 
the-way occurrence or difficulty it was strictly enjoined to 
the attending widwife. to summon me by a written message, 
which I felt bound to attend in every case, so that I might 
with justice say that my practice at this public institution 
was a practice of difficulties only. All had got into con- 
fusion, and little or no order was observed before my ap- 
pointment. I therefore set about altering the whole system, 
and I printed a series of plain directions to be attended to, 
including a strict injunction that the midwife herself should 
always be decently dressed, should herself carefully admin- 
ister the medicament supplied, and correctly and accurately 
insert all the particulars in which my interference had not 
been required. The penalty for omission or neglect was 
forfeiture of the pay, or dismissal from the establish- 
ment after a third instance of irregularity. By such rigid 
means, and with the aid of some of my cleverest pupils 
(whom I was not long in collecting at the dispensary), I 
succeeded in obtaining perfect regularity and accuracy of 
proceedings, so as to supply me by the end of fourteen 
months of my attendance with valuable materials for a 
general report of my obstetrical practice during the year 
1818, addressed to the President and Committee of the 

The committee were much pleased at the introduction of 

* My report as presented was soon afterwards published, and forms the first 
considerable of the several medical works I committed to the press. It bore 
the following title : " Report of the Practice of Midwifery at the Westminster 
GenBral Dispensary for 1818/' by A. B. Granville, M.D., F.R.S. 


this new feature in their medical institution, of which they 
approved, and for which they directed their secretary to 
convey to me the resolution, unanimously passed, that in 
" the introduction of so novel a feature in the department of 
the charity confided to my care, I had deserved the thanks 
of the subscribers and set an example to the other medical 
oflficers of this and other institutions." I do not give more 
importance to this resolution than it is meant to express, 
but as regards a portion of it I think I shall not be contra- 
dicted if I add, that previously to the example I set, the 
practice of reading and publishing a full report of the annual 
proceedings at a medical institution had not been adopted 
in a single instance; whereas since that precedent, most 
valuable productions of such reports of the hospital practice 
at benevolent medical institutions have from year to 
year appeared, to the credit of the medical men concerned 
and the medical profession in particular, for whose ultimate 
benefit the practice is calculated, as well as for the welfare 
of society in general. 

^ The commendation of the committee soon bore its fruit, 
for I received in a short time from General Sir Lowry Cole, 
commanding the second division of the British army stationed 
at Cambray, as part of what was called the English army 
of occupation, an application for a medical man to attend 
Lady Frances, Sir Walter Farquhar having recommended 
me for the occasion. While preparing for this fresh ex- 
patriation, the post brought me a letter from the wife of 
General Sir John Lambert, in command of the Guards at 
Cambray, expressing her hope that, as I was to be in Cam- 
bray so near the period when she herself would require my 
services, I might make it convenient to extend my stay 
there, a request to which I acceded. Here were encourag- 
ing prospects of success for a medical man in the first year 
of his practice. When in addition I mention that during 


the short time I continued in town previously to my setting 
off for my Cambray engagement, I had been consulted by 
nearly fifty new patients, including persons of distinction 
and others belonging to the cultivated and easier classes of 
society, I think I shall be readily believed if I say that my 
spirits were unusually elated. 

The special business which had called me to Cambray 
turned out happily, for not only were the -principal parties 
particularly satisfied, but the result in both cases proved to 
me the commencement of a continuous series of engage- 
ments which extended my reputation to the male branch of 
the population, among whom J had the good fortune of 
making many excellent fiiends, whose friendship, counte- 
nance, and esteem I enjoyed ever after. 

Cambray at that epoch presented in every respect an 
extraordinary mixture of daily scenes of virtue and vice, 
order and licentiousness, the dulness of military drills with 
the splendid display of grand parades, of many staid mQitary 
households of exemplary conduct with the more general 
ostentation of fashionable life. The close neighbourhood of 
Valenciennes, a French military station, at which public 
gambling was permitted, and where the theatre was much 
frequented by young officers of the English contingent in 
Cambray, became the focus of almost daily disputes between 
the officers of the two armies. Bullies out of some of the 
French regiments, soured in their temper by the last great 
thrashing they had sustained, would provoke the youngest 
of the British officers, especially such as had just joined 
and whom they considered to belong to the Guards, to fight 
duels with the sword by purposely treading on their toes 
without the ordinary "Pardon, monsieur," when in the pit 
of the theatre gaping at the actresses. Englishmen are 
seldom in practice with the fleuret, which being a known 
fact, the French declined the choice of pistols. At length, 


in an encounter a young ofl&cer of a Guards' regiment 
having fallen, a peremptory order from head-quarters, for- 
bade English oflBcers to visit Valenciennes, or to accept or 
provoke a duel. I had become very intimate with the 
Town Major, a Captain Gunthorpe, as thorough-bred and 
as brave a soldier as ever honoured the British army. He 
was none of your soft window-peering clubbists who have 
not yet smelt powder, but a stern, square-built, and deter- 
mined martinet. We rode together, and he lamented all 
the frippery he saw about him, so little like a real soldier's 
encampment, he used to say. He heard the scandalous 
rumours without believing them, and yet was not able to 
contradict them. He was quite exasperated by the fall of 
one young officer, and but for the official prohibition would 
himself have gone over, he said to me, not to tread on the 
toes, but to pull the nose of the bully' who had fought 
almost all the duels, and who it turned out was no other 
than a celebrated fencing-master belonging to, and brought 
purposely from, another French regiment stationed else- 
where in France, for the purpose of satisfying French 
vanity. Such a fellow was too contemptible to stand before 
the point of an honourable officer's sword, but should be 
chastised k la Gregson — t.e. receive a good thrashing. 

I am spared the task of giving an account of the reviews, 
especially of the grand one on the 24th of October, 1818, 
in which the contingents of four foreign armies were present, 
by a recent publication of -slight dimensions, purporting- to 
be the travels of Viscount Palmerston in foreign lands.** 
That identical review "is there very ably and correctly 
described, as far as I could see it by following the move- 
ments on a spirited charger, which ended by throwing me 
at the last general discharge from the combined artillery, 
luckily without much detriment. Viscount Palmeretou, 

♦ *' Tours in France in 1814 and 1818," by Henry Viscount Palmerston. 


whom I met at Sir Lowry Cole's head-quarters, I knew by 
sight. Little did I imagine then that our future social 
relations would in a short time become of more consequence 
to me, and of greater service to him. 

Truth bids me avow, that when on a gloomy and foggy 
day, the 6th of November, 1818, 1 returned to my quiet home 
in Savile Row — from which I had been absent three months, 
living in a world totally unsuited to fny tastes, feelings, and 
sense of propriety, although I had been treated with every 
mark of kindness, courtesy, and even friendship, which I care- 
fully studied to preserve — I felt as if I had awakened from a 
long dream since the sunny day in August on which I had left 
my English hearth. A large foreign correspondence awaited 
me at home. Some of the most intimate of my Parisian 
friends, members of the Institute, or professors at the Ecolc 
de M^decine, wondered that I should have left London 
so soon after my installation in it, as they understood I had* 
done. They were not aware of the reasons of my absence ; 
but as they looked to me to keep them informed as to what 
transpired, whether in science or medicine, they felt dis- 
appointed at the total failure of their expectations during 
my three months', absence and consequent silence. Nor 
were the few select ones among my social friends lessMis- 
.ppointed. My strict Crusci correspondent, Angeloni, 
sent forth his purest and well-balanced periods to revive 
and keep alive my love for our native land and attachmeut 
to its beautiful language. -Thi^baut de Bemaud, the erudite 
librarian of the Mazarine library, continued his learned 
epistles, written always in that copper-plate-like style of 
handwriting which made their perusal a matter of positive 
pleasure, irrespective of the materials and ingenious argu- 
ments which they embraced. 

Another letter which awaited me was from Count 
Lauraguais, Due de Brancas, one of the favourites of 


Louis XV. of France, who admired his wit and his great 
facility of writing verses — a. dangerous gift, that drove him 
into exile for a considerable time in England, where he 
became a perfect Anglomane. He was eighty-nine when 
I first became acquainted with him in Paris, and our two 
families were soon intimate. He admired the children, and 
above all the manner in which they were brought up by 
" cette admirable m^re," as the duke used to call my wife. 

Our correspondence when I was not in France was 
chiefly on science, which the duke had cultivated, having 
been an " ancien membre dans la section de m^canique," 
in the old Academic des Sciences.* 

On the evening of the 13th of December, 1818, died my 
recent companion in Paris, the Lord Chief Justice of 
England. Before and soon after my excursion to Cam- 
bray I had occasion to pay a professional visit to Lady 
EUenborough. She was greatly concerned at the state of 
health in which Lord EUenborough had come back from 
Paris the year before, but as he had returned to his labours 
as Chief Justice without complaining either of fatigue or of 
want of head energy, it was concluded that any little 
ailment he might complain of would pass off, as it had 
done on many other occasions. Such was the opinion of 
his medical attendant, a well-known apothecary living in 
Portman Square, who had more patients than half a dozen 
of the most popular physicians together could boast of. 
On this occasion, however, he was wrong, and Lady EUen- 
borough was left a widow, whom Lord Campbell has told 
us he recollected as a mature matron ; " still a fine woman, 
with regular features, and roseate complexion ; " to which 

* To have been intimate in the year 1817 in Paria with a great nobleman 
aged ninety, a bel esprit of the time of Louis XV., whose good graces he had 
enjoyed for a time until infelicitously mixed up with his doggrel verses in the 
tripot oi]& Du Barry at the Petit Trianon, are historical facts deserving a foot- 
note in my autobiography of 1871. 


his lordship adds, " when^ she first appeared she excited 
admiration almost unprecedented." 

For a considerable time I had lost sight of the family, 
and my practice in the mean time, during the spring and 
early summer months, had become sufficiently extensive to 
satisfy all my modest aspirations. I had moreover enough 
occupation in preparing for the press the report already 
alluded to, of the result of practice during the year 1818 
at the dispensary, besides publishing a small brochure on 
prussic acid. 

I look back with some pride at the list of patients I find 
inscribed in my fee book, names of persons who consulted 
me in the first year of my practice, during what is called the 
London season — ^April, May, and June. In the course of 
that period I attended* upwards of one hundred and twenty 
new patients, all of them appertaining by birth, profession, 
standing, or rank, to the best of the cultivated classes of 
society. This fact has suggested the following reflections. 
The nature of my practice was of that description which 
permitted me to leave London at the close of what is called 
the season without any detriment of consequence to my 
worldly interests, for the plain reason that the patients 
themselves who were supposed to be of the class which 
supplied my own practice go abroad or into the country ; 
whereas the less wealthy classes of people, or those whose 
business or occupation require their presence, and who con- 
stitute in themselves a very respectable practice, worth the 
attention of any reputable physician who remains stationary, 
are sure to go to him whom they have known all their 
lives by name or experience. Such physicians are those 
who succeed in the end in having great levies at their 
morning consultations ; whereas the physician who has 
taken the court by storm, as we may say, by attracting to 
himself the pickings of the Red as well as of the Blue 


Book, would find himself abandoned as soon as Parliament 
was up. Experto crede. Now a great many of these very 
patients who left me to proceed to watering-places I fol- 
lowed thither, to afford them the opportunity of securing 
the advice upon which they had been accustomed to rely, 
and I thus fulfilled two great objects — the patient was bene- 
fited, and, my yearly practice was carried on continuously. 

Since I set up as a safety beacon to invalids the delicious 
springs of Kissingen (now standing on its own solid and 
just claims) thirty years since, I have there spent the 
summer of each year (with two or three exceptions), and 
have entered in a particular book the cases of all who 
consulted me ; and I find that in 1868, the year of my 
relinquishing practice, the number of these volumes 
amounted to thirty-two — and very interesting many of 
the cases are, on account of the almost miraculous effect 
obtained in despaired-of chronic maladies. 

I have been led to insert the preceding reflections be- 
cause I have been repeatedly asked how I managed to 
leave London every year, as I have done, whether travel- 
liug as an attendant physician, or to reside for a certain 
number of months abroad. The considerations set down 
above will explain the matter and reply to the question. 
But, in my own special case, I owe it to myself to mention, 
that in adopting my plan of practice I was never moved by 
the desire of a dolce far niente^ which my own poet Horace 
so feelingly describes — "Beatus ille qui procul negotiis," 
&c. ; for if I travelled it was to write my experiences 
(luring my absence, whether in Russia, Germany, Italy, 
Spain, or the East; and if I remained stationary for a 
period in some favourite temple of health, it was with the 
object of affording advice to the many hundred patients 
from England whom my own works, or those from more 
able pens, had induced to repair thither for their cure. I 


was absent truly, but not idle. Can all absentee physicians 
from London during the summer allege as good reasons for 
their absence ? However, all this dissertation may be 
assumed or accepted as an excuse for a negotiation to 
absent myself again from England in the exercise of my 
profession and in the capacity of travelling physician. 

During the early months of 1819, Lady EUenborough, 
afflicted at the death of her husband and at the indisposi- 
tion of a nephew and young niece — teing herself, moreover, 
subject to occasional nervous attacks, which seemed to 
threaten some serious mischief in the chest, according to 
the opinion of her ordinary medical attendant, Mr. Pen- 
nington — was induced to call for a consultation with other 
eminent physicians entirely new to her case, and without 
bias, so as to elicit an independent and suitable opinion 
with regard to the nature of the disease, its probable 
duration, and the best mode of treating it. As I waa not 
one of those consulted, I omit to mention their names. 
After deliberate consideration it was decided that her lady- 
ship should go to Italy for the space of two years, there to 
reside in some suitable part of the country, the selection of 
which the consulting physicians recommended should be 
referred to "Dr. Granville, as one who, besides being a 
native of the country, had visited every part of it more 
than once, and lived in many of the principal cities in 

Accordingly I was summoned on the 30th of July, and 
again on the 12th of August, 1819. I named Pisa for the 
ensuing winter ; Florence and other parts of Tuscany for 
the next summer, including the baths of Lucca; and if 
sufficiently recovered and strong to be able to bear the 
fatigue of the journey, to spend the subsequent winter in 
the neighbourhood of Naples ; after which, it was to be 
hoped that any prolongation of her exile from England 


would not be deemed necessary. My Tecommendations, 
and the outlines I chalked out for the journey, seemed to 
meet with the approbation of the family, and so it was 
decided that it should be carried into effect. I do not 
remember from whom, but a suggestion came that I should 
be requested to accompany them to Pisa, and that I should 
be free to guide the whole party in the long journey from 
one place to another, as in my opinion would be likely to 
suit Lady EUenborough's state of health, and likely to 
rescue her, by changes of scenery, from depressed spirits 
and the inclination to morbid despondency that now and 
then prevailed. I asked for two days to consider the pro- 
position, and to make such arrangements at home as should 
expose me and my patients to the smallest possible incon- 
venience from my absence. 

Tlie same expert pupil, now in practice, who had acted 
for me at the dispensary while I was absent at Cambray, 
was again appointed to act in my absence with the full 
consent of the president and committee of the institution, 
and I confided to Dr. Anthony Todd Thomson the more 
agreeable task of representing me with such patients as 
would be likely to apply at Savile Row. Lady Ellen- 
borough's eldest son, now Lord EUenborough, took care to 
provide our passports from the Foreign OflBce and foreign 
ministers at the Court of St. James's, some of whom 
proffered letters of introduction. Lord Castlereagh also 
gave us his special passport and recommendation. On my 
part, knowing well that a black mark stood agaiuBt my 
name in the books of the Austrian police, and being not 
obhvious of the Roman dictum, " Gustos, custodi teipsum," 
I applied to Monsieur de Neumann, Secretary of Legation 
of the Austrian Embassy in London, to know whether I 
. could rely upon being suffered to visit the Austro-Italian 
provinces in safety. The secretary's answer satisfied me 


on that point, and thus every arrangement for the expedi- 
tion being declared ready, we prepared to start. 

Three months was the period I had fixed for the execu- 
tion of the whole project, including sufficient time for my 
return home after having safely deposited under proper 
medical superintendence my patient and her numerous 
family — and truly formidable was their number. A Swiss 
courier was selected by Lord EUenborough, and everything 
arranged with him concerning the jounfey, subject to my 
control. He was sent to Savile Row for my inspection, 
and at the first view I could foresee that we should get 
into trouble with him before the end of the outward journey, 
as was unfortunately realized, for a greater rogue never 
existed. Depend upon it, there is some truth in old 

I must here go back a little to mention a charge I 
received at my second consultation in Lady EUenborough's 
house ; this was her young niece. Miss Towry, who had been 
attended from a very early age by one of those medical 
oracles who locate themselves in especial places to deliver 
oracular opinions in chronic disorders, or prescribe remedies 
to such people as choose to commit themselves to their care 
in full faith. London has never been without such miracle- 
working medical men, and if not found in London, in one 
of its surrounding villages. It was the case in the present 
instance. The young lady, a remarkably pretty person, 
with a fair and almost transparent complexion, the daughter 
of a brother of Lady EUenborough, had been placed under 
a medical gentleman, well known as Doctor Scott of 
Bromley, a name and authority I heard almost every day 
referred to, whether in a medical or a surgical case, as the 
ne plus ultra of reliable success. He had treated the young 
lady for an exudation of a troublesome nature behind the 
ears, and had entirely checked the disease. The consulta- 


tion was called for the purpose of my being made acquainted 
with Doctor Scott's opinion, to receive any information of 
the past, or any instruction he might wish to give for the 
future treatment of the complaint should it unfortunately 

This part of the consultation accompUshed, I inquired 
whether the friends of the young lady wished me to act as 
a consulting physician, free to express his opinion either of 
assent or dissent from Doctor Scott's views, or only as a 
depositor of the information he had imparted to me. The 
latter part of the alternative being the one agreed to, I 
observed that I accepted the duty of medical agent, but not 
its responsibility. To this declaration no objection was 
made, and so the consultation ended. 

TOL. II. < L , 



Continental travelling in 1819 — ^Antwerp — ^Fatal event at Bruseela — Waterloo 
— The Rhine — Pestalozzi's Institute — Turin — ^The Madonna of Carlo 
Dolce — ^Reach Milan — Visit Como-rArrival at Piaa — Set out to return 
by Paris — The bearer of despatches from Sir Charles Stuart — Exciting 
race — Safe arrival at home. 

As a contrast between the speedier, cheaper, and less 
inconvenient mode of travelling of the present day and that 
of fifty years ago, I think it well to give a slight record of 
my travels in 1819, to be referred to by great grandchildren 
as a subject of amusement and surprise when perhaps the 
mention of post-horses may cause people to open their eyes 
in astonishment and send them* to their dictionary to 
ascertain the meaning of the words. 

We landed at Calais from the King Oedrge^ freighted to 
convey us all, and two carriages, for sixteen guineas, on the 
20th of August, 1819. The first thing to be done was to 
deposit 1300 francs for the two carriages, being one-third of 
their estimated value, at the Custom House, and we received 
two certificates to entitle us to claim back 935 francs. The 
next morning we started with thirteen horses, including the 
hidet for the courier, who rode in front in his gaudy blue 
and red jacket embroidered with gold, and leather shorts, with 
top boots well spurred. Each post of five miles cost thirty 
francs. At 10 a.m. we reached Gravelines, and in half an 
hour after were off to Dunkerque, where a good breakfast 
awaited us at the " Poste Roy ale." Over a hard sandy 
beach we trotted along, passed the Belgian Custom House, 

■WV ^l^H«« 

TRAVELLING IN 1819. 147 

and on to Ostend, where we remained the night. The next 
morning, having missed the early direct boat to Ghent, 
but unwilling to be baffled in my dispositions of time and 
place, I directed that we should proceed to Bruges by the 
canal, and well examine that interesting city, one of the 
many objects of the extended journey being to instruct the 
young ladies, as well as to show them the different locali- 
ties which offered some interest. 

And now for a specimen of the contrast between boating 
on a canal fifty years ago and flymg on a railway in 1870. 
The journey from Bruges to Ghent by the first mode of 
conveyance occupied nine hours. Now the same distance 
is accomplished in about forty-five minutes. We had 
dinner on deck, of two courses and a dessert, for which, in- 
cluding the passage fare, we paid five fi'ancs fifty cents, or 
about 4ls. Id. each. The fi'eight of the two carriages was 
sixteen francs. 

At Ghent the ladies were all much interested in the 
B6quinage, or Bage-huys, in which about 600 women, who 
can pay 230 florins (about £20) a year, find a comfortable 
retreat for life, with an apartment and board. A note to 
Monsieur Schamp, then one of the wealthiest proprietors in 
' Ghent, procured us admission to visit his choice collection of 
paintings, some of which are chefs-cPceuvrey such as "La 
Grappe de Raisin " by Rubens ; " The Fall of the Angels ; *' 
and the portraits of the first and second wife of the same 
master. M. Schamp possessed likewise many original and 
beautiful sketches by Rubens of some of his greater paint- 
ings, as well as several Vandykes of great beauty. On 
leaving we had great difficulty in procuring horses, and 
were obliged to content ourselves with a pair to each car- 
riage, an almost impossible task, considering that one of the 
said carriages was an immense handsome family landau, 
purposely built to convey the whole of the young party. 

% L 2 


Nevertheless our journey to Antwerp was performed in six 
hours. Our letter to Baron Vicke, the governor, brought 
him to us, and gave us facilities for seeing the specimens of 
Kubens's and Vandyke's pencils scattered about the town. 
Many of the best had just been recovered out of the 
hands of the rapacious. French soldiers of 1799. I con- 
fess to having in former days been incredulous, or at all 
events unjust, as to the fame and genius of Rubens and 
other Flemish masters, blinded by my own native and 
supreme artists, until I beheld the masterpieces of^that 
great artist, whose " Descent from the Cross " is the very 
triumph of art. Another sort of attraction led us to see the 
identical establishment whence issued those famous and 
much-prized editions of valuable classics, conducted by 
Moretus, father and son — and continued by a naturalized 
Frenchman, Plantin — in 1565. In this establishment of the 
great typographers we saw the celebrated polyglot Bible 
ordered to be printed by Philip II. of Spain. Portraits of 
those eminent printers by, or copied from, Rubens were 
hanging in two of the rooms of the house. The family, 
which was excessively rich, was about to become extinct in 
the person of the last Moretus, who was ill and decrepit. 
His nephew, a M. Depr^, was to inherit the atelier^ which 
was still as it existed three hundred years before. 

From Antwerp to Brussels we were obliged to put up 
with sorry voiturier horses, no such thing as post-horses 
being known in the place. So entirely different is Brussels 
at present from what it was at the time of our visit, and the 
vast changes which have taketi place in almost every 
quarter of the city — all great improvements — have been so 
numerous, that it would be useless to describe a city that 
has been entirely rejuvenated. Brussels was then a dull, 
uninteresting provincial town without any attraction ; it is 
now an inspiriting, gay, clean, well-built, and well-admin- 


istered capital, with many rich and well-born families^ 
occupying houses of the most elegant construction. 

The 30th of August, 1819, proved a most melancholy 
day to us, and for my patient Lady EUenborough a most 
distressing dne. Her niece, Miss Towry, had attended with 
her cousins a grand ball given by the Governor of Brussels 
on the night of the 28th, at which she danced much, and 
especially fatigued herself by a prolonged waltz, a dance 
just come into fashion. At the conclusion of a long turn 
she slipped through the arms of her cavalier, who carried 
her to the nearest couch. She had become deadly pale and 
cold, and her breathing seemed to stop, the eyes to close as 
in sleep. Means were taken to rouse her, but not a word 
escaped her lips. As soon as possible she was conveyed to 
the hotel, where I had remained the whole evening. Finding 
no pulse at the wrist, T applied my ear to the left side of her 
chest, as I had seen Laennec do at the Hopital Necker in 
Paris, but I could hear no indication of any distinct move- 
ment. I directed Dr. Doratt, the physician of the English 
embassy, to be sent for, to whom on his arrival I commu- 
nicated my impression that some serious injury to the heart 
had taken place, occasioned probably by the prolonged 
waltzing. Neither of us could detect by the ear any vestige 
of movement in the heart ; in fact, we anticipated a speedy N 
death, despite every remedy science could suggest. In a ' 
few hours the sad scene closed, and she who had only three 
days before entered the city fall of life and beauty passed 
away without a sigh, soon to be carried to the temporary ^ 
God's acre of the English church, where she sleeps to this 

The young lady was a ward in Chancery, with a large 
fortune she had inherited with an only brother on the death 
of their father. It was therefore necessary to make a 
professional report of the death and the attendant circum- 



stances, so with the consent of Lady Ellenborough ^ and a 
written permit from the police, after having requested Dr. 
Doratt's presence both as a medical assistant and witness, we 
proceeded in as private a manner as possible to the autopsy ; 
the result being all that was necessary to satisfy us, and of 
course the Court of Chancery, as to the death having been 
caused by the rupture of the left auricle of the heart, with an 
engorgement of the corresponding ventricle. Our report 
was forwarded to Lord Ellenborough in London by his 
mother, for presentation to the proper quarter. The natural 
inference that would be drawn from our statement I did not 
suggest and add to it — firstly, because it did not concern the 
legal and formal part of the transaction; and secondly, 
because the condemnation of a medical man's treatment, 
however justifiable, could neither recall the patient nor be 
of service to the profession at large, who are perfectly aware 
that if you suddenly arrest spontaneous morbid discharges 
in young people, you run the risk of producing inward 
organic mischief. This is especially the case with regard to 
a discharge pcme aures^ as I had often mentioned when I 
explained to Lady Ellenborough why I had dissented from 
the oracle of Bromley on takmg charge of his patient. 

We left Brussels on the Slst of August, taking Waterloo 
on our way. The little inn where we breakfasted had 
been the scene of much misery after the battle. The 
daughter of the house, an intelligent girl, related the sad 
story of the hundreds of wounded and dying on that memor- 
able day. Some of the ofl&cers had lodged in the house, and 
slie spoke highly and with deep feeling of the courage, 
patience, and forbearance of the wounded. The first burst 
upon us of this ti'uly magnificent battle-field and the classic 
ground to which belong so many heroic recollections, and 
which is in itself calculated to excite the most lively interest, 
riveted our attention, and from a small eminence in front 



of La Haye Sainte we traced, or fancied we could trace, 
distinctly the various phases of that great conflict. 

More recent encounters between two of the same nations 
then engaged, show that greater battles may be fought in 
these days, in which thousands of combatants stand for the 
hundreds in the older conflict, and yet the conquerors have 
not excited the interest or acquired the glory that has made 
the name of Wellington immortal. How many hard-fought 
contests have the Prussian generals fought on Bohemian 
or French fields to dwarf the great Waterloo, and yet who 
remembers distinctly at the first asking the name of the 
conqueror? It is, as in many other human devices or 
actions, the more recent dwarf the older deeds and prowess ; 
but in proportion as the present age is in advance of those 
gone by, does not the applause of man, or the glorification 
of the hero, keep pace in the same ratio ! Wherefore ? A 
general suddenly called upon to encounter a whole world of 
armed soldiers, compels one hundred and twenty thousand 
men to lay down their arms and slink quietly away to their 
imprisonment, while their conqueror marches in hostile 
array to the investment of their capital ; and yet Sedan is 
not considered a Waterloo, where the troops engaged on 
either side did not amount to more than ninety thousand ! 

The damp east winds of the Netherlands and Flanders 
coming fast upon us, I hurried through the remainder 
of my programme towards Cologne, the diverse views of the 
country around and before, as we advanced in the direction 
of the Rhine, exquisitely beautiful and fresh despite the 
slight tinge of gold upon the forests, cheejred the spirits of 
the party, which had sunk very low after the grievous event 
with which our visit to Brussels had closed. 

I have so fully- detailed in othier volumes the course 
we took from Cologne to Switzerland, that I consider it 
unnecessary to reindite former descriptions ; I shall therefore 


limit myself to the merest outlines as we posted along the 
magnificent road on thelieft bank of the Rhine, a triumph 
of roadmaking, for which the Germans are indebted to 
Napoleon L From Bonn the beauties of the Rhine com- 
mence, and develop themselves in a succession of panoramas, 
each of which forms a perfect picture, the ancient or ruined 
baronial castles that appear here and there on the eminences 
giving character to the whole. • 

The road is paved with broken basalt, and the indication 
of a volcanic origin is perceived everywhere; yet the 
industrious villager has raised the vine to the loftiest peak, 
has cultivated every small bit of a glen that offered any 
soil, making every yard of the latter to yield its yellow 
crops of corn to the spade, though it were hanging at an 
immense height and over a deep ravine. Prosperous as 
Nature looks, the villagers are poor ! A wine country on 
the Rhine is a country of beggars. I showed the truth of 
•such a fact in another publication of mine. It was so half 
a century ago, and I know not how much earlier than that 
date. It is so now. 

Coblenz, Mayence, and Frankfort (where we stayed three 
days at the Hotel d'Angleterre) were visited in succession, 
then on again to Strasblirg and Berne, where deviations were 
made to SchaffTiausen and the falls of the Rhine, and then 
to Lucerne to enjoy a full view of the five lakes and of the 
extended chain of the Bernese Alps. Perhaps a part of 
our Swiss excursion, the most pleasing and suitable for 
invalids, because unattended with fatigue, was an explora- 
tion of the Lake of Neufchatel, its town of Yverdun and its 
pretty surroundings, including the He de St. -Pierre. That 
island presents itself well covered with vineyards, and the 
house on it in which Jean-Jacques Rousseau lived lies by 
the water-side. Lady EUenborough, who had had one of 
her terrible attacks in the carriage the day before, and did 


not rise early to accompany us into the interior of the town, 
was persuaded, by way of a pleasant diversion, to go with 
us to a charming villa called " La Rochette,'* situated on 
an eminence behind the town, from which the chain of the 
Alps is seen to great advantage. The proprietor of the 
villa had erected an horizontal slate table on a fixed 
pedestal, on which had been traced divergent lines from a 
common centre, in which there was a small point with an 
eye-hole. Through this, and guided by the divergent lines, 
each bearing a suitable inscription, the more prominent 
mountains were easily distinguished and their respective 
denominations learned. On the same terrace an electro- 
meter, formed by a pendulum placed between two bells 
under a glass case, and connected at the point with a con- 
ductor placed at the summit of the house, served, by the 
agitation and tinkling it caused when the atmosphere 
is charged with electricity, to announce an approaching 
storm. The younger members of the party and myself 
-adjourned to the Pestalozzi Institute, and at once I may 
confess that we were one and all sadly disappointed at the 
appearance of this far-famed establishment, and the method 
of education pursued in it. Much more disappointed were we 
at the sight of Pestalozzi himself, whose presence had 
nothing in it which was either commanding, striking, or 
interesting. He spoke the French language^ith difficulty, 
and could scarcely express his own sentiments. There 
was, however, an air of modesty in him, and of genuine 
self-conviction and earnestness, which, in spite of his phy- 
sique^ pleased us greatly. He endeavoured to explain to 
me his system, and when I mentioned to him that I had 
partly been educated at Milan in what was called Sistema 
di Pestalozzi, and likewise that when at Madrid, fourteen 
years before, I had witnessed his system in practice there, 
he replied that since that time it had undergone great im- 


provements, and he assured me that very soon a work 
would appear in which the system and its raJbhruth would 
be explained, showing at the same time that his principle 
had been completely misunderstood. He rejected emula- 
tion in educating children as mischievous, and endeavoured 
to make inventore instead of imitators. This system he 
carried into the study of languages, the Latin included. 
One of the leading features of Pestalozzi's method was 
that the pupil should be trained from the earliest period of 
his education to make minute observations. Thus they 
were not allowed to sit on a three-legged stooA until they 
could describe its form and the materials of which it is 
made. Mr. Greaves, one of the professors teaching English 
to the boys, laid great stress on this part of the system, 
and assured me that the boys could tell us not only the 
shape and nature of the stool, but even-the forest and the 
acre of land in which it had grown, together with the 
parentage of all the trees in the neighbourhood. " This 
may be all very well, Mr. Greaves," I observed to him, 
" but I suspect that it would never be required of the 
Speaker of the House of Commons to know (as a qualifica- 
tion) whether the chair on which he sat be of leather or 
prunella, except he found it too hard after a long and 
tedious debate.'* 

A peep at Lausanne afforded us next the opportunity of 
beholding this sanatorium, as it was deemed half a century 
ago by brother physicians in England. The monuments in 
the cathedral show with what justice it was so called. Mrs. 
Stratford Canning sleeps here, awaiting a black and white 
marble monument which was being prepared for her at 
Florence. Gibbon's terrace, and the box in which his 
celebrated work was composed, was an object of great 
interest. From it the eloquent historian enjoyed a fine 
and perfect view of the lake. We passed Goppet, where 


strangers were not allowed to visit the tomb of the 
spiritaelle daughter of Necker during the absence of the 
Baron de Stael. Alas ! I heaved a sigh as I went by, and 
remembered her who had breathed her last in my presence 
only two years before in Paris. 

At Geneva, by a mere chance, we fell in with Madame 
Patterson Bonaparte, much decayed in charms, and many 
old acquaintances of Lady EUenborough joined our party. 
Admiral Durham, an old patient who resided at a short 
distance from Geneva, called on me. Doctors Marcet and 
Jurine were out of town. Pictet alone was in Geneva, and 
I spent some time with him in philosophical chat — such 
was my occupation while the family were preparing for 

With every possible despatch we did not succeed in 
starting before four o'clock on our way to the Alps. Our 
route was continued over Mont Cenis to Molaret, Susa, 
St. Giorgio, Rivoli, and on to Turin. My party were 
already feeling the benefit of inhaling the pure and warm 
air as we descended into the Lombard plains. 

We cared not to linger long in Turin, attractive though 
the city be, but I was anxious that the ladies should have 
the enjoyment of seeing one of the greatest triumphs of 
pictorial art in existence, jealously preserved by the royal 
family, who owe it to the zeal of one of the domestics 
that the precious gem escaped the rapacious hands of the 
French in 1796. My wish could only be satisfied by the 
queen's consent and permission. Lady EUenborough had 
been notified to the court, though formal presentation could 
hardly be accomplished in her state of double mourning ; 
but we had the good fortune to meet her majesty, attended 
by the British Minister, in the garden at the queen's villa, 
six miles from the city, called Ija Vigna. The queen was 
accompanied by the two princesses, twin sisters, good-look- 


iiig and seventeen years of age, one of them about to be 
married. A- courteous recognition sans ckrimonie led to 
the desire of seeing the precious picture, and to the ready 
accession to the chapel of the queen's private oratorio, in 
which' the head of a Madonna by Carlo Dolce was kept. 
Words cannot express the delight experienced at the first 
glance at the picture when the silk curtain was withdrawn. 
Nothing can surpass the sweet expression of beauty and 
humility here delicately painted by this very justly de- 
nominated "sweet limner," neither can ordinary speech 
do it justice — the eyes of the Virgin appear to be slowly 
raising their upper lids towards heaven, while the lips are 
preparing to open and move as if to pronounce, " Ecce 
anciUa domini ; fiat mihi secundum verbum tuum." 

I had various calls to make in Turin, but I relinquished 
all selfish objects to devote my attention to those of whom 
I had taken charge, and the safety of whose lives required 
that no delay should take place in Alpine regions when our 
destination was the temperate climate of Tuscany. We 
therefore quitted Turin at early morning and reached Milan 
at night. 

1 felt no little pride the following day in showing the 
most salient objects of my native city to my English friends, 
and conducting them to the Palazzo delle Poste. We found 
my father in his bureau, and Lady EUenborough asked him 
to dine with us the same day, as we had no intention to 
make a long stay in Milan. It was an early dinner, accord- 
ing to the fashion of the place, and my father entertained 
us with the news of the day. After dinner we all drove to 
the Corso, the rendezvous of the Uite of Milan, and Lady 
EUenborough and her daughters were struck by the sight 
of the young cavaliers as they passed us on their English 
horses, these equestrians reminding them in dress and ap- 
pearance of those they had left in London, so close was the 


resemblance in every particular (an Anglomania which 
always prevailed among the young Milanese seigneurs of 
birth). At breakfast on the following morning my father 
paid a visit to the ladies, and at the same time brought us 
a letter from the Goverfior of Como, my eldest brother, 
expressing his delight at the prospect of receiving us, and 
informing us that we should find a couple of gendarmes 
at the Post of Barlassina, half-way between Milan and 
Como, with a view to protect the party from any possible 
attack from brigands on the road. He recommended us to 
apply for a similar escort out of Milan, which my father 
undertook to procure, the roads being infested by brigands 
since the introduction of the Austrian administration. 

The meeting with my brother was most cordial, and his 
reception of the English ladies such as one would expect 
from an ofiBcial accustomed to receive. We intended to 
remain only a few hours to see the lake, and after the 
dejeuner he had prepared for us, we proceeded by water first 
to the Villa Pliniana, and to that curious locality, " Onore 
di Bellano," and afterwards to the Villa d' Este, lately the 
residence of the Princess of, Wales, " which," said my 
brother, " is visited by almost every English family that 
comes to this part of Italy." In the Villa d'Este we 
especially admired the Turkish boudoir. 

In another hour we got our horses and were off to Lecco. 
Venice was reached in due time, but having passed over 
without a remark so much that interested us in the different 
places on our route, I shall add nothing respecting that city 
to what I have already stated at the commencement of 
these volumes. After leaving Venice we returned by way 
of Padua, Este, and Castelaro to. Mantua. Here some 
objection was made to our admission, and we might have 
been kept some hours, perhaps the whole night, had I not 
insisted on being conducted to the commandant of the 


fortress, who after an explanatory interview of an hour 
gave orders for our admission, when the triple massive 
gates and drawbridges were opened and lowered for the 
introduction of our carriages into that dismal, dull, and 
pestiferous fortified city. It was not my intention to 
remain beyond a few hours, as we might all have been 
attacked with rheumatism, or worse, did we sleep a single 
night in Mantua, so I prevailed on the party to sit up with 
a fire fed with fagots until the hour of departure. 

Leaving Mantua as soon as the gates were opened, we 
made our way to Modena and Bologna, where we slept. 
The tiring ascent over the Apennines after Pianoro proved 
rather a stimulant to my fellow travellers, and Lady Ellen- 
borough admitted to me that she felt better already at the 
mere idea of being soon at her destination, and so we 
reached Pisa at last. 

After checking the courier's posting account against my 
register kept day by day and summed up every night, I 
found that, exclusive of the tour in Switzerland, the general 
result of our journey from England was — distance travelled, 
1495 miles. Cost of posting that distance, 9556 francs, 
equal to about £390. 

Having settled my patients in a palazzo in the Lung 
Amo, I presented my finiend Doctor Vacca, who was most 
courteously received, and to whose care I strongly recom- 
mended Lady EUenborough's case, with the promise from 
him of some occasional written reports on the condition of 
the patients, for Miss Law was only just convalescent from 
a recent attack of rheumatism. 

The season was advancing, and Lady EUenborough, with 
that consideration for my personal convenience which she 
had all along shown through the journey, would not con- 
sent to my devoting any more time in showing them the 
beauties of the Italian Athens, whither we had gone for a 



few days, but impressed on me the necessity of reaching 
England before the winter set in, and so we parted with 
mutual regret. I was not long in reaching Paris in the 
light caliche which Lady EUenborough had insisted on my 
taking for my journey back. She had confided to me some 
letters for Paris and England: one was addressed to Sir 
Charles, another to Lady Elizabeth Stuart, to each of 
whom I presented them, when Lady Elizabeth asked me to 
remain and dine sans fafon^ and early, as Sir Charles 
wished to attend the Chamber of Deputies. After perusing 
her letter, Lady Elizabeth observed to me that her corre- 
spondent wrote in terms which must be gratifying to me 
of the care I had taken of herself and her daughters. 

Sir Charles had requested me to see him in his private 
office for a moment, where, after inquiring whether I 
intended soon to return to England, and learning from me 
that I proposed to start the next day, communicated to me 
the following : — " There is at this moment in agitation a 
sort of ministerial coup d^tat^ a change of ministers, and 
the adoption of a tighter r^ime^ for which purpose the 
king intends to make important changes in the ministry, 
which will surprise the public not a little. The final deter- 
mination is to be come to at a council which is fixed for four 
o'clock. I propose to be in waiting at the Minist^re de 
TEtranger at that hour, or in the House of Peers, and 
remain until the decision on the meditated change has been 
settled, which is, I understand, to include the removal firom 
his post of the French ambassador at our court. I should 
be very desirous, indeed anxious, to inform our government 
of these 'changes before the French government com- 
municate them to their London minister. There would be 
no chance of my being able to send news to Downing 
Street of this change in time for the packet from Calais, 
but T may send the communication by a private boat to 


cross over with the intelligence as fast as possible, striving 
to anticipate the arrival of any messenger the French 
government may despatch to their minister in London. 
Would you undertake this tasfe, as I observe that the 
Foreign Office has more than once availed themselves of 
your services on such errands ? '* 

" I should not have the slightest objection to undertake 
it/' was my reply. " I can be ready at a few minutes' 
notice. I am still in my travelling dress, and could set off 
at once." Finally it was arranged that my baggage should 
be taken to a room at the Embassy, that I should eat my 
dinner at his house just ^ I was, await Sir. Charles's return 
from the Chamber of Deputies, and taking charge of his 
official bag, set off for Calais with four horses to my 
caUche^ which would be transferred directly from my hotel 
to the inner court of the Embassy. An office clerk in the 
mean time would procure me a special visi to my passport, 
and an order to supply the requisite number of horses as 
are granted to a government messenger. 

All was done as defined. Sir Charles returned when 
Lady Elizabeth and I had finished our tete-d-tete dinner, 
having been in his private office to write his despatches, 
which he handed over to me in the drawing-room. Four 
horses that had just arrived were put to my caUchCy when, 
making my bow to Lady Elizabeth, and with a hearty 
shake of the hand from Sir Charles, I ran down staire, 
sprang into the carriage, and galloped down 'the Faubourg 
St.-Honord in the direction of St. -Denis, and out of Paris 
en route for Calais, paying double tariff to my two post- 
boys, who belonged to the old set of men, a longue queue 
and heavy jack-boots, swearing not a little if they were 
stopped more than five minutes at each post. 

It was not till after we had passed Abbeville th'at we 
were aware that our carriage was preceded by another, 


going faster and carrying off the first horses. This we 
ascertained was the French courier, bearing despatches to 
the French ambassador. 

Arrived at Calais, I was informed that a French courier 
had gone in the packet-boat, which had been purposely 
detained for him by orders from Paris. However, on 
applying at the Consulate, Mr. Hamilton, the British 
consul, told me the Paris messenger had only that moment 
sheered off the pier, and gone with a brisk gale against him. 
" Let us hire a fishing-boat directly," I said to the consul ; 
" one sail and four rowers ; the wind is foul, but never mind, 
I must reach London before the French messenger. I 
shall be master of the course on the other side of the water 
as he has been on this, and we shall see who beats." 

The fishing-boat was hired. " They ask eight guineas." 
" Give them ten," was my answer ; but the bargain was 
made, and the boat brought up to the lee shore on the shingle 
outside the harbour. It was blowing hard, and rain was 
beginning to fall, while the waves came curling in with 
their foaming crests and spreading out with repeated roars 
on the beach. The boat was a large barge for four rowers, 
with one sail, and half decked, the usual ballast and a large 
loose tarpaulin. After shaking hands with Mr. Consul 
Hamilton, who bade me God speed, I jumped into the 
boat,with my little leather bag, and at once laid me down, 
covering myself with the tarpaulin, my head under the 
shelter of the half-deck. A crowd of people helped to 
push the boat off through the surf, and presently we were 
in almost calm water under the lee of the shore of Calais. 
The gale was soon met, and then " Hold tight near the 
wind, and pull hard at the starboard oars." All this I 
heard, but not another word, for I fell fast asleep while 
seriously reflecting on the rash folly I was committing by 
exposing my life for no affair of mine. 



However, we reached the shores of dear England, and I 
invited my rowers to the "Ship Inn" at Dover, where 
I recommended them to the care of my old shipmate, Mr. 
Wright, the innkeeper, and at the game time ordered the 
four fastest horses he had in his stables to be put to the 
lightest and soundest chaise he possessed, and come round 
at once, explaining to old Wright on what sort of errand 
I was bound. *' Oh, I see it all," said the honest innkeeper ; 
" you are racing with the Paris messenger. He came in before 
you, and is now eating his supper at the H6tel de Paris. 
Won't you take some too ? " " No, no ; a glass of punch 
aad a hunch of bread, and off as quickly as possible. I 
must be in town before the Frenchman ! " " You'll do it, 
sir. Here's the chaise." " Now, boys, half a guinea each 
if you drive fresh." 

As we passed in front of the other hotel we perceived 
that the bird was off already. At each post we found that 
we had gained something on our precursor. At Rochester 
he was driving out of one gate while we were driving in at 
the other. Before the next change we came in sight of the 
Frenchman. " One guinea each," I cried out to my wheel 
postilion, " if you pass him ! " We did so, reached the 
next post. There four horses were out on the road. 
These we took : all fair in war ! "On for your lives. A 
guinea to each if you keep up the same pace ! " The 
chaise was actually quivering, and at times I fancied the 
body grazed the ground. 

This last stratagem gave me plenty of time. I drove to 
St. James's Square, delivered my despatches, and begged 
for orders. It was now near daylight. A little note came 
down from Lord Castlereagh's bedroom, and a request 
that I would go and deliver it at the French Embassy in 
Portland Place. A few early risers, and such as had been 
out all night, came round the chaise and foaming horses. 


The porter of the mansion answered the rattling knock, 
and received from me Lord Castlereagh's note, with direc- 
tions that it should be sent up at once to the Marquis de la 
Tour Maubourg ; then turning to the postboys I said, 
" Now drive quietly to my home, No. 8, Savile Row." 

At the corner of Langham Place we encountered the 
galloping Frenchman. My boys hurrahed, rousing I dare 
say the neighbourhood. We reached Savile Row, to startle 
the maid who was just scouring the door steps. The boys 
got their guinea and were pleased : one never thinks of the 
poor beasts whipped almost to the beat of their last 

The evening papers of that day, and those of the follow- 
ing morning — November 21, 1819 — detailed to the English 
public the nature and the importance of the measure 
proclaimed in the decree of Louis XVIIL, of which I had 
been the bearer to this country : " Nous, Louis, etc., avons 
ordonne et ordonnons, etc. Baron Pasquier est nomm^ 
Ministre Secretaire d'fitat au departement des Affaires 
i!trangferes ; le Marquis de la Tour Maubourg, ministre 
aupr^s du Roi d'Angleterre, est nomm^ Ministre Secretaire 
d'Etat au ministfere de la guerre ; Monsieur Roi, Ministre 
des Finances; Mens, le Comte Decazes est nommd ministre 
au departement de I'lnterieur et President des Conseils des 
Ministres." The ordonnance was countersigned by the 
last-named minister, who had begun his career as Minister 
of Police in succession to the notorious Fouche. • King 
Louis did not stop at this thorough upsetting of ministerial 
opponents, but went further a day or two after, by creating 
eight new peers with the right " de prendre stance k la 
Chambre des Pairs " at once, whether they can or not 
prove that right by le majorat ou non ; thus securing a 
majority in the upper chamber by one stroke of the pen. 
No doubt Sir Charles Stuart considered such a sudden and 

M 2 


important reorganization of the French cabinet of imme- 
diate consequence, and one deserving to be made known to 
the British government, and it explains at the same time 
the sort of ambitious desire on the part of Lord Castlereagh 
to be the first to announce to the Marquis de la Tour 
Maubourg his elevation to an important post in the minis- 
terial cabinet of his country. 

Settled down snugly in Savile Row once more, I thought 
I should hear no more of my last rapid excursion, except 
perhaps to be blamed by friends for a foolish and imprudent 
undertaking on my part, in having exposed myself and 
family to considerable risk ; but events turned out other- 
wise, as the following correspondence between the newly- 
raised President of the Conseil des Ministres in France and 
myself will show, and which I quote totidem verbis in the 
language in which it was written : — 

"Monsieur le Comte, — ^Votre excellence voudra bien 
me pardonner la libertd que je prends de lui adresser la 
pr^Sente, qui nous est r^ciproquement importante. Mone. 
Hamilton, sous-secretaire d'fitat pour les Affaires Etrangferes, 
qui m'honore de son amitid, vient de me faire part du 
bruit qui parait s'etre rdpandu k mon ^gard k Toccasion 
des d^p^ches dont son excellence Sir Charles Stuart 
m'avait chargd le 20 du mois pass^, me sachant sur le point 
de partir pour Londres au moment du changement du 
minist^re en !^rance. Par ce bruit on aurait pu faire 
croire k votre excellence que j'avais 6i6 porteur k la m6me 
^poque de lettres particuliferes compromettantes pour le 
Marquis de la Tour Maubourg, sur quoi votre excellence 
me permettra de T^clairer de la mani^re la plus solennelle, 
comme j*ai Thonneur de faire par la pr^sente, que ni k T^poque 
cit^e, ni jamais, ai-je 61^ porteur de lettres, d^peches, ou 
communication quelconques pour le Marquis de Maubourg 
ou qui que ce soit de TAmbassade de France, directement ou 


mdirectement, et que par consequent le dit bruit est denu6 
de tout fondeinent. Mon but en tachant d'arriver avant le 
messager franjais ^tait tout-^-fait particulier, n'ayant re§u 
aucun ordre special 1^-dessus. C'^tait celui de jouir du plaisir 
que je devais ^prouver en remettant le premier entre les 
mains de notre ministfere des depeches que je croyais etre 
de haute importance. Je dois cette declaration franche k 
votre excellence, qui a bien voulu me temoigner de la bont^ 
lors de mon s^jour en France ; et k moi-meme, qui desire 
n'etre du tout mele dans la politique si Strange k ma 

" J'ai rhonneur, etc., . 

" A. B. Granville, M.D., F.KS. 

" Londres. 28 Decembre, 1819.'* 

His excellency was not quick, yet satisfactory, in 
replying : — 

" Paris. Le 30 JanVier, 1820. 

" C'est avec regret, monsieur, que j'ai vu par la lettre 
que vous m'avez fait Thonneur de m'dcrire le 28 Decembre, 
que vous avez ^td pdniblement aflfectd par uri bruit qui se 
serait rdpandu a Toccasion de votre dernier voyage di 
Paris k Londres,. et qui aurait eu pour objet de laisser 
dans mon esprit une impression ddfavorable sur votre 
compte. Je dois k la franchise de la d-marche que vou^ 
voulez bien faire auprfes de moi dans cette circonstance, dt 
vous rassurer sur les inquietudes que vous m'exprimez, er 
vous priant de croire que je n'ai attache aucune importance 
au bruit qui fait I'objet de votre lettre; mais qu'au con- 
traire, je suis charmd d'y trouver une occasion de vous 
oflfrir le temoignage de mon estime et de la consideration 
distinguee avec laquelle j'ai Thonneur d'etre, monsieur, etc. 

" Decazes.'* 

I may now terminate the report of this interesting pro- 
fessional excursion from home, by quoting the sentiments of 


grateful acknowledgment from the lady in whose family I 
had had the honour of spending the last three months. 
The remembrance of them has ever proved a source of 
satisfaction to me : — 

« Pisa. November, 1819. 

" I never wished for Fortune's gifts but upon occasions 
like the present, and although I feel no pecuniary oflFering 
can cancel the obligation I owe to you, yet I cannot help 
lamenting that it is not in my power, even in that form, to 
testify as I could wish my gratitude for the sacrifice you 
have made on our account. If my humble testimony of 
your merit, and the high opinion I entertain of your pro- 
fessional skill, can at any time afford you gratification or 
service, pray call upon me ; and if my opinion has any 
weight in the scale of your excellent and valuable qualities, 
believe me sincere in the assurance that nothing will afford 
me greater pleasure than to express them whenever the 
opportunity offers. I cannot tell you what we all feel at 
the thought of losing you, or how anxious will all here be 
that your kind consideration of us should not in any respect 
have interfered with the flattering prospect, of your pro- 
fessional career ; and I beg you to believe me, with very 
sincere regard, 

" My dear Dr. Granville, 

" Your very gratefully obliged, . 

"A. Ellenborough." 

Shortly after my return home, Lord EUenborough ad- 
dressed to me a note which I may be permitted to reproduce 
in this place. It happily terminates a period in my 
laborious and eventful life — the character of which I have 
unreservedly and honestly (as I was bound) described from 
recorded facts, dates, and recollections — when I found myself 
in the enviable position of a permanent well-established 
English practitioner in a noble profession, valued more in 


this than in any other country, a fit reward for much 
labour, study, vigilant observation, and successful acts 
which serve to stamp the character of a man who had all 
to hope and look for from the enlightened classes among 
whom he has passed over half a century since the date 
herein last quoted. 

" 13, Park Place, St. James. 

" Lord EUenborough presents his compliments to Dr. 
Granville, and will do himself the honour of calling upon 
him at any hour he will have the goodness to appoint. 
Lord EUenborough is extremely anxious • to have an oppor- 
tunity of assuring Dr. Granville how deeply he feels his 
kindness, and how grateful he must ever be to him for 
the unexampled attention he has shown to Lady EUen- 



Government slow to settle accounts — The half-way house — Parliamentary com- 
mittee on the quarantine laws — Edit the " Medical Intelligencer " — 
Accept the editorship of the " London Medical and Physical Journal ** — 
Origin of the use of prussic acid in medicine— Its introduction into 
England — Decline to act as interpreter on the trial of the Princess of 
Wsdes — Establish a dispensary for sick children. 

The words of Horace were still ringing in my ears as I 
was putting my right foot upon the unsteady plank of my 
fisherman's boat — "iEs triplex circa pectus erat, qui 
fragilem triici commisit pelago ratem primus: nee timuit 
praecipitem Africum." Often during the rapid posting from 
Dover to London, as the thought of the peril I had just 
escaped from intnided in my mind, I shuddered as I had 
never shuddered before when actually immersed in danger. 
How imprudent, I reflected, to expose myself wilfully to the 
imminent risk of being drowned while actually on my way 
to rejoin a devoted wife awaiting impatiently my arrival, and 
my young children expecting to embrace their returning 
father ! The contrast of this, the most serious part of my 
incident of travel, with the trouble I had to undergo directly 
after in order to recover the paltry amount I had disbursed 
in incurring it, seemed truly ridiculous. For to refund the 
eight guineas Mr. Consul Hamilton paid for the boat, I 
gave him a bill on the ambassador. Two days after my 
arrival in England, the bill was returned to me by Mr. 
Hamilton, with a note from one of the secretaries of Sir 


Charles Stuart, stating that I ought to charge the amount 
with my other expenses. Accordingly, I repaid Mr. Consul 
Hamilton's disbursement by my own cheque, and consented 
to wait to recoup myself at leisure from the government. 
So much correspondence, so many references, and so many 
days of waiting to recover my due, little enough in truth ! 
This latter part of the transaction is but after all a trifling 
affair when compared to what occurred to me at another 
time, when H.M. schooner the Milbrook was shipwrecked, 
as was stated in a former part of these memoirs. On that 
occasion I lost, with almost everything else, my case of 
surgical instruments, with which every naval surgeon is 
compelled to provide himself at his own cost, amounting to 
between thirty-five and forty pounds. To recover that 
amount I had to make countless applications to the Ad- 
miralty and to the Transport Board, to obtain at length the 
insufficient sum of twenty-five pounds, and that only, after 
many years had elapsed and I was no longer in the service : 
neither was I likely to obtain even that tardy and imperfect 
justice, I firmly believe, had not my good friend at the 
Foreign Office interposed in my behalf 

" In mezzo del cammino di nostra vita," sang Dante. 
He must have referred to the first half of a man's life, which 
serves him to prepare to live over the other half to come, 
and thus conclude the full period of his earthly career. 
Now my own position at this time differed from that. I 
too, I may saj^, had arrived at my half-way house, where I 
might seat myself, look quietly around me, and after reflect- 
ing on all I had gone through — whether for good or for 
woe, try — try to do what ? Not what most people placed 
in such circumstances would try to do, namely, to study 
what should be the next move, or, perhaps, what one is 
in duty bound to do during the remaining half of his 
cammino della vita. 



I was again taking my place in tLis great metropolis 
mider different circumstances from those in which I first 
made my appearance, and I boldly assumed my place by 
the side of medical practitioners the best favoured by For- 
tune, the most patronized and felicitous, not presuming to 
equal them in professional worth and experience, but claim- 
ing to be placed on a par with them in the estimation of 
those families of note to whom I had yielded beneficial 
service, and whose gratitude for the past I had earned 
not less than their good- will for the future. Here is an 
example : — 

" St James Street. 11th May, 1819. 

" My dear Sir, — I have the honour of enclosing you a 
small memorial of my late beloved father, who expressed 
in May last, among other wishes, one to the following effect : 
' I wish a ring to be presented to my friend Dr. Granville, as 
a token of my regard and my sense of his kind care a,nd 
attention during my late illness.' I beg leave to add the 
expression of my own esteem and gratitude for your long 
and persevering attention to my lamented parent. Believe 
me always with great regard, 

"My dear Sir, 

** Yours most sincerely, 

"Th. H. Farquhar.'' 

But more flattering than the diamond ring was a subse- 
quent present from Sir Thomas, with the following note : — 

" I send herewith some medical books, of which I beg 
your acceptance. They are old editions, and I fear not 
valuable, but you will no doubt prize them as having been 
the property of my beloved and ever-lamented father, as a 
proof of the regard felt by him and by 

" Yours sincerely, 

"Th. H. Farquhar. 

" St. James Street. Mav 19, 1820." 


Many other equally flattering testimonials of approval, 
not a few of them enclosing tokens out of the ordinary 
usage, came from other quarters, and it became evident 
that my position in the metropolis was assuming a tangible 
character. I ascertained when in London that Lady Ellen- 
borough had addressed a letter to the Duke of Clarence, 
recommending that on the approach of an important event 
in H.R.H.'s family I should be selected as the medical 
attendant of the duchess at a moment so significant to the 
interests of our country. Lady EUenborough had quoted a 
letter from Lady Frances Cole, who spoke strongly on the 
subject from her own experience. I was favoured with a sight 
of the duke's prompt and considerate reply to Lady Ellen- 
borough — " The Duchess of Clarence has already a medical 
attendant belonging to her household, in whom she 
confides." This was Doctor Halliday, doubtless a most 
respectable physician, but not an obstetrician in practice 
known to his brethren in London ; the result of which was 
made known to the public in a repetition of the failure to 
change the line of succession to the throne of Great Britain. 

Still, while Ifelt flattered at my success in the branch of 
the profession I had superadded to my other general quali- 
fications as a physician, I did not wish to blend the two forms 
of practice so far as that I should be considered a mere 
accoucheur. This aim I kept uniformly in view, and with 
complete success; at the same time I felt it a duty to 
attend closely to the exercise of the obstetrical branch for 
my own sake, as well as for the sake of the public institution 
I had undertaken to administer. 

Other occupations also engaged my attention as a matter 
of public interest. A mercantile association trading with 
the Levant had found the restrictions imposed by sanitary 
laws on their trade not only vexatious, but trenching on 
their profits. They induced a certain number of members 


of parliament to sympathize with them, and twice in the 
course of five years succeeded in obtaining the appointment - 
of a select committee ; the first time on the validity of the 
doctrine of contagion in plague, and . the second time on the ] 

foreign trade of the country so far as' it was affected by the 
existing regulations, or what are called quarantine laws. 
At each of these select committees I was examined, and I 
believe I may ascribe it in a great measure to the practical 
testimony I gave in both instances that the committee 
recorded in the Blue Book, " That they saw no reason to 
question the validity of the principle on which such regula- 
tions (e'.e., the quarantine laws) appear to have been adopted." 
The arguments I employed before the committee to obtain 
such a result were found to be irresistible. I implored the 
members not to propose any considerable relaxation on the 
existing quarantine regulations without due precaution, lest 
the other nations should include every English vessel in the 
quarantine restrictions, for fear of opening the door to con- 
tagious diseases. " Bear in mind," I said, " that in propor- 
tion as you relax your restrictions with regard to foul 
or clean bills of health from the Levant, or even from 
America, so will other European nations, particularly 
France, include you in their quarantine laws ; so that were 
you to "abrogate those laws entirely, all goods and vessels 
coming irom English ports would be made to undergo 
quarantine to some extent, even in proceeding to Calais." 
The committee put to me this question : "Do you think 
that relaxation in this country would induce foreign countries 
to make more strict regulations respecting English vessels ? " 
" There is little doubt of it. Let us look at the events that 
are passing before us. A bill is introduced under your 
sanction, abrogating all existing regulations on quarantine, 
and embodying more liberal and, as it is stated, less oppres- 
sive measures on the subject in a new act. The introduction 


of this act gives rise to discussion in the British House of 
Commdns, during which principles are promulgated wholly 
at variance with the doctrine sanctioned by a dear-bought 
experience by the highest authorities both dead and living, 
professional as well as unprofessional, by the testimony of 
many eye-witnesses, by the open declaration of many of the 
highest medical tribunals in England, and lastly of a report 
from a committee of that very House in which such heterodox 
principles are now avowed and eloquently insisted upon. 
Vessels coming from Alexandria are permitted to unload 
their cargoes of -cotton without performing quarantine, 'or 
after performing only a short one, and now behfold the con- 
sequence of all this. The board of health at Leghorn have 
been deliberating on the propriety of subjecting all vessels 
from Great Britain to quarantine (we are informed by 
Lloyd's agents), in consequence of the dangerous changes 
made in England in reducing the time formerly fixed for sur- 
veillance; and further, the magistrates at Genoa have 
actually ordered that all ships coming from England with 
or without any sort of goods should perform quarantine 
fifteen days ; and if with Levant goods on board, that the 
quarantine shall extend to forty days, the goods being at 
the same time discharged and submitted to expurgation ; 
and now, still more recently, in the third category of pro- 
hibitory laws we have resolutions from Marseilles, Minorca, 
Barcelona, Naples, and Palermo of the same restrictive 

Public notice of all these foreign municipal regula- 
tions actually appeared in the public journals almost 
simultaneously, as I predicted on the very day after the 
second reading of the Quarantine Relaxing Bill by a small 

Now indeed was the realization of my distasteful warning 
seen to come unawares upon us, and the commercial rela-. 


tions between this country and all other European nations 
were dislocated or broken. A reyulsion of ideas among 
ministers, as well as in the Commons, became manifest, in 
the midst of which confusion and fright, came down with 
that irate yet scornful declaration of his, the prudent 
Canning, who bade the senseless non-contagionists look 
to themselves, and try their experiments in corpore vili, 

I may now proceed with my narrative after such a dis- 
quisition, in which the reader no doubt will recognize the 
spirit of ambition that naturally animates the medical author 
who is conscious of having rendered service to his fellow- 
creatures. The length of time I had passed in Paris in 
reading and studying the various continental journals, 
whether medical or merely scientific, for the purpose of 
summarizing their contents, and in that state communicating 
them to societies in London, or to editors of certain English 
journals, had given me a certain facility, and at the same 
time a degree of pleasure and satisfaction in the doing it. 
No wonder, therefore, that I should readily accept a proposal 
made to me by a firm of medical booksellers, Messrs. Burgess 
and Hill, to edit a popular medico-scientific journal, the form 
and character of which I had myself suggested. Its object 
was mainly to be a monthly analytical index of the periodical 
' literature of the day, of the transactions of medical and 
scientific societies, and, in fact, of all works, no matter from 
what country, connected with medical subjects. It was 
a small octavo, and in small type, so as to embrace much 
matter, and it was issued at a lower price than any other of 
the contemporary journals. Its title was " The Medical 
Intelligencer,'' and it appeared twice a week. It served as 
a stimulus for the establishment of another weekly journal 
which, under the title of the " Lancet," from the first com- 
manded popularity, and next the esteem and approbation of 
the whole profession; while the same ''Intelligencer'' 




"the medical intelligencer." 175 

served to rouse the other, or second weekly contemporary, 
the " Gazette," from the torpor that was overcoming it. 

Our little journal proved a success, and my ambition as 
its editor would have been quite satisfied to have continued 
it as originally devised, for at all events it possessed the 
merit of originality. But the booksellers were of a different 
opinion. Their aim was the establishment of a distinct 
rival to the " London Medical and Physical Journal ; " and 
accordingly, when the second volume of the "Medical 
Intelligencer " was ushered into the world, in January, 1821, 
it had assumed the shape, size, type, and importance of the 
most favoured of the medical monthlies published in Eng- 
land. Two new and original features were introduced on 
assuming the enlarged form ; viz., a department called the 
" Glance," in which I inserted all the medical, scientific, 
and literary chat or miscellaneous gossip I could gather 
from most worthy contributors; and secondly, another 
department or section, called the " Appellant," which 
offered to authors who considered themselves aggrieved by 
misrepresentation, partiality, unfair criticism, plagiarism, or 
any other moral injury, a channel for vindicating themselves 
or their doctrines, provided it were done in fair and con- 
densed terms, a small charge being made for the insertion. 

At about this period the resignation of the editorship of 
the " London Medical and Physical Journal " by Dr. 
Hutchinson having taken place, I accepted the offer of the 
same, deeming the post more consonant with the higher 
position I was acquiring in the profession. Accordingly I 
conducted that journal for two years, until the accumulating 
duties of a general and . obstetrical practice, as well as of a 
lecturer, entirely precluded the possibility of my attending 
to so much extra mental labour. In the two years I 
edited this veteran journal it will be found that I left the 
mark of my eagerness and zeal for its advancement and 




improvement. I may point first to a more stringent and 
exhaustive process of critical reviewing adopted regarding a 
question which a work of Dr. Mackintosh had started in 
reference to the unfortunate epidemic of puerperal fever that 
proved so fatal in the winter of 1821-2 all over England, 
but more especially in the English and Scottish capitals ; 
apd next I claim having introduced into the journal at the 
end of every half-year a summary of what had transpired, 
either in works or doctrines, in the course of the preceding 
six months, in medical and scientific Europe. 

I have recorded little or nothing - of my renewed inter- 
course, while in Italy, with the few eminent professors or 
practical physicians surviving, with whom I had been in ' 
habits of intimacy or correspondence many years before, 
and yet to some of them I am indebted for the knowledge 
of that powerful medical agent which has been productive 
of great benefit to sufiering humanity, and of no trifling ad- 
vantage to myself, who introduced and made it known in 
England as an almost national remedy never again to be 
abandoned. Certain professors of materia inedica, in the 
north of Italy, had found in the use of laurel water a remedy 
eminently calculated to allay excitement, or what Broussais 
called membranous irritation. . I had been a witness to many 
acute paroxysms of irritative cough, accompanied with pain 
in the chest, which had given way to a few doses of laurel 
water, and I naturally became desirous of making myself 
master of the question, in order that I might introduce the 
subject to the consideration of my professional brethren in 

The power of laurel water on the human frame had un- 
fortunately been made sufficiently manifest by some cases 
of poisoning through its use. As the leaves of laurel had 
been found by analytical chemists to contain what Scheele^ 
the Swedish chemist, had called prussic acid, it was inferred 


that laurel water owed its peculiar property to that prin- 
ciple. Hence, as soon as Gay-Lussac had investigated this 
substance, to which (after having made out its 4rue chemical 
nature) he gave the name of hydrocyanic acid, the medicinal 
agent under the new name was adopted by the profession, 
and under that denomination I introduced it for the first 
time to the notice of my medical brethren in England. 
Thus it stands at present duly registered in the medical ) 
Pharmacopoeia. -^^ 

The foremost of the Italian profession who had studied, 
and in their ordinary practice were in the habit of using 
laurel water in my time, were Borda, Brera, Mangili, 
Brugnatelli, my own preceptor, Dr. Rasori, and a few others. 
But to Dr. Magendie in France and to myself in England 
belongs the responsibility of employing the real hydrocyanic 
acid in its intrinsic power, diluted with ten or twelve parts 
of water, and in that condition administered in doses of a 
few drops, according to the inveteracy of the disorder. 

The publication of my essay on prussic acid in 1819, 
which was followed almost immediately by a second and 
enlarged edition, containing a complete history of the 
remedy, and of the many remarkable recoveries it had 
achieved in my own practice, and that of some well-known 
professional men both in London and in the country, besides 
increasing my general medical practice, involved me, malgr6 
moiy in a controversy with the very last person I should 
have expected to be Ukely to sliow any appearance of ill- 
will against me, either as an author, a chemist, or medical 
journalist. The editor of an esteemed journal connected 
with the Royal Institution, — to which we both belonged as 
active members, and to whom I had supplied continuously 
valuable materials and contributions, — openly attacked my 
volume in general terms, simply because I demurred to the 
preference he pretended to assign to the pnissic acid pre- 

VOL. ir. N 



pared under his own directions by the Society of Apothe- 
carieSf of which he was the chemist. It was admitted that 
the acid so prepared was discoloured, impure, and deposited 
a sediment in contrast with the acid prepared according to 
Professor Vauquelin's method by a pharmaceutical chemist 
named Garden, working under my direction in London. 
Fortunately the editorship of the " Medical Intelligencer" 
enabled me to demonstrate the complete fallacy of all Pro- 
fessor Brande's allegations and arguments, and at the same 
time the correctness of what I had advanced in my treatise 
on the remedy in question, which is now prepared uniformly 
according to the process I had recommended on Vauquelin's 
authority. It is doubly gratifying to me to be able to quote 
a letter from my best friend respecting the effect which my 
exposition of Dr. Brande's unaccountable, not to say un- 
grateful, proceedings in this instance of prussic acid appeared 
to have been received by the public : — 

« Southampton. July 19th, 1821. 

"My dear Granville, — My thanks for the excellent 
account you give me of your proceedings, in spite of the 
opposition of Messrs. Brande and Co. You have certainly 
got the whip-hand in your Prussian warfare. But I should 
recommend much caution in your polemics, and remember 
that one enemy can do more harm than twenty friends can 
do good. I return herewith Mr. Ryder's letter, which I 

have not shown to Mr. F ; for though it is highly 

complimentary and satisfactory to you, it is evidently meant 
only for your eye. It is well to adopt at once a rule of not 
disclosing to any individual, however eager they may be 
in your cause, what has been confidentially communicated 
to you. 

" Yours, 

" W. Hamilton." 


But this identical remedy was destined to be the cause of 
more than one other remonstrance on my part, not against 
attacks upon me as the author of the mentioned treatise, 
nor for the purpose of refuting any severe criticism of that 
evoked, but simply to expose instances of plagiarism of my 
initiation of the remedy into medical practice ; or again to 
show how deliberately some writers attributed to other 
authors the credit due to myself of having been the first to 
introduce that powerful remedy into the practice of medi- 
cine. Even as late as within the last year or two such a 
blunder was committed by the principal writer of a very 
estimable and useful work on materia medica, who assigns 
in direct words to another medical man " the first introduc- 
tion of pinissic acid in medicine in this country." In this 
instance, however, the writer has acknowledged his uiistake 
privately to myself on the mis-statement being pointed out 
to him, and has promised to rectify it in a future edition. 
Indeed, the "popularity which the remedy and the work 
which first made it known acquired in England, induced 
other medical men to assume the merit of having been the 
first to recommend it in certain complaints as a new remedy, 
although the identical recommendation had been distinctly 
and most emphatically urged by myself. The " Lancet," 
in vol. 35, for the year 1838-9, at page 113, exhibits the 
most flagrant example X)f plagiarism in regard to this very 
question that the history of practical medicine can offer. 
The treatise as published in 1820 contains a full and com- 
plete statement of one of the complaints for the cure of 
which I recommended^ the use of prussic acid, namely, that 
worrying and often dangerous complaint to children, the 
whooping-cough, and then proceeds to detail the number of 
cases of that description treated and cured by prussic acid, 
among which cases I signalize in an especial manner those 
of not fewer than four of my own children, and of a whole 



family of children of a particular friend of mine, all of whom 
had suffered simultaneously and recovered alike, besides 
quoting other cases, the names of each party even being 
given. Well! nineteen years after my publication, Dr. 
Hamilton Roe actually issued from the press, in all the 
pomp of a new discovery, a book or treatise with this title : 
"On a New or Specific Mode of treating Pertussis or 
Whooping-Cough by Prussic Acid,*' and it says not one 
word of that remedy having been first proposed and 
employed with complete success by myself in a work the 
existence of which is entirely ignfored. In Christian charity 
I will ascribe the omission to forgetfulness, as otherwise one 
could scarcely conceive so glaring an attempt to strip 
another person and assume for oneself the credit of having 
recommended a new and particular treatment in a particular 
disorder under every circumstance identical. 

Not long after the publication of the original treatise on 
prussic acid, my practice increased in a remarkable degree. 
It was evident that the true and most effectual mode of 
treating affections of the chest had not yet been found out, 
that the public were still waiting for a more successful 
treatment, and that one such being proposed under plausible 
auspices, its adoption would be prompt and extensive. 
Such generally is the march of any new heroic or extra- 
ordinary remedy on its first introduction, and it has proved 
so with regard to prussic acid, the value of which remedy 
.continues in universal esteem until this day. 

From all that precedes it will appear manifest that on 
resuming my post in the metropolis after my return from 
Paris I found plenty of work to do, and plenty of encourage- 
ment for doing it, but there had been other proposals made 
to me for work of a different class which it would be a dis- 
tinction to decline. One morning, about the time when the 
town was in a state of commotion at an expected trial of an 


exalted lady before the Lords, I received the following 
note : — 

^' Foreign Office. Tuesday, half-past two. 

" Dear Dr. Granville, — Could you call in upon me in 
your drive for a moment before five o'clock to-day, or 
(what perhaps would be more convenient) would you look 
in upon me at my own house to-morrow morning, between 
ten and eleven o'clock, for five minutes ? 

" Very sincerely yours, 

*• J. Planta.*" 

The object of the interview was explained very briefly, 
and it was as briefly responded to. The government was 
embanrassed for the want of an interpreter to examine the 
Milanese and Lombard witnesses to be brought over from 
Como on the intended trial of the Princess of Wales. The 
Italian interpreter they had at their disposal, the Marquis 
Santini, a Neapolitan professor of Italian at Oxford, was quit« 
unable to comprehend or to make himself understood by 
the common people that were coming over from Lombardy 
to be examined. In my character of Milanese it was sup- 
posed that I could accomplish the task of interpreter on the 
occasion, and the request was whether I would consent to 
undertake that office. My reply to Mr. Planta was imme- 
diate, and in the negative, and I have every reason since to 
rejoice that I adopted the course I did. My own friends, 
and especially the one at the Foreign Office, expressed their 
unqualified approbation. 

One effect produced on my mind by success and appro- 
bation was an irresistible temptation to avail myself of the 
opportunity offered to me of promoting the advancement of 
my favourite branch of the medical profession, for the im- 
provement of which I was daily working. I have already 
alluded to my introduction of the practice of publishing an 


annual report on midwifery in the two lying-in institutions 
of which I had the direction. Next came the registration of 
all the cases admitted, showing their course and termination, 
thus forming an immense collection of facts which certain 
fortuitous circumstances very soon raised into public im- 
portance in a very interesting and notorious investigation 
before the House of Lords (a case known as the " Gardfier 
Peerage "). 

London was still deficient in one most essential branch of 
obstetrical experience, namely, in an institution or infirmary 
for the treatment of the diseases of children, which demand 
much knowledge, care, and attention, as well as a peculiar 
tact, discernment, and experience, in oi'der to render the 
treatment successful. For a period of twenty-two months 
while in Paris I had attended, daily at first, and afterwards 
three times a week, the Hfipital des Enfants Malades, under 
the direction of a Dr. Jadelot, a very able physician, and 
probably the most endearing and paternal medical attendant 
one could desire for the care of young creatures under twelve 
years of age. The government in Paris made all suitable 
provision for their proper maintenance and treatment, and 
certainly no better accommodation could have been provided 
than I witnessed within the walls of the public edifice in 
which they were located. 

'' Why," I inquired of my well-to-do friends in London, 
and also of many medical men, " why do we not possess an 
analogous establishment in this great metropolis?" With 
my previous experience I knew that such a boon could not 
be claimed or expected from the British government by 
simply demonstrating the importance and absolute necessity 
of the required object. In this country private benevolence 
takes the place of government munificence. With such a 
conviction in my mind I addressed a private appeal to some 
of my wealthiest patients, who had by this time become 


A children'^ dispensary. 183 

pretty numerous, men with families, who I thought were 
more likely to sympathize with my scheme and be disposed 
to assist me in carrying it out. I was naturally anxious to 
set about my operations at once, and I adopted therefore at 
first the plan so well understood in this country, that of a 
dispensary, to which young children might be brought by 
their mothers for advice and medicine, or when unable, 
owing to the nature of the complaint, to attend, to be visited 
at their own habitations by either physician or surgeon, 
according to the nature of the case. To facilitate operations 
and multiply beneficial help, I proposed, and was allowed 
by the committee I had brought together, to establish three 
stations, each station attended by a suitable staff of medical 
officers and attendants, with the appointment of one or two 
respectable dispensing chemists residing near the station, 
so that the prescriptions of the medical officers might be 
properly dispensed on the application of the parents. 

As in the category of medicines suitable for complaints 
of young children many are simple and applicable to many 
patients, the quantity given only being varied, I composed 
and printed a pharmacopoeia m usu nosocomn^ ad morbos 
puerorum curandoSj in which the simplest formulae for 
purgative, depurgative, alterative, strengthening, and febri- 
fuge remedies were laid down, which the chemist was 
bound to keep prepared according to my printed formula, 
all of which were numbered so as to render the work of 
both the prescriber and the dispenser particularly easy. 
The required remedies thus indicated by number, and the 
dose to be administered mentioned, were all inserted on the 
back of the paper each patient's mother was furnished with 
on being admitted, on which paper the medical officer was 
expected in the first instance to briefly describe the case, 
and subsequently the progress of the complaint on every 
visit paid by or to the patient. Every mother on the ter- 


minatiou of the case was bound to return the paper to the 
medical officer, with her name subscribed to a couple of 
lines with which she rendered thanks to the subscribers. 

Nothing could work more satisfactorily, and speaking in a 
professional point of view I would infinitely prefer this 
system to that of a hospital, for no hired nurse can in a hospital- 
ward bestow the love and care a mother will give to a child 
in her own home. At the same time I confess that my aim 
at first had been to establish an indoor infirmary. But for | 

such. a pretentious scheme no funds could be secured, and j 

when most of my own firiends by whom I had been helped ' 

had seceded, or died, or left London, the fimds even for the j 

simplest and most inexpensive plan of a dispensary failed, 
and after fifteen years' incessant attendance I beheld with 
sorrow the closing of the institution. On my part I inherited 
the half-dozen ponderous registers of the medical and sur- \ 

gical practice of that period, among which very many ex- ' 

traordinary cases and instructive incidents of a medical 
nature were recorded. I owe it to the memory of many 
benevolent and humane persons to record these facts. 
From the commencement, as during the whole course of 
the fifteen years they stood by me as acting and directing 
committees of the institution, promoting subscriptions and 
donations by sermons, public dinners, or private applications 
to firiends. Some of the members of the committee would 
visit the station in the locality in which they resided, Soho, 
Marylebone, or Lower Westminster, encouraging by their 
presence and kindness both patients and parents. Chief 
among such Samaritans it behoves me to name the V^ 
Rev. E. Law, Bishop of Chester, of whose family I was the 
medical attendant ; and also the Rev. Anthony Hamilton, 
the worthy brother of my old friend, who was constant and 
indefatigable in upholding the institution to the last, the 
committee of which often assembled under his own roof in 


the parochial library of St. Martin's, the Bishop of Chester 
generally taking the chair. Beloved dead, Xoipcrc ! 

After an attendance of fifteen years . at the principal 
station, I had the names of twenty-five thousand children 
on my own individual register, with the columns which 
contained the ultimate result of each case neatly filled up. 
A more important establishment of an analogous kind, I am 
happy to know, has succeeded my own. I allude to the 
one in Great Ormond Street, in which sick children are 
admitted as in-patients, as well as many of them attended 
at their parents' homes. I may therefore rejoice at the fact, 
that whereas on my first settling in great London, I found 
it entirely without any provision for the treatment of the 
diseases of children, there is at present such an institution, 
of which I may say our own infirmary may be considered 
as having been a stimulating model. 



All event in the history of the Royal Society — Sir Homphiy Davy succeeds to 
the chair — Letter from Mr. Hamilton^John A. Ransome—A Persian 
satrap in London — A lady sculptor — ^Anecdote of Dr. Baillie — Great 
success of prussic acid — Saves the life of the Countess of Onslow — Rapid 
journey to Wilton House— Happy result 

It was about the middle of 1820 that no trifling commo- 
tion was taking place in the scientific world in consequence 
of the vacancy in t)ie chair of the Royal Society by the 
death of the venerable president, Sir Joseph Banks. At 
this election, the first that had occurred for a number of 
years, in consequence of the practice of annually re-electing 
the same person as president, the fellows split themselves 
into as many groups as there were candidates proposed to 
succeed to the vacant post. The first discussion entered 
upon was whether the chair should be filled, as hitherto, by 
a man eminent in some one branch of science, like Sir 
Joseph (who excelled in botanical science, besides having 
been a great navigator, the companion of Cook), or by a 
person illustrious for his birth, wealth, and love of science, 
of which he would be likely to become a patron. In the 
latter category of candidates was placed Lord Colchester, 
late Speaker of the House of Commons, and I forget who 
besides. In the former category, more than one really 
eminent scientific man had been nominated. Foremost 
stood Sir Humphry Davy, whose lofty reputation as a 
chemical discoverer received universal acknowledgment, 
when out of the two special alkaline bases of soda and 


potassa he eliminated by the power of voltaic electricity 
two new metals, sodium and potassium. 

Some among the fellows considered Dr. WoUaston a 
proper and fit person to succeed to the chair. A committee 
of his friends was formed, in which one of the secretaries of 
the society took an active part, how far consistently with 
his character as an actual paid officer I do not pretend to 
decide. From him, however, I received the following can- 
vassing note in behalf of the doctor : — 

" No. 33, Great Portland Street. 21 June, 1820. 

" Sir, — Dr. WoUaston's friends hope that he may be 
induced to offer himself as a candidate for the presidency of 
the Royal Society, in which case they beg to be favoured 
with your vote and interest. I have to add, that it is at 
the particular suggestion of Dr. Latham, who assists them 
on this occasion, that I have taken the liberty of addressing 

" I have the honour to be 

" Your most obedient humble servant, 

" J. F. W. Herschel. 
" Dr. W.'s friends will be obliged by an early answer." 

A rumour had also been spread that the Duke of Somer- 
set would very likely be nominated as another candidate. 

Sir Humphry Davy happened to be at Rome in that 
summer, his lady alone having returned to England on 
account of her health. I therefore took upon myself the 
duty of informing Sir Humphry of the different phases 
which the canvassing for the vacant chair was undergoing. 
One of my letters sufficed to put him in possession of all the 
information I could gather : — 

- « Savile How. 17th August, 1820. 

" My dear Sir, — It was only the day before yesterday 
that your friends became assured of the duke having no 


longer any pretension to contest the chair with you, and 
also that fair-play in another quarter was intended. But I 
was perfectly justified in calling your attention to the 
subject when I did so, because on the very evening before 
I wrote my letter to you, I received one requesting me to 
keep myself open, as another desirable candidate was likely 
to start. Since then I have seen two of the individuals 
whom I had originally canvassed for you (one of them 
Sir Gore Ouseley), who had then excused themselves from 
acceding to my request in consequence of a pre-engagement 
in favour of the Duke of Somerset. They both acknow- 
ledged that their candidate had withdrawn, and promised 
me their votes. 

" Sure of success as you are, however, I still think that the 
plan of urging your friends (which I invariably do) to come 
and give their personal votes on the day of election is a 
desirable one to be followed. Sir Joseph's retention of 
ojBice was carried by half a dozen votes each year ; but a 
new president, and one with so many claims to the chair, 
should be seated in it by a majority of members all present 
to testify by their numbers the prevailing sentiments of 
esteem and respect for his talents throughout the society* 
One of the circumstances which led me to suppose that 
something mysterious was going on, was the nature of the 
answer I received from Mr. Newnham CoUingwood, who is 
staying in Edinburgh, and whose vote in your favour I had 
applied for. His letter bore a very recent date, and gave 
as a reason for declining to act with my request, that he 
had the very day before been canvassed for Dr. WoUaston, 
to whom he thought his vote was due, because to him he 
owed his own election into the society. Of course this must 
be a mistake, and perhaps the distance at which Mr. Col- 
lingwood happens to be from the capital gave rise to it I 
shall, however, keep on the qui vive during your absence, 


and hold you acquainted with any circumstance which may 
come to my knowledge that may at all interest you. I am 
happy to inform you in the mean time that Lady Davy 
is decidedly improving in her health, and feels herself 
getting better daily. 

" Believe me yours sincerely, 

" A. B. Granville, M.D. 

« To Sir Humphry Davy, Bt, Rome." 

The ballot took place as usual on St. Andrew's day, 
when the election of Sir Humphry Davy was carried 

Among many letters fi-om abroad which afforded me real 
pleasure, was one from my constant friend, whose absence 
from London I had regretted much, and who was now 
appointed minister plenipotentiary to the court of Naples : — 

*^ Southampton. July 15th, 1821. 

** Dear Granville, — I cannot be so near London with- 
out sending you a line to say that I hope to see you in the . 
course of eight or nine days. I shall go up to town to the 
lev^e on the 25th, but as I shall be your neighbour at 
Mr. Planta's, in Burlington Street, I must beg of you not 
to lose youri;ime in looking out for me before I call at your 
door ; and as I can guess at your hours of seeing company^ 
I dare say I shall not fail in finding you at home. Our 
whole party are, as a body may say, in good health, Mrs. 
H. certainly the least stout of the seven travellers. She 
will, however, remain for a few months here and in the Isle 
of Wight, to pick up for body and mind, health, strength, 
and embonpoint. I am still as much wedded as ever to my 
vegetable diet, and hope to give sufficiently convincing 
proof that, if not for all your patients, it is at least advisable 
for me. I got your letter about Angeloni at Paris. He 
called once on me at a time I was very busy, and I never 


saw him afterwards. He had much better be quiet, and 
think himself in high luck to have got so well out of hk 
scrape. I am delighted to hear your time is so well 
employed, and hope it will continue so for some years to 
come. My cousin, Mr. Ryder, is anxious that you should 
see his wife, but I do not know how he will bring it about. 
" All here desire to be kindly remembered to you, and 

" I am yours ever, 

**Wm. Hamilton. 

" Dr. Granville. 

" Pray give me a line on the state of the natural sciences, 
and about the Royal Society in London, &c." 

Now and then it was a great treat for me to keep up 
communication with friends whom brotherhood in a scien- 
tific society had rendered dear to me. One of these was 
the secretary of the Literary and Philanthropical Society of 
Manchester,' who enjoyed, besides that of a scientific man, 
the reputation of being the most eminent surgeon of the 
Manchester Infirmary. John A. Ransome, like his chief, 
Dalton, belonged to the Society of Friends, and I loved 
much to be addressed* by him, whether in words or by 
letters, in the tutoyer style, which, for an Italian Hke myself, 
awoke stronger feelings of intimate fi^iendship and attach- 
ment than the more usual and formal style of address in 
English society. On the present occasion John Ransome 
fancied that I had taken a mortal offence at some neglect 
on his part to do a commission for me, and accordingly he 
expresses his wishes in his own style to effect a recon- 
ciliation : — 

" Esteemed Friend, — If I did not believe thee willing to 
forgive those who have offcAded thee, I could not now have 
plucked up courage to address thee. There is left but one 
means of atonement, to acknowledge myself a transgressor, 


and to promise amendment. With this, wilt thou again 
restore me to thy list of friends? a name I have never 
relinquished, however unworthy, none having rejoiced more 
sincerely than I have done in viewing thy brilliant march 
upon the road of science, reaping plenteously the honour 
and rewards due to merit. 

"After all, I wish this letter had been an offering less 
alloyed with selfish views. I blush when I think of 
the retort which is due, but having made the amende 
honorable in my power, I will cease apologizing, and state 
the cause of my intruding myself once more upon thy 
attention. Last November, or .about that time, I sent, 
through the medium of Astley Cooper, Esq., a paper to the 
Royal Society, describing a peculiarity in the eye of the 
whale, which I believe had hitherto been overlooked by 
anatomists. It consists in two muscles running through 
the sclerotica, to be inserted into each side of the cornea, 
and adjusting it either for near or distant vision, or for 
adapting the focal powers of the eye to the different media 
of the air and water. This paper has, I believe, been read, 
and as I flattered myself that the discovery of these muscles 
will tend to establish the part of the eye which is adjusted 
for near or distant vision, I have felt disappointed in not 
finding it in the last volume of the * Transactions.' I may, 
and I fear I do, ,fix more value on the subject than it 
deserves; but I am anxious just to learn whether the 
society deem it worthy of a place in their volume ; if not, I 
shall give it to the public in some other of the periodical 
scientific publications. They may rest assured that this is 
no creature of my own imagination. The muscles have 
been seen by Dr. Henry, Dr. Holme, and several profes- 
sional men here, all of whom are perfectly satisfied as to 
their nature. Might I then trouble thee, at thy earliest 
convenience, to inquire the opinion of the council, and to 


favour me with a reply as short as my merit deserves, or as 
long as thy kindness will allow. 

** I sent the preparation to A. Cooper, who I believe sent 
it to Sir Everard Home. Not knowing this gentleman, I ^ 

could not muster up courage to address him. Since last 
year I have procured more eyes, which, if the present of 
one of them to the Royal Society would be acceptable, 
I should be very much pleased in offering it to them. 

" Since thou hast left Manchester I have added much to 
my anatomical collection: a description of some organis 
remora which I have procured I should be glad to send to 
the society ; but I feel discouraged, and almost tempted to 
think that my contributions are even so much below zero 
that I had better save pen, ink, and paper, and jog on as 
Nature intended, bleeding, blistering, and so forth. 

^* With every sentiment of esteem and respect, believe 
me truly thy small friend, 

** J. A. Ransome. 

^ Manchester. 12th December, 1820. 

" A. B. Granville, M.D., Savile Row.'* 

I replied to this naive and simple-minded writer at once, 
and promised to attend in my place at the next meeting of 
the Royal Society, make the necessary inquiries, and inform 
him of the result by the following post. 

An occasion to visit and attend professionally a great 
Persian satrap, and an ambassador to boot, does not present 
itself 80 commonly to a London physician that I should 
omit to record the one which fell to my lot about this time, 
thanks to my intimate relation with Sir Gore Ouseley. 
Mirza Aboul Hassan Khan, envoy extraordinary from Persia 
to this court, was on a visit to England, when I was 
honoured with an invitation to meet his excellency at dinner, 
at Sir Gore's, in Bruton Street. Sir Gore Ouseley occupied 
the seat opposite the minister; Mr. James Morier, who had 



resided in a diplomatic capacity in Persia, was on the 
present occasion appointed interpreter, and he and Captain 
Willcox, both of whom I knew w^ell, as having been once 
my patients, with Colonel D'Arcy also, who had been five 
years resident in Persia, were of the party. The present 
was the ambassador's second visit to this country. He 
had resided in London for a period of several months, 
having landed at Plymouth on the 30th of November, 
1809, after which residence he returned to Persia, accom- 
panied by Sir Gore himself, who had been on that occasion 
appointed English - minister at the* court of Persia, where 
he resided for two years. On his first visit to London, 
Mirza Aboul Hassan Khan was received by the king *with 
great pomp, the cortSge being preceded by a corps of 
lancers, followed by six of the state carriages, surrounded 
by numerous detachments of the Royal Horse Guards ; and 
I was informed that when the ambassador entered the 
presence chamber he carried his credentials in his hands in 
an elegant gold casket, placed on an ornamental salver of 
silver covered with crimson velvet. 

On his second visit, the one I am recording, Mirza Aboul 
was received by the Prince Regent on his throne at Carlton 
House in a style suited to his rank, and worthy of the 
English court. Mirza was accompanied by Dill Arum 
(heart's ease), a fair Circassian, who excited an immense 
curiosity among the higher circle of ladies, who so pressed 
their entreaties upon his excellency, that at last he graciously 
permitted a certain number of great ladies to be intro- 
duced to her, in the drawing-room of his excellency's 
residence in Charles Street, Berkeley Square, to the very 
complete satisfaction of the fair visitors and the fiiU reali- 
zation of their expectations. 

Fortunately, the occasion for my professional interference 
with the minister was of a trifling nature, but it afforded 

VOL. ir. o 

. I 


me an opportunity I had not yet had since my return from 
the Levant of showing my acquaintance with the Turkish 
language, which Mirza was well acquainted with, and of 
hearing myself once more addressed as hekim-bashi. 

I must now mention another patient whom I was proud 
in attending, on account of the distinguished place she 
occupied in society as a sculptor in marble of considerable 
merit. I allude to the daughter of Field-Marshal Henry 
Seymqur Conway, brother of the first Marquis of Hertford, 
of whose health I had the care, and in whose studio I was 
often admitted to pay my visits to her as the Honourable 
Ann Seymour Damer, whose chiselled productions have 
frequently been exhibited and admired at the Rgyal 
Academy. She was born in 1748, and reminded me of 
the fair artiste from whom I had taken lessons in painting 
when a mere stripling ; nor was Mrs. Seymour Damer very 
unlike La Signora Corneo of Milan, in manner, in talent, or 
in kind disposition towards her attendant physician. I had 
been introduced to her professionally by a relative of hers. 
Sir Alexander Johnstone, and I frequently attended her at 
Strawberry Hill, as well as at her London house in Upper 
Brook Street. 

Equally honoured did I feel at about the same time in 
being called in consultation with Matthew Baillie, the great 
physician and anatomist of the day, on the precarious state 
of health of Bishop Tomline of Winchester, in whom I soon 
learned to admire the acute and able biographer of the 
great minister Pitt. Doctor Baillie and myself would some- 
times fancy we beheld Pitt himself in looking at and hear- 
ing speak the man who had been both the preceptor and 
the biographer of the most eminent statesman modern 
England could justly boast of. I remember that at one of 
our visits, Mrs. TomUne, who was by habit loquacious, after 
hearing from Dr. Baillie the joint report of the result of 



our consultation on the state of the bishop, commenced a 
voluble cross-examination of the worthy doctor in all and 
every topic referable to the case and its treatment, which I 
had left to my senior to explain. Doctor Baillie really 
behaved with admirable sang froid under the infliction of . 
a string of unmeaning phrases and unnecessary questions, / 
many of the answers to which she pressed the good doctor ^ 
to write down for her. When he had come to the end of a 
second page, he rose and said : — " Now, dear madam, here j 

you have every instruction and direction you can possibly 
require, and I must bid you a very good day.*' Shaking 
hands with me, he turned to the stairs, the bottom of which 
he had nearly reached, when Mrs. Tomline, rushing out of 
the drawing-room on to the landing, said, " Dear me, I have 
forgotten to ask a particular question after all," which she 
mentioned to me, " but the dear good man is so impatient." 
I, cried out instantly at the top of my voice, looking down 
the well staircase — " Doctor Baillie, Doctor Baillie, Mrs. 
Tomline asks whether the bishop may eat oysters." " Oh 
yes, yes, yes," was the reply that came up, " but not the 
shells." I know that this repartee has been converted into 
a coarse joke, quite inconsistent with the humane feeling 
and good breeding for which Dr. Baillie was well known. 
But whatever degree of sarcasm the real reply as I heard 
it might be deemed to contain, I can vouch that it was so, 
and not otherwise uttered. 

The publication of my treatise on the successful effects 
of prussic acid in arresting the progi^ess of puhnonary 
affections threatening to merge into that state of organic 
destruction called consumption,' had by this time made such 
an impression upon both patients and medical men, that I 
soon found myself embarrassed by difficulties arising from 
the distance at which some of the worst sufferers resided from 
the metropolis, who required personal as well as frequent 

o 2 



attendance. A note from the Earl of Onslow, which I 
turn up amongst my cases, reminds me of an example of 
this kind of laborious practice, while it announces the 
favourable termination of the xiisease in hand. The 
Countess Onslow had been lying for several weeks at 
Clan don in the most distressing state of health, consequent 
on a neglected attack of pneumonia, which for many days 
had seriously threatened her life. Called to visit her at 
Clandon, T was able, after exploring the cavity of the chest 
with the stethoscope, to administer to her the hydrocyanic 
acid, whick his lordship would not permit any other medical 
man to attempt. I perfectly remember his lordship's devo- 
tion and immense anxiety throughout the long attendance 
while my lady was confined to her bed ; and the pains he 
took to see that each day from the commencement of the 
attack, and three times a week subsequently until the case 
was completed, four of Newman's horses should be at 
Savile Row at six in the afternoon with my own britska, 
to convey me to Clandon for the night and bring me back 
the follownng morning. The distance of thirty miles was 
quickly accomplished, but the great depth and constant 
fall of enow during that severe winter sometimes retarded 
my arrival, which was always looked for with the very 
utmost anxiety by the patient, by whose bedside I used to 
pass a great part of the night. At last, after I had com- 
menced to relax my attendance, the following cheering note 
came from his lordship : — 

" Clandon. Jan. 19th. 

" Mv DEAR Sir, — I am enabled, thanks to Almighty God, 
to report most favourably of Lady Onslow, who I think is 
almost to be envied in the nest of down vou contrived for 
her with an external temperature of 12^. Pray be good 
enough to let me know the ^ame of your banker. 

!' Most truly yours, 

** Onslow." 




Much as I had reason to rejoice at the successful issue of 
this dangerous illness, which confirmed the opinion enter- 
tained of the eflficacy of the new remedy, another medical 
case, dififering entirely in its nature from the preceding, 
being *connected with obstetrical practice and not with 
general medicine, afforded me even greater satisfaction, for 
in it I had positively been the hand which, guided by 
Providence, snatched a victim of ignorauce from the imme- 
diate brink of the grave. Two simple remarks I will take 
the liberty of adding — vi^., first, that the case I am here 
alluding to proved to the medical attendant one of those 
turns of fortune which suddenly, as it were, lifts a man from 
one station to a higher ; and* next, that the difficulty of the 
case, its imminent danger, the manner in which that danger 
was avertedj and the manifest advantage derived on the 
occasion from the possession of positive superior instruction 
over mere nominal repute in a profession, exemplifies most 
distinctly the truth, not less than the justice, of the observa- 
tion I made when on learning the death of Princess Charlotte 
I exclaimed — " Too late, too latei" 

I had just finished my family dinner on the 7th of February, 
1822, when a fierce pull at that night bell, which has 
always startled me with mingled feelings of hope and fear 
ever since I first admitted it at my door side, sounded two 
or three times in quick succession, and a servant soon ap- 
peared with a sealed packet, which he said a post-boy had 
delivered to him, calling it an express, and which ,was 
accompanied by an open circular from the Lord Lieutenant of 
Wiltshire, entreating all successive postmasters on the road 
to London to assist in hastening the transmission of the 
packet. The superscription outside the packet was — 
** Wilton House, half-past nine o'clock, a.m., February 7th, 
1822.'' It was then a little more than six o'clock p.m. in 
Savile Row. The packet, therefore, had taken exactly 


nine hours to reach my house — a distance of about ninety- 
six miles. The road had been for several days covered 
with deep snow. I made this calculation at once, for I 
foresaw that I should have to go through the same opera- 
tion as the express to get at the writer, should the present 
prove to be a summons to attend some patient, as indeed it 
turned out to be. This I discovered on opening the letter, 
which was signed by an eminent and well-known physician 
of Salisbury, Doctor Fowler, with whom I was acquainted. 
His communication was of so alarming a character, that 
even whilst reading it I cast off all hesitation, and then 
bade my servant fetch me a post-chaise and four from our 
near neighbour, Newman. The explicit manner in which 
the case was stated by Doctor Fowler, satisfied me that I 
should require nothing more than my head and manual 
dexterity. All I did was to put on some extra clothing, 
and taking my travelling reading lamp with me, within half 
an hour after his arrival the express boy from Wilton, who 
had brought me the summons, saw me turn out of Savile 
Row with four of Newman's greys to take the road he had 
just left. He had informed me that on arrival I should 
find four horses at every relay, for the Lord Lieutenant 
had given distinct orders to that effect, through himself, 
while on the road to London. I then read more attentively 
the despatch of my correspondent, which, after detailing the 
particulars of the case, went on to say : — " Lord Pembroke 
is very anxious that we should have your assistance, and 
you will therefore oblige us, and relieve him from much 
anxiety, by coming with all the haste possible. In case 
you should be so engaged as to render yom' coming impos- 
sible, his lordship will be obliged to you to beg Mr. Clarke, 
your neighbour, to come, if he can come immediately. If 
he cannot be had, Doctor Merriman, or Doctor Gooch. If 
no one of these gentlemen can come immediately, you will 




then have the goodness to send the person in whom you 
have most confidence. — I have the honour to be, Sir, your 
obedient humble servant, H. Fowler/' On the back of 
this was added : — " For God's sake come yourself if you 
possibly can. — Pembroke." 

I arrived at Wilton House, by dint of hard driving 
through deep snow, an hour before daybreak, and was re- 
ceived with joy and open arms by the distracted husband, 
who at once introduced me into the drawing-room, in 
which I found all the medical talent that could be brought 
together fi-om Salisbury and Devizes, with the ordinary 
accoucheur, and two other obstetrical practitioners besides, 
Doctor Fowler not being a practitioner himself in that line. 
They were all assembled, with various books lying open 
before them on an ottoman in the centre of the room, 
which I was told they had continuously consulted. Ice 
and vinegar had been repeatedly applied to the patient, 
yet the haemorrhage had continued. On inquiring what 
further steps had been t^ken to remedy the evil, I was 
told that the fear of promoting more haemorrhage deterred 
the three doctors present from attempting any operation. 

I was well known to Lady Pembroke^ and was told by 
her maid that she had ofiten expressed a wish for me to see 
her. I was not, therefore, in the least afraid of producing 
any sudden unfavourable revulsion by my presence, so I at 
once requested leave to proceed to her room. On entering 
1 was struck with the pale and sunken face of the patient, 
whose eyes were turned towards the door, and who, by 
raising her pallid hands a little, shook them as if to express 
her despair that anything could be possibly done to save 
her. " Take care of my poor Sidney, my dear little Sidney, 
that is all I wish ; take care of my dear Sidney." The 
young boy had just before been introduced to his mother 
at her own urgent request, and I promised to take great 


care of him, while at the same time I insisted that he should 
be removed. 

My conscience approves the way in which I kept my 
promise, and the Right Honourable relict of Sidney Herbert 
fortunately survives to testify that I did my duty as his 
medical adviser during his lifetime. 

Taking a seat by the side of my patient, I felt her pulse. 
It was scarcely perceptible. After a few minutes I desired 
to have ready in the adjoining chamber a bottle of brandy 
and another of sherry placed in iced water, also some 
vinegar equally iced, and once more seated myself by the 
bed-side. The next moment the cause of all the mischief 
was revealed, and soon I had done what was necessary, and 
a twin child lay in the apron of the astounded nurse. The 
patient had by this time become unconscious, or rather 
bewildered in her mind, talking or muttering in an under- 
tone all sorts of irrational and broken sentences, among 
which the dominant phrase was, " Take great care of little 

I now proceeded to make use of the iced styptic, adding 
some alum to the solution, until at the expiration of half an 
hour I had the satisfaction of knowing that the application 
was successful, and further of finding that the haemorrhage, 
which was insensibly undermining the poor lady's existence 
when I first entered the room, had in less than an hour 
entirely ceased. Immediate danger was wholly removed, 
and the grateful intelligence communicated outside the 
chamber, with a positive injunction at the same time that 
no one, not even the husband, should enter the room. The 
patient being now made comfortable, I commenced my 
administration of the mixed wine and brandy in equal parts 
and in small quantities at a^ time. On the third administra- 
tion the liquid, as I expected and desired, was rejected. 
This incident enabled me to continue my small doses after 


every vomiting, and in this plan I persevered until I 
obtained the two results I was eager for— a resuscitation of 
the pulse at the wrist, and a degree of exaltation in the 
head amounting almost to inebriety, denoting most satis- 
factorily the revival of life action. Lady Pembroke's life 
was safe, and I had the great satisfaction of imparting the 
comforting announcement to the distracted lord and his 

I may as well conclude the narrative of this most instruc- 
tive case, by adding that I deemed it necessary to prolong 
my visit for three or four days, during which 1 had to guard 
against threatened excitement of the brain as well as against 
animal exhaustion from inanition. The problem was a 
delicate one, but its solution was not difficult. The first 
point was obtained by simple remedies ; the second by 
means of suitable nourishment, some new fangled forms of 
which I introduced to the notice of Lady Pembroke's at- 
tendants. Some of these, prepared by myself in her 
presence, were never forgotten by the patient, who was 
somewhat like another patient of mine, Lord Palmerston, 
of whom Sir Henry Bulwer has left it recorded that he 
"never forgot certain delicious beverages prepared by 
Doctor Granville during a severe illness his lordship un- 
derwent in 1833.'' * 

* See Sir Henry Bulwer's " Life of Viscount Palmerston." 



Gratifying results of the journey to Wilton House — Elected to a second medical 
institution — Ovariotomy performed for the first time in England—Con- 
tributions to science — An Egyptian mummy — State of obstetrical science 
in England — The Royal Institution in 1832 — A chapter in the history 
of the Royal Society. 

That I returned home thoroughly happy at the fortunate 
result of my visit to Wilton House need hardly be mentioned. 
I looked forward now with confidence to days of profes- 
sional advancement and success as an inevitable result, 
which this narrow escape fi'om death of a lady so exalted in 
rank and so well known in the highest society must produce. 
Nor was it long before events came to justify my anticipa- 
tions. My only surprise was to understand how, in so 
brief a space of time after the event in question, I should be 
made conscious of the professional advantages which the 
divulgation of the story among the higher classes of society 
had so quickly given rise to. I could understand that the 
venerable and noble Count Simon Woronzow, for fifty years 
the representative of the great Catherine of Russia at the 
British Court, the father of Lady Pembroke, or his son. 
Count Michael, being such near connections, should both, 
without a day's delay, testify to me their own obligation and 
assure me of their future firiendlv countenance. The excel- 
lent wife of the last-named nobleman expressed herself even 
in warm terms on the fortunate escape of her sister-in-law ; 
and at a much later date, 11th May, when Count Simon 
himself came to town and again mixed in the world, the 


expression of his satisfaction at what had been done at 
Wilton House was accompanied by an invitation to dine 
with him in Welbeck Street, where I found under my plate 
a cheque for £150. 

Grateful as I was for all these marks of approval, my 
arnour propre as a beginner in my career was more flattered 
by the favourable impression produced in certain classes of 
patients, principally ladies, by the story of Lady Pembroke's 
escape from death. I look to my fee book of 1822-23. 
What a contrast with that of four years before, when, on the 
morning that ushered in the first day of 1818 my ostenta- 
tious lamp in Savile Row lighted the messenger who sum- 

, moned me to my first fee for attendance on a respectable 
tradesman's wife ! I need hardly remark in addition that 
the consideration vouchsafed to me by my professional 
brethren, arising from the facts just named, proved a source 
of greater satisfaction than all the preceding testimony of 
approval could afford. 

Another good result of my suddenly increased estimation 
with the public as an accoucheur, was my appointment as 

.physician to a second charity, called the " Benevolent 
Institution," which was presided over by Sir Richard Bimie, 
the chief magistrate at Bow Street, who regularly attended 
as chairman at all the meetings. The election was carried 
after a hard contest, for there was a yearly stipend of £100 
attached to the appointment. From what I learned I 
believe there had never been on similar occasions of medical 
elections such an example of vituperative eloquence against 
" a poor foreigner," " an alien doctor," " a foreign courier," 
" a diplomatic spy," and heaven knows what besides, as on 
this occasion. My opponent had it all his own way in such 
eloquent display, even to the engaging of an eminent pleader, 
whose eloquence on the occasion was quite Demosthenian. 
The meetings took place in a carpet warehouse in Leicester 



Square, once a royal residence, and now lately destroyed by 
fire. The good proprietor, Mr. Harris, who as a zealous 
governor of the Westminster General Dispensary knew my 
worth in the branch of the profession from which the elected 
was to be chosen, bore all the onslaught with perfect calm- 
ness, though not without replying to part of the learned 
advocate's invectives with that strong sense of wit which 
EngUsh educated tradesmen know so well how to employ in 
the defence of their own rights. Mr. Harris knew how the 
election would end, for he was living in the centre of almost 
all the subscribers to the institution, most of his own class 
besides the assistants. He knew Sir Richard Birnie had 
pledge^ himself to give me aid, some of which pledges he 
began to fulfil by handing in the Duke of York's proxy 
for twenty-five votes in my favour. The medical profession 
have had an opportunity of learning the use I made of this 
fresh addition of my means of collecting and regularly 
tabulating all useful information concerning the various 
phenomena of human reproduction among the industrial 
classes of the metropolis. If they look into the second 
volume of the transactions of the Obstetrical Society of 
London, they will find in it what the ** Lancet," in review- 
ing that volume, has called "Dr. Granville's remarkable 
paper." That paper has been favourably referred to in more 
than one publication by eminent obstetricians and statisti- 
cians, both here and abroad. 

The next important step I have to refer to in my medical 
career, is the having undertaken to repeat in England for the 
first time a daring operation performed by Professor Lizars 
in Edinburgh, consisting in removing a solid ovarian 
tumour weighing eight pounds from a patient. Ovariotomy, 
as the operation is called, has since been performed fre- 
quently in this country, and by no one more successfully 
than by Mr. Spencer Wells and a few others, all of whom 



have enjoyed an immense advantage over my own unassisted 
mode of performance, by the application in all their cases of 
chloroform during the operation, which, while it annuls pain 
in the patient, imparts courage to an almost undesirable 
degree of hardihood in the operator. Success in practice 
adds elasticity to the mental faculties of a medical man : he 
becomes every day more disposed to investigate truth, and 
devises means of improving medical^knowledge by adding to 
what was known before. 

I fiftd that about this time I devoted my attention during 
a momentary lull from practice to the establishing of a new 
classification of remedial agents, published in a tabular form, 
pocket size, in order that each practitioner might carry one 
for ready reference. For the same reason I published a 
novel classification of diseases for children, based upon 
distinct physiological functions, giving to each disease a 
Latin or semi-Greek appellative, taken from the leading or 
most prominent symptom of the disease. I had an ulterior 
object in this, which was the expectation that my colleagues 
officiating at the different stations (three in number) of the 
Infirmary for Sick Children, would adopt the same denomina- 
tive language in registering the cases that came under their 
care, and assigning a distinctive name to the disease repre- 
sented in each case. I may mention some other more or 
less important investigations I entered into, for now was my 
season of vigour, during which work of either mind or body, 
or of both, is not only borne well but with positive pleasure. 
I published in the '* Journal of Science " a better mode of 
analyzing vegetable bodies ; and, if I remember right, it was 
about this same period that I presented to the Royal Society 
my analytical preface on Labarraque's disinfecting liquids, 
the virtue of which, though dependent upon the presence 
of chlorine, and so far a plagiarism of Guyton de Morveau's 
disinfectants, was nevertheless acceptable as being pre- 


sented in a more manageable form. This analytical paper 
was not honoured with insertion among the Transactions, 
but was published separately, and readily admitted m the 
philosophical journals of the day. 

The Royal Society did not find any ground for setting 
aside and consigning to their sepulchral archives (where I 
was destined in the course of a few years to find it and shake 
oflF the long settled dust by a lively and fruitful ventilation) 
another paper which I had forwarded through Sir Everard 
Home, one of the vice-presidents, who had honoured me 
with his confidence and fiiendship. I had therefore in this 
instance the countenance of one who, besides being vested 
with authority, was by experience and practical study better 
able than other members of the council were to determine 
how far the subject of the memoir, and the manner in which 
it was treated, deserved the commendation of the Society. 
The paper I refer to was read April 16, 1818, and was 
published in the Transactions with all the honour of a 
copper-plate illustration. Another memoir of mine also 
communicated to the Royal Society, was read Jan. 13, 1830, 
and admitted with all the copper-plate engraved illustrations 
which the crayon of Bauer, and the burin of Bazire could 
produce. These were some of my scientific labours. 

I am inclined to believe that the trite proverb of VappHit 
vient en mangeant is equally applicable for the appetite of 
the mind for knowledge and inquiry, that it may get invigo- 
rated as much as the appetite of the stomach yearns for 
additional or more choice nutriment to sustain its strength. 
This I can assert on ray own experience, that the more my 
mind worked to acquire fresh knowledge and assimilate it to 
itself, the more eager did 1 feel to discover, collect, and 
make my own, whatever other sources or objects of know- 
ledge I could acquire. Such was the case with regard to 
the next object I seized upon as a fertile topic of investiga- 



tion, on which, as a medical man, I might perchance be able 
to throw a clearer light than could be done by a mere 
literary or erudite or antiquarian investigator. I allude to 
the interesting subject of Egyptian mummies, the character 
of their race, and the peculiar process by which they were 
fashioned and preserved. 

A young baronet. Sir Archibald Edmonstone, just returned 
in bad health from a long incursion into Egypt, applied to 
me for advice, and at the same time commenced a conver- . 
sation on the subject of Alexandria, which we had both of 
us visited, branching off into an account of a visit he had 
paid to the kings' tombs, where he had been able not only 
to penetrate into the mummy pits, but, a rare privilege, had 
purchased one of the best preserved specimens, judging 
from the exterior case, which was perfect both in material 
and painting. This he had brought home with him, and 
kept in his house in Wimpole Street, where I went to see 
it. I expressed my desire to examine the mummy after the 
removal of its external covering, and explained to my 
patient how deficient our knowledge was in regard to the 
process of mummification by the old Egyptians, arising from 
the fact that all the ancient naturalists and antiquaries who 
had investigated the matter in England, had in no one 
instance that I knew of found a specimen that consisted of 
anything better than mere bitumen and hard brittle bones, 
with httle or no flesh. "Do you consider;" inquired the 
patient, "that a careful investigation of this mummy, which it 
is evident from the exterior case is that of a female, might 
be of advantage to science should it prove a well-preserved 
one ? " " Such is my conviction," was the answer. " Then 
you shall have the inside, and I will reserve and retain for 
myself the exterior case and its hieroglyphics." 

The case was in Savile Row the next day. On that day 
week my dining-room was open at one o'clock to some 




/ scientific and other friends, to witness the examination of 
the mummy. During the week I had had the case carefully 
opened, which proved to be made of sycamore wood an inch 
thick, whitewashed or plastered in its interior, with long 
rangjes of hieroglyphic inscriptions painted in black charac- 
ters. The body, enveloped in all its cloth wrappers, being 
taken out and deposited on a long table, was searched all 
over for papyri or amulets or any ornament, but nothing was 
discovered except a few segments of very slender glass 
tubing, tinted pale blue, and looking like enamel, and a few 
grains of wheat that looked as fresh as any grain of wheat 
^of the last harvest. On the end of a white bandage extend- 

/ ing across the waist were inscribed, in an inky pigment, 
certain characters, which Sir Gardiner Wilkinson, who was 
present, undertook to explain by-and-by. One or two of the 
characters had corroded and left a hole in the cloth. All the 
observations made during the examinations were darefully 1 

written down on the spot by one of my pupils, and served 
afterwards as materials for the composition of the extensive 
essay I read before the Royal Society, which is printed in the | 

volume of the Transactions for the year 1825, where every 
important part of the essay is accompanied by a copper-plate 
illustration. I shall make no further observation on this 
matter, except to express in deliberate and explicit terms, 
firstly, that I claim in this laborious investigation to have 
demonstrated the fact of wax having been the ingredient 
which was successfully employed, not only to preserve the 
body from putrefaction, but also to keep the membranes as 
well as the ligaments in their supple condition, so that when 
the wax was discharged from them by the process of boiling 
in water, the soft parts came out with their natural struc- 
ture, and in less than twenty-four hours underwent decom- 
position and putrefaction. To these facts antiquaries and 
such persons as arc versed in the old Egyptian language, 


add the information that the Egyptian word corresponding 
to wax is "mum." Secondly, that by my measurements 
and 'Other remarks, I have established the fact that the 
female Egyptian under examination belonged to the Cau- 
casian, and not to the Negro or Mongolian race. Thirdly, 
that the distinction of human races is better established by 
the difference of the female pelvis than by the shape of the 
head, which is always in harmony with the dimensions and 
form of the female pelvis, the configuration of which in the 
pure Caucasian race differs in a very remarkable degree 
froip that of a negro female, which I had ample means of 
verifying by specimens in my possession, as I stated in my 
essay published by the Royal Society. Fourthly, I have 
shown that the description given by Herodotus, of the 
manner in which mummies were prepared by the Egyptian 
priest, is not in every instance correct, inasmuch as in my 
own specimen, which is esteemed the most perfect yet 
found, there is no evideuce of the lateral incision in the 
abdomen, as insisted upon by that writer. 

The publication of this essay on mummies in the Trans- 
actions and other scientific journals led soon after to my 
being requested to deliver a lecture on the identical speci- 
men. This I did with every requisite illustration by draw- 
ings, experiments, and the exhibition of all the parts of the 
mummy together, some of the \Yax obtained being manu- 
factured into small tapers, which were lighted and burned 
during the lecture. This was delivered on one of the 
Friday evening meetings at the Royal Institution, and 
attracted general notice. 

My investigation had led to the discovery of some inac- 
curacies set forth in a book then universally read, "The 
Epicurean," by Tom Moore, the poet, with whom I was 
well acquainted. I sent him a copy of my essay, calling 
attention to the facts, and immediately received the follow- 

VOI*. II. V 



ing reply, which may* prove interesting to some of my 
readers : — 

" Sloperton Cottage. Sept. 7th, 1827. 

"Dear Sir, — I beg you to accept my best thanks for 

the very interesting essay you have sent me. It seems to 

set the que^stion with respect to' the race of the ancient 

Egyptians completely at rest, and I take shame to myself 

for having been ignorant of so valuable a testimony to the 

opinion I was interested in upholding. I regret, too, that 

your kind notice of my omission did not arrive a week or 

two sooner, for I should then have been able to avail myself 

of it for the fourth edition of my book, which, though not 

yet announced, is, I fear, printed off and beyond the reach 

of correction. Should the public, however, continue their 

present demand for the work, I may have an opportunity 

before the end of the year of expressing my opinion of your 

very valuable memoir. For your flattering opinion of my 

writings I cannot but feel deeply grateful, and am, dear sir, 

your faithful servant, 

"Thomas Moore." 

The presentation of a fresh mummy, which Sir John 
Malcolm had sent home as a present to the Royal Asiatic 
Society, of which I was also a member, gave occasion to a 
second lecture, which I delivered in the morning in the 
theatre of the Royal Institution. 

A curious fact was elicited in the case of the female 
mummy first described, that on removing the several 
bandages from around the body, it was ascertained that not 
only each separate arm and leg, but each separate finger 
and toe was surrounded with appropriate bandages of linen 
of the same form and width as the ablest modem surgeon 
"y^ould employ ; and when the entire mass of bandages was 
rel^Q^pved, they were found to weigh twenty-eight pounds ! 

within the last few years the preparations of my original 




mummy were purchased by the trustees of the British 
Museum, and placed in one of the glass cases in th« 
Egyptian rooms of that establishment, though not displayed 
in the manner best adapted for the instruction or the amuse- 
ment of the public. . Some reasons/or this anomalous mode 
of exhibiting these specimens were assigned to me by the 
very able and courteous curator of the department, which I 
doubt not are consistent with the rules and spirit of the 
place, though they failed to satisfy me. An additional 
ground of regret I experienced at this, as it may be called, 
suppression of the preparations of the original mummy is, 
that amongst them I had placed specimens of recent 
mummies prepared by myself with wax according to the 
Egyptian method, some legs and. arms of still-born children, 
which from 1825 until the year in which I parted with the 
specimens — a period of nearly fifty years — had preserved 
intact their freshness, softness, complexion, and colour, 
although not enveloped by any bandage whatever. These 
specimens, like the rest, are shut up at present in a large 
case, a museum clausum^ as some funny gentleman apper- 
taining to the museum once said to me, in which the prepa- 
rations may remain for an indefinite number of years 
without the means of ascertaining how far a practical illus- 
tration of the discovery of an ancient art propounded by a 
scientific man has turned out a reality or a myth. 

When I look back to the work I spontaneously took 
upon myself to perform unsolicited by anyone, and to the 
nature of the work itself, I fear that I must confess that 
the motives that induced me to undertake it were akin to 
that spirit of restless impatience which the good preceptors 
in my college early divulged to my parents, when they sent 
me home for my holidays with a very gratifying encomium 
of my intellectual progress somewhat damaged by an ex- 
plicit lament over the listlessness of my temperament and 

F 2 


my love of change. I was born to be a reformer ! The 
right of the oldest and best confirmed establishment that 
evinced in my estimation any glaring error or abuse, any 
shortcoming, in fact, made me uneasy, and instantly the 
demon of revolt suggested the idea that it was my duty to 
have redressed whatever was wrong. . And now, for ex- 
ample, I could not practise midwifery long in the metropolis 
without being struck by the disgraceful anomaly in the 
English . law, which left the practice of that art entirely 
without legal or any other kind of regulation. The College 
of Physicians scorned the idea of having anything to do 
with it. The College of Surgeons did not actually preclude 
their members from' practising the branch, but they did not 
patronize it by examination of candidates and granting 
licences to practise it. The Society of Apothecaries, whose" 
members were the medical men most employed on these 
occasions, were never examined when admitted as apothe- 
caries how far they were acquainted with the branch of the 
profession they would be frequently called upon to practise. 
Worst of all, any broken-down washerwoman might call 
herself a midwife and act as such, and no one had a right 
to interfere with her calling, however ignorant she might* 
be of the art she professed to know. There was no provi- 
sion whatever by any administrative arrangement for the 
ignorant women's instruction or education. 

Such was the anomalous state of midwifery in England 
when I returned from Paris, where I had left schools and 
public laws wholly and exclusively devoted to the promotion 
of obstetrical knowledge, and especially to the quaUfying of 
well-educated females to act as midwives among the middle 
classes of society, whether in the capital or in the provinces. 
Although my endeavours to rectify what was wrong in 
London was not successful to the extent of introducing the 
superior system of the Paris school, I completely succeeded 



in obtaining legalization, acknowledgment, and countenance 
for the obstetrical profession from the three medical corpo- 
rate bodies in London, through the interference of ministers 
and the authority of parliament. I felt convinced that all 
my brethren in the profession had not witnessed without 
grief the evil consequences arising from the great oversight 
on the part of the legislature in this matter, and that they 
would gladly contribute in endeavouring to remove such a 
stigma on the profession. 

I had in the autumn of 1825 promoted an obstetrical 
society which should take upon itself authoritatively, and 
through government, to obtain a proper remedy for an 
admitted defect in medical legislation. I was commissioned 
by the council of that society, which embraced the best 
obstetricians in London, to carry on through Mr. Peel, the 
Home Secretary, a correspondence with the College of 
Physicians, by which we ultimately succeeded in obtaining 
proper legislative regulation, both as regarded the College 
of Physicians itself and the College of Surgeons. The 
Apothecaries Company had already, of their own accord, 
adopted suitable regulations as regarded their own members. 
All these results were not obtained without a manifestation 
of ill-will on the part of the president of the College of 
Physicians, Sir Henry Halford, who had ventilred to insert 
in one of his early replies to us, addressed to Mr. Peel, that 
" the art of midwifery was unworthy of the notice of 
gentlemen of academical education," a phrase which I took 
care should not go unnoticed in my official reply. The 
reform, however, is not complete so long as a large number 
of ignorant, uninstructed women are suffered to attend the 
lower classes of married women, without any preliminary 
examination as to their fitness for the office, as is the 
ordinary practice in any other Christian country. This is 
a great blot in the policy of England. 


The next official interference on my part, by which I 
attempted to bring about some important change and 
amelioration in an old public estabhshment in London, 
occurred not long after. In my capacity of secretary to 
the Board of Visitors of the Royal Institution of Great 
Britain, I had had occasion to remark and make some 
observations both to the board and to the general meeting 
of the members, on the clumsy and complicated manner of 
keeping the accounts, which were by rule submitted to the 
revision of the visitors before they could be adopted. The 
visitors had to examine the vouchers and, see how they 
sustained the charges in the accounts. It Xvas a source of 
dispute yearly among some of the members at their annual 
meetings, the finding out what the accounts really repre- 
sented, there being not fewer than four columns of entries both 
on the credit and debit side ; so much so was this the case, 
that one little keen and persevering gentleman I remember, 
the late Mr. Sellow, used to be on his legs for an hour or 
two to ask for explanations and elucidation from the presi- 
dent or secretary, showing at the same time the absurdity 
of the system with such cogent arguments as to gain for 
himself the sobriquet of Mr. Sergeant Sellow. But Othello's 
occupation was clean gone when my pertinacious system 
of reforming absurdities removed every ground for the 
display of any Joseph Hume rhetoric. It was no difficult 
task for me to persuade the members of the board of the 
propriety of introducing some improvement in the manner 
of keeping the accounts, but as they were the accounts of 
the managers, and not our own, we could only suggest, not 
adopt, a difference in keeping them. Accordingly, at one 
of the first meetings which the visitors usually held to 
prepare for the anniversary meeting of the members, and 
before the Board of Managers had drawn up their accounts 
preparatory to their being submitted to us for revision, T 




presented to the manager, with the visitors* sanction, a new 
model for the presentation of their accounts, which model 
was by them approved, and liberty given to the visitors, 
through their secretary, to shape the accounts of the current 
year accordingly. 

The following is extracted from the minutes : — " At a 
meeting of the Visitors of the Royal Institution of Great 
Britain, the Honourable Sir George Reece in the chair, 8th 
April, 1839, it was unanimously resolved that the thanks of 
the committee of visitors be returned to Dr. Granville for 
the very excellent report drawn up by him agreeably to the 
request of the visitors at their meeting of the 1st of April, 
which so ably described the present prosperous condition of 
the Royal Institution.'* The good result of this simplifi- 
cation substituted for the former mystification was not long 
in becoming manifest, for the principal secretary of the 
Board of Managers was thereby enabled to detect a petty 
system of fraud in preparing the managers' accounts, which 
ended in the discovery of a defalcation of £800 on the part 
of the assistant-secretary. The reverend secretary of the 
institution had the credit of the discovery, but my proposed 
mode of representing the state of the accounts put him in the ) 
way of accomplishing his detection of Fisher's defalcation. 

During my period of office, which lasted nearly twenty 
years, and elicited the grateful thanks of the managers, I 
introduced another improvement in the manner of conduct- 
ing the business of the anniversary meeting, by representing 
a fuller or more compendious report to the assembled mem- 
bers of the general proceedings in every branch of the in- 
stitution, in lieu of the curt couple of paragraph reports of 
my predecessors. The improvement pleased the managers 
and satisfied the members, and I am very happy to behold 
the example followed with energy by my successor, so that 
at present we find that the Royal Institution of Great 


Britain, which at the time of my accepting office was deeply 
in debt, had in its account-sheet a mass of arrears of sub- 
scriptions which ended almost always in being cancelled, in 
its annual report a long list of lamentations with as little 
reference as possible to the scientific or literary sayings 
and doings of the institution — now comes forward at the 
annual meeting with a full report of its prosperous condition, 
and the progress achieved in the past year by the zeal and 
activity of its managers, the vigilant supervision of its 
visitors, and above all by the talent and high reputation of 
its permanent as well as occasional professors and lecturers. 
The extinction of debt, and in its stead an investment of 
several thousand pounds in state fimds, an increase in the 
number of books in the library, and of suitable appliances 
in the laboratory, the extension of- the time during which 
the library has been made accessible to the members, 
coupled with the facility of obtaining the desired volumes 
through the courteous readiness of the librarian, and lastly, 
the tout ensemble of the establishment, so well kept, and so 
worthy of the popular favour it enjoys among the educated 
classes of the western metropolis, justly constitute the Royal 
Institution of Great Britain the leading scientific society 
next to that which owns a royal Charles for its founder. 

While on this topic I may be permitted to add, that I 
consider this as one of the many happy periods of my life 
-during which I watched over the mutual interests of an 
institution endeared to me by so many gratifying recollec- 
tions of friendship, contracted with some of the most distin- 
guished, professors and prominent members before whom I 
had the honour of venturing on two occasions, and 
when I look back to that period and contrast the state I 
found tlie finances of the society in, with the heavy aiTcar 
of subscriptions from members in 1832, with that presented 
in my last official report twenty years later, I feel a degree 


of pride in having been permitted to co-operate with suc- 
cessive boards of active managers and vigilant visitors in 
effecting those salutary changes, not the less valuable 
because accomplished without strife and contention, by 
which an institution dear not to English only, but to all 
European and American men of science, from its connec- 
tion with the imperishable discoveries of Davy and Faraday, 
changes I say which raised the Royal Institution of Great 
Britain to a higher state of efficiency than it could boast of 
at any former period of its existence.* 

The next refonn was a much more thorough and sweep- 
ing one, and refers to a somewhat later period of my life. 
The active part I have taken in the affairs of the Royal 
Society, as will have appeared already in the course of my 
narrative, induces me to gather up carefully all incidents in 
my life that have any reference to that subject, in order 
that that period of the history of the Royal Society which 
extends from the date of the loss it sustained by the death 
of its venerable president, Sir Joseph Banks, to the present 
phase may be complete. The vacancy in 1820 did not 
cause the disturbance among the fellows which subsequent 
^ vacancies in the presidential chair haVe given rise to. The 
electoral problem, on the contrary, seemed to have involved 
the society in a species of suspended animation, which lasted 
several years ; some of the fellows by their personal character 
and station in society, others from their exclusive reputation 
in particular branches of science, presented themselves to the 
notice of the voters at each subsequent anniversary meeting 
without commanding a lasting con6dence. Many scientific 

* On the day in which the new mode of keeping the sccounts proposed by 
myself was adopted, the Royal Institution was in debt £1847 IQs, Ad., with an 
excess of arreais of subscriptions from members ofseveral years' standing. On 
the day on which I resigned, there were no arrears of subscriptions, and the 
institution had £5210 of funded property, besides £16,488 from other sources, 
making a total credit of £21,698. 


names were passed over as lacking some of the desirable 
qualifications which members of high-bred communities 
look for in the gentleman who is to be over them. 

Those fellows who remember the condition the Royal 
Society was in about the year 1830, when, after a severe 
struggle of parties, in an association which at the time 
acknowledged no special control, the presidential chair was 
awarded to a royal duke, cannot have forgotten the state of 
confusion and disorganization the Duke of Sussex was called 
upon to redress, and which he found fully and methodically 
set forth in an anonymous publication by myself entitled 
" Science Without a Head." That pamphlet served to 
secure the election of the royal duke, and thereby the 
society found a head at last. But what was the composition 
of the scientific body on which a head was at length im- 
posed ? At that particular time the Royal Society " for 
the diffusion of natural knowledge " consisted of 651 fellows, 
. exhibiting a most incongi'uous mass of savants^ who in the 
course of thirty years, since the commencement of the 
present century^ had produced 464 memoirs. But not more 
than one in five of the number of so vast a total had any 
claim to the title of a savant^ for the said 464 scientific 
memoirs, forming the volumes of the " Philosophical Trans- 
actions," were the actual production of only 103 fellows, the 
remaining 548 fellows consequently were savants en cr^ditj 
and nothing more. By separating the latter number of 
fellows into classes according to their station in life, I showed 
\ . of what integral atoms that curious amalgam consisted, who 
\ might aptly be called the fainSants of the Royal Society. 
Of these, nine were bishops, sixty-three noblemen of every 
rank, twenty-five naval and thirty-five army officers, fifty- 
five physicians, eleven surgeons, and two hundred and eight 
whom we may call miscellaneous. On the other hand, 
among .the real contributors towards the promotion of 



science, out of the total- number of eighty-five fellows, there 
were one bishop, who produced nine memoirs ; five navy 
and four army ofiicers, who contributed thirty-three memoirs ; 
six clergymen, who wrote nine papers; six lawyers, who 
supplied twenty papers; twenty-one physicians, who con- 
tributed sixty-five memoirs; nine surgeons, w^ho afforded 
thirty-seven papers ; and one of this class of fellows alone 
contributed one hundred and nine to the general collection. 

This analytical view of the Royal Society served to show 
how easy it must have been to be made a fellow in those 
days ; indeed, the process could not have been simpler or 
more expeditious. It consisted in sending round the ballot- 
box, or boxes, for frequently two such at one time were 
used, with the name of the candidate stuck on the outside, 
at any and generally at every ordinary w^eekly meeting of 
the society where a quorum of twenty-one fellow^ could be 
got together, sometimes it happening that fellows would 
have to be fetched out of the meeting of the adjoining 
Society of Antiquaries to complete the quorum. This pro- 
cess went on through the room all the while one of the 
secretaries was engaged at the president's table in reading 
the written scientific communications that had been pre- 
sented to the society, occasioning a succession of interrup- 
tions neither acceptable to the author of the paper nor its 
reader, nor agreeable nor profitable to the listener. 

The author of the ** History of the Royal Society in the 
Nineteenth Century " * inveighed long and severely against 
such an absurd and unsatisfactory practice, as tending to 
level the first scientific society in England to the position of 
an ordinary club. He maintained that the election of fellows 
should take place once a year only, and should be limited 

* "The Royal Society in the Nineteenth Century ; being a statistical sum- 
mary of its labours during the last thirty-five years, with table, &c" By 
A. B. Granville, M.D., F.R.S. 3836. 



to a select number of candidates proposed in the course of 
that or the preceding years ; that the certificate for ballot 
should distinctly set forth the grounds on which the candi- 
date was recommended, his works and scientific pursuits, 
all which should be specified, the candidate in fact being 
favourably reported beforehand to the council for selection 
by one or more members of that scientific section of the 
council which was Identical with that of the proposed can- 
didate. The author of that work brought forward in sup- 
port of his own view the example of the Institute qf France, 
and suggested that the councillors should be divided into 
sections in accordance with the branch of science they were 
well known to excel in, a suggestion whicK was adopted 
and made part of the present new statutes. This classifi* 
cation of the councillors would serve other very essential 
and equally important purposes, namely, the securing of the 
effectual and impartial working of the society, and conse- 
quently its future reputation, and the reference of all the 
several papers read before the society to the judgment of 
that section of the council to which the subject of the paper 
referred, who would be bound to make a written or a 
verbal report to the meetings on the nature and merits of the 
paper, and on the propriety or otherwise of its publication 
r in the *' Transactions." Who can deny that since the adoption 
/ of this plan, or something very like it, urged by the author 
of the work before mentioned, the value of that renowned 
collection of scientific memoirs has risen a hundred-fold in 
the estimation of all the continental savants and academies 
(as I can testify from having veiy recently visited the 
greatest number of them), as well as in that of the English 
lovers of science? Compare the volumes as at present 
■ published — their well-finished engi-aved illustrations, and 
\ above all the regularity with which they have been issued 
\ during the last few years — with any equal number of the 



volumes of "Transactions" during the several years before 
the reform suggested, and who can fail to declare how 
infinitely superior the one series is to the other ? 

Not less important were the two next suggestions for the 
improvement of the Royal Society, advocated with as much 
energy as I was master of, and in which I was supported 
by a large number of working fellows. The first being the 
- introduction of academical discussions at all the ordinary 
meetings, whether on the paper read, or any other scientific 
subject, as well as on all such matters as concerned the 
affairs and proceedings of the society in general ; and the 
second, referring to the finance of the society. I contended 
in my work, that in lieu of the short verbal announcement 
made by the treasurer at the general meeting, without the 
produption of a single voucher or other document in support 
or elucidation, which had been the case up to 1830, there 
should be a distinct balance-sheet printed, properly audited, 
and sent round to all the fellows some days previous to the 
election of ojfficers, in order that they might be prepared . 
when necessary to discuss it. 

It will scarcely be believed that down to 1830 no such ] 
financial control was possessed by the fellows at their anni- 
versary meetings, and yet, judging by the total sum expended 
in the course of five years (1830-35) subsequent to the 
adoption of the control I advocated, viz., £22,140, it is 
manifest that the measure was adopted very judiciously 
by the council, and indeed that it ought always to have 

Such were the principal points requiring reform which I 
strenuously indicated in my first publication already named, 
and more forcibly insisted upon a few years later in the 
subsequent and more important volume just analyzed. 
That lapse of five years proved a period of great contention 
within -the society, which had enlisted the acrid pen of a 



late eccentric astronomer, and the more sober and logical 
one of a well-known mathematician, who I trust is still 
amongst us — a period moreover which brought contribu- 
tions to the Times on analogous subjects. Among others 
which appeared in that paper was one signed " Socius," to 
which a full and categorical reply was inserted on the fol- 
lowing day, signed " Socius Alter," which was justly attri- 
buted to the autlior of the '* Royal Society in the Nineteenth 
j^ Century." That author has happily survived all the hatred 
/ and malice excited by his reforming volumes, as he has also 
'\ survived the shame he shared with all the fellows at the 
discreditable proceedings permitted to take place at an 
ordinary meeting of the society, when the chairman of the 
evening suffered a flagrant violation of the then existing 
statute to take place — the carrying of an irregular and 
j ridiculous motion proposed by a new-fledged fellow of about 
\^ one or two years' standing of the class lawyer {fain6ants)y 
namely, to recall a vote of thanks accorded at a previous 
meeting to the author of the work mentioned above. That 
motion was carried by a small number, who thus inflicted a 
disgrace on our society in' which I participate like every 
other fellow, none of our subsequent councils having had 
the manliness to expunge the irregular minute of the whole 
transaction from their registers, or to return to the un- 
thanked author that which they had refused to thank him 
for. But he has lived to see all his suggestions adopted 
one by one, as a late president, the amiable Marquis of 
Northampton, who headed the reforming party in council, 
used to tell me at his soirees while those reforms were in 
progress : " You see, my dear doctor, that we are profiting 
little by little by your suggestions ; all the rest will come 
by-and-by." And come they did at last ; for unquestion- 
ably the constitution, the mode of working, and the position 
of the Royal Society in 1870 differ vastly from the Royal 


^U JIIU ' 


Society of 1830, which now offers to the world tlie model 
of what such an association should be. 

I am aware that by this personal statement I expose 
myself to the charge of selfishness, but when I reflect on 
the manner in which the council treated the works which 
had pointed out their defects and shortcomings, as well as 
the manner in which those imperfections could be remedied, 
I shall, I trust, be pardoned for proclaiming personally my 
own case, which by a violation of the rules and the statutes 
even then in force in the society, I was prevented from 
properly developing at an extraordinary general meeting 
convened on the requisition of the required number of 
fellows — twenty-one — whose names I might well be proud to 
repeat, to show how I was prepared to sustain my protest 
against all the irregular proceedings on the part of the 
authorities on the occasion in question. Those heartburn- 
ings, however, are now extinguished, and it is with no other 
than feelings of good-fellowship that I look back on all the 
fellows who resented my mode of endeavouring to do good 
to the society by reforming its shortcomings. 

As I must be naturally desirous to eschew every occasion 
for again reverting to this disagreeable, and certainly not a 
creditable period in the history of the Royal Society, I shall 
close my own historical account of it by a reference to what 
my readers will doubtless consider as a redeeming feature 
in the sombre reminiscences of past days. The relation of 
the naked facts will explain my meaning. While the 
English savants were at loggerheads among themselves as 
to a fresh selection of a president in 1838, the society being 
still xmreformed and under objectionable as well as ill- 
adapted statutes, a notion was started by some well- 
intentioned fellows of placing at their head one of the, 
perhaps I might say, most conspicuous public men in the 
State of the day. Popular, eloquent, and sagacious, of 


whom England indeed felt proud, and who had at that very 
period relieved himself by the resignation of a great public 
trust. While the generality of the fellows rejoiced at such 
a prospect, I, on the * contrary , trembled for the eminent 
individual, for his fame and peace of mind, were he to be 
plunged suddenly into such a vortex of difficulties as the 
Royal Sociiety, constituted as it then was, presented to the 
world. I therefore took the liberty of addressing to that 
eminent person the following private letter : — 

" To the Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel, MP. 

" 16, Grafton Street, Berkeley Square. 25tli Oct. 1838. 

" Sir, — Public rumours and newspaper . reports have 
lately assigned to you the possible occupation of the chair 
of the Royal Society. Much as I may desire, in common 
with many of the old fellows, that a person in every way so 
eminently qualified to fill that post should consent to honour ^ 

it with his superintendence and patronage, I cannot conceal - 
from myself that far more important duties to his country 
await that person incompatible with the discharge of those 
of president of a great national assembly of men of science 
which, reduced to its present state, will need every effort 
that a new head can make to uphold it. Still, assuming it 
as possible that on being proposed for election you may feel 
disposed to accede to the wishes of many. of the most re- 
spectable fellows, I have deemed it a duty, as I considered 
it an honour, to request your acceptance of a copy of a work 
I published on the history, proceedings, resources, and pro- 
gress of the Royal Society since the commencement of the 
present century, and I respectfully solicit yotir attention to 
the facts and statistical averments it contains, that you may 
be directly acquainted with the real condition of an insti- 
tution over which you may be called to rule. The picture 
is not a cheering one, nevertheless true, for not one of the 


allegations therein recorded has ever been gainsaid in the 
course of the three years which have elapsed since their 
publication to the world. To save you some trouble, I have 
taken the liberty of marking in red ink particular passages, 
and of making also certain particular references. In the 
present step I have no other object in view than that of 
preventing the possibility of any eminent person from being 
by circumstances led to tak^ a charge the many and compli- 
catdd difficulties of which may perchance have escaped his 
a^ucntion. And on the other hand I hope to convey to that 
ehiinent person, and the public generally, my vindication of 
British science from the attack of those who, with singular 
o'>stinacy, keep proclaiming in their diatribes its pretended 
Mate of degradation. 

" I have the honour to be, &c., 

"A. B. Granville."' 

/ A reply to my letter was not long in coming : — 

j « Drayton Manor. Oct. 3l8t, 1838. 

j " Sir, — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of 

/ your letter, and I thank you for the volume to which it 

• refers. It has not accompanied your letter from London, 

' but I procured and read your treatise at the time of its 

publication, and have it here. The presidency of the Royal 

Society would be incompatible with the parliamentary 

duties I have to perform, and which are particularly onerous 

at that period of the year when the services of the president 

ara most useful to the society. But I have another, and a 

stronger, objection to the acceptance of the office in the 

very improbable event that it should be proffered to me. I 

am decidedly of opinion that in the interests of the Royal 

Society, and for the character of men of science in this 

country, the chair should be filled by some distinguished 

man who has devoted his time and faculties to some branch 



or other of science, I, for one, shall not acquiesce in the 
selection of a mere honorary president. 

" I have the honour to be, Sir, 

" Your most obedient servant, 

"EoBERT Peel. 

« To Dr. GranviUe, M.D!, F.R.S." 

I consider it a fortunate circumstance that my letter, 
intended to put Sir Robert Peel on his guard on ; the 
question of the presidency of the Royal Society, shtold 
have elicited from so competent an authority another 
weighty opinion, to be added to the many that had beehs 
already made public/ respecting the most fit person fl^r \^ 
the superintendence of the first scientific body in Grert 
Britain. I 




CouDt Woronzow — Serious illness of Dr. Hutchinson— He is succeeded by Dr. 

^ Lee — Elected a member of the Athenaeum Club— Parliamentary com- 

/ mittees — The (Gardner Peerage — Statistics for friendly societies — Death 

/ of my father — ^Accept a proposal to go to Russia — Incidents of the 

journey — Capo d' Istria — Effects of flowery pekoe — ^tum to England. 

While occupied with extra professional pursuits, the 
report of my successful visit to Wilton House kept creep- 
ing up to the metropolis with exaggerated appreciation, 
adding still further to my obstetrical engagements, several 
of which, however, I was compelled to forego, or rather to 
decline, not wishing to fetter myself in my movements by 
any compulsory fixture in the capital. I was nevertheless 
glad to receive the congratulations from the select few who 
expressed the great interest they naturally took in the pros- 
perity of the house of Herbert, to which they were related, 
among whom I welcomed most gratefully those of Count 
Michael Woronzow, whose devotion to his rescued sister was 
unbounded. Sudden emergencies compelled the count and* 
countess to repair to Russia, and they made application to 
me for a physician to reside with them at Odessa, to take 
care of the two children, as well as of the father and 
mother, for three or four years. At the end of that time 
they proposed to revisit England, agreeably to an under- 
standing with the emperor, who had conceded that after an 
interval of four years the count should be at liberty to 
absent himself from his post, as general commanding in 

Bessarabia and governor of Odessa, to come and visit his 



aged father. In the choice of a medical gentleman for thia 
family I was fortunate enough in recommending Doctor 
William Hutchinson, who had ably conducted the " London 
Medical and Physical Journal." How he was appreciated 
by the family, an extract from a letter from the count, dated 
the Ist of September, 1824, and some concluding phrased 
in a letter from the doctor himself to me, dated the 13th 
of September, 1824, will fully show. Unfortunately,'4)oth 
letters, but that from the doctor especially, are descriptive 
of such an impaired state of health in the latter person, that 
an immediate substitute for him had become a peremptory 
necessity. However, I prefer to Jet them speak for them- 
selves, especially as the concluding part of Dr. Hutchinson's 
communication to me expressed his feelings of great thank- 
fulness for the manner in which he had been treated, and 
I am glad of the opportunity of quoting an indisputable 
' authority for the statement I have published elsewhere in 
allusion to certain misrepresentations of the general cha- 
racter of the Russian nobility to be read of in some recent 
book of travels in their country : — 

'' Bialatzertikoff. Sept. 13th, 1824. 

**My dear Sir, — I believe I mentioned to you in my 
^/*i<v7V'j"i<f last letter that I had sufiFered severe haemoptysis at Odessa. 
y/jioi.^* Since that time I have always had more or less cough, 
diflBculty of breathings and vague pains in the chest, 
although I confined myself wholly to the house during the 
winter and spring. During this summer I have several 
times had more or less haemorrhage from the lungs, and a 
few weeks ago this occurred to the extent of about ^ one 
hundred ounces within thirty hours. With such a state of 
my lungs my life must be of but* short duration in so dry 
and sharp an atmosphere as that of this climate, with its 
hot summers and severe winters and bitter north winds. 
This 1 have just mentioned to Count Woronzow, and I have 


advised him to seek another physician without delay. He 
calculates again on your kindness and active and important 
exertions, and I believe intends to write immediately to 
Lady Pembroke as well as to yourself about it. It will not 
be possible for any 6ne to arrive here soon enough to 
enable me to quit before the winter will be established, and 
hence I must pass that season here. But I hope my depar- 
ture will not be delayed longer than the first spring 
weather. It is for other reasons desirable that whoever 
replaces me should arrive as soon as possible, as the dura- 
tion of my life is extremely uncertain, and there is not 
a physician in this part of Russia in whom the count could 
have sufficient confidence to place him at ease in regard to 
the welfare of his family. Every circumstance with regard 
to my connection with the count's family concurs to render 
my leaving it a cause of deep regret to me. My sense of 
duty would have incited me to have made any sacrifice as 
concerned myself, but in persisting to remain now I should 
expose the count to the imniinent hazard of being suddenly 
left without any source of adequate medical aid. The 
count has just mentioned to. me that it is a matter of neces^^ 
sity, that whoever replaces me should be acquainted with 
the practice of midwifery. I ought to mention to you that 
I have obtained considerable sums of money by practice 
extraneous to the family of the count, who has also made 
me considerable presents at different times, so that the 
regular appointments of the count have not been above half 
what I have actually acquired. You may make use of thip 
information iti your negotiations for my successor. 

" Believe me, &c. 

"William Hutchinson. 

'* Dr. GranviUe." 

The case appeared serious, and to admit of no delay. 
Doctor Robert Lee of Savile Row, a graduate of Edinburgh, 


who had learned obstetrics from Dr. Hamilton, had fqr 
some time attended with riie the practice of midwifery at 
the Westminster General Dispensary, working assiduously, 
and visiting many patients in my stead. I asked him 
whether he would like to pay a visit to Russia, and he 
accepted. I immediately communicated with Lady Pem- 
broke, and on my statement of his qualifications she 
accepted him, referring him to Lord Pembroke for a proper 
arrangement as regarded the conditions of the appoint- 
ment, his Jionorarium^ travelling expenses, and the nature 
of his duties as a physician to the family of Count Woronzow. 
I described to the Countess of Pembroke the doctor's 
character and abilities, as they had fallen under my notice 
on many occasions, and mentioned to her how he had 
increased his experience in the obstetrical art and cognate 
practice by attending for a year or two at my dispensary. 
On this recommendation Dr. Lee was appointed to succeed 
Dr. Hutchinson, and I had the satisfaction of seeing him take 
his departure in a couple of days for Odessa, via Germany 
and Poland, in which chief city and port of Bessarabia he 
arrived on the 8th of January, 1825, to relieve his suffering 
brother practitioner from a climate that was threatening his 
existence. Thus was I fortunate in being the means of 
saving one friend's life, of promoting the worldly interest of 
another medical friend, and in so doing conferring a valuable 
obligation on more than one other friend whom I highly 
respected and wished to oblige. Doctor Robert Lee has 
himself published an interesting narrative of his journey to 
Odessa, and though he has entirely omitted to state the 
circumstances under which he came to be engaged in that 
transaction, he is happily alive and well, and still in practice 
in London, to vouch for the accuracy of my own statement. 
His first introduction to ray acquaintance was a mere 
accident, to which some allusion was made when I spoke of 


my professional visit to Lady Melbourne at Whitehall. I 
now further remember (having recently conversed with the 
doctor) that on the occasion referred to in the first account, 
when Lady Bessborough had brought down the reluctant 
Dr. Warren from his bedroom in Brook Street to Whitehall, 
Dr. Lee got out at Melbourne House and was invited to be 
present at the consultation between Dr. Warren and myself, 
and he verbally informed me (this 23rd of June, 1871) that 
the doctor was the reverse of courteous towards me both in 
language and manner, but that I stoutly, though respect- 
fully, maintained my opinion, viz., that other means of treat- 
ment would have been adopted had the nature of the 
complaint been properly investigated and defined. 

Que little event happened in the early part of 1824 
which was calculated to show how truly Lady EUenborough 
described the feeling of gratitude expressed in her letter 
after we parted, for on the first opportunity that occurred 
to her on which she could again evince that feeling, she 
did so in the most delicate and, as it turned out for me, 
flattering manner : — 

" My dear Doctor Granville, — As I observed this 
morning that the hesitation you felt in becoming a member 
of the new literary club proceeded from prudential motives, 
allow me the pleasure in the present instance of obviating 
that difficulty. A lively recollection of your goodness to 
us while we were fellow-travellers induces me to hope you 
will believe me : — 

" Yours very sincerely obliged, 

** A. Ellenborough. 

" February, 1824." 

This flattering incident in my life was occasioned by a 
proposition having been made that I should become one of 
the origmal members of the Athenaeum Club, as will appear 
from the following letter :— 


"Dear Sir, — It will atford me much Batisfaction to 
nominate you a member of our new club, which has very 
recently been projected, and already attained much popu- 
larity. The persons eligible are authors known by their 
scientific or literary works, artists of eminence, and noble- 
men and gentlemen distinguished as patrons of science, 
literature, or the fine arts. A committee was formed on 
Monday last to choose members, and we shall assemble 
again next week. Be pleased to communicate this letter to 
Mr. Faraday, No. 21, Albemarle Street, who has under- 
taken to act as our temporary secretary, and will insert 
your name and give you a list of the original members 
already nominated. 

" Believe me, dear Sir, very truly yours, 

"Joseph Jeykell. 

. <' Spring Qaxdens. Feb. 19, 1824. 
« Dr. GranviUe." 

The admission was communicated to me by a second 
letter ; — 

" Dear Sir, — There was a mistake, too long to detail, as. 
to the form of your nomination at our projected club, but it 
is rectified, and at a committee held at my house this day 
you were admitted a member. 

" Yours, dear Sir, very truly, 

"Joseph Jeykell. 

'* Spring Qaidens. Monday evening, 
« March 8th, 1824." . 

There is an interesting circumstance in connection with 
the first letter which could not fail to strike me. In Mr. 
Jeykeirs residence in Spring Gardens, where I beheld 
assembled some of the most enlightened and clever people, 
all w^U and not a few nobly bom, when on the point of 
constituting themselves into a friendly and literary club, 
there was one who had considered it a distinction to accept 



from this higWy-talented assemblage the spontaneous offer 
of the post of honorary secretary for the occasion, who ten 
years before, when the personal attendant on Sir Humphry 
Davy, had performed for me a homely office, which I had 
accepted as a pure courtesy on his part, though it had been 
presented to him as a duty. 

My practice now had reached its culminating point, and 
Sir Walter Farquhar's prediction was gradually becoming a 
reality. We may pretty safely conclude that a medical 
man's character and reputation in London are advancing in 
the estimation of the pubhc when Parliament considers it of 
importance to obtain his opinion, and invites the assistance 
of his knowledge and experience in the investigation of 
some great question submitted. to the consideration and 
judgment of either of the two Houses. I have already had 
occasion to refer to the evidence I had been called upon to 
give in reference to the quarantine laws as a supposed 
impediment to the free action of foreign trade with England. 
I am now about to quote another example of such references 
by Parliament to the knowledge and experience of a private 
medidal man, with the view and hope of obtaining from him 
the means of coming to a correct and, as far as it is 
possible, satisfactory inference on which to found highly 
important principles and conclusions. This was precisely the 
case in the treatment by the House of Peers of what has been 
commonly called the Gardner Peerage^ involving one of the 
most interesting questions that can be submitted to the 
consideration of men in authority on whose judgment is to 
depend, not only the possession or otherwise of wealth and 
honours, but what is of yet greater consequence, the honesty 
and character of the parties concerned. The House of 
Lords, to whom a petition was referred from a person 
named Alan Legge Gai'dner, who claimed the barony of 
Gardner, contrived through the persevering astuteness of 


men "learned in the law" to so complicate the question, 
that its solution was left as legally doubtful as it was before 
all the parliamentary parade. That parade commenced in 
May, 1825, and was protracted for many months without 
producing any satisfactory results. 

Lord ^St. Helens, thinking the question one which might 
interest me, very considerately sent me a note requesting 
my acceptance of a printed minute of evidence in the 
Gardner claim. Its perusal did not satisfy me of the 
justice of the Lords' conclusions. They were illogical, and 
subsequent experience proved them to have been erroneous. 
The physiological question was one too far above the intel- 
ligence of attorney or solicitor general, but it was simul- 
taneously brought by myself before a more competent 
tribunal at the time, viz., the Westminster Medical Society, 
where it formed the subject of a keen and well-conducted 
discussion by the members, who at the end of a long 
debate came to a conclusion the reverse of the one arrived 
at by the peers of England. The several nights' debate at 
the Westminster Medical Society was regularly and in 
extenso given both in the " Lancet " and the " Medical 
Gazette," if I remember rightly ; and I am not ashamed to 
avow that among the speakers who impugned the decision 
of the peers on the debated question, I was foremost in 
protesting against them, backed by a host of modern as 
well as more remote examples and authorities. 1 certainly 
had no expectation while supporting a plain physiological 
proposition, that I had been defending the individual respec- 
tability and interest of parties, then entirely strangers to 
me, implicated in the question, but into whose intimate 
society worldly circumstances threw me four or five years 

Not long after this episode of my life, it came to pass 
that a select committee of the House of Commons, presided 


over by Thos. P. Courtenay, was sitting on the laws 
respecting friendly societies, to which I was jaummoned, and 
before which t produced a number of registers kept by 
myself, and corresponding reports from certain public insti- 
tutions with which I had been professionally connected, 
which reports served to illustrate important points of certain 
public questions then under parliamentary inquisition. The 
documents in question were considered of such value as 
to induce the committee to desire Mr. Finlaison, Actuary of 
the National Debt OflSce, to examine and report his conclu- 
sions therefrom at one of their subsequent meetings. On 
that occasion Mr. Finlaison was asked whether he had 
examined the books produced by Dr. Granville, to which 
he replied that he had, and. he exhibited the result as 
calculated therefrom, adding the following observation : — 
"From Doctor Granville's registers, with time and due 
care, I confidently hope to lay down more accurately Ihe 
mortality among infants of the lower orders in London ; 
and when this is done there will be no difficulty in answer- 
ing the question the committee have in view.'' Such is the 
brief account I can give of the part I have had in contri- 
buting, by means of carefully-collected facts through a series 
of years and by personal experience, to the accomplishment 
' of some very important questions of state policy connected 
with subjects in close alliance with natural science. 

Although selfishly engaged in everything connected with 
myself and the onerous duties of my profession, I had 
nevertheless omitted no opportunity of directing my inquiries 
homeward to Milan, whence I had not received any direct 
tidings for some time. Impatiently desirous to know how my 
aged father bore his heavy years and the official labours 
to which I knew he still clung, I wrote to my eldest 
sister, who resided in Paris with her husband, and who 
I was aware kept up a continuous correspondence with our 


family in Milan. Her reply to my last inquiries, after giv- 
ing me an indifferent account of our father's health, added 
a piece of information which she thought would make up 
by its gratifying nature for the other unsatisfactory news, 
whereas it only accounted for the existence of that bad 
health, and threatened us with that something worse which 
was soon to follow. I give an extract from my sister's 
letter, which, however, was written in French : — " Paris. 
I forgot to tell you in my last letter that while I was in 
Milan papa received the mSdaille cPhonneur for his services, 
which is equivalent to a decoration. It is a gold medal 
attached to a gold chain, is worth a thousand florins, and 
carries with it an- annual pension of that amount. It is 
much esteemed amongst the chief officials, and the gift has 
caused many to be jealous of our good father, who was 
most excited about it. Never did I see a man, so cool and 
sedate as he is, trouble himself so much because of the 
delay there has been in investing him as a chevalier. The 
ceremony cannot yet take place owing to the absence of the 
Viceroy Eugene, who will have to be present. This delay 
causes him such anxiety that he may die before it takes 
place, that he has lost his appetite and cannot sleep. Our 
dear brother John, with all his reason, is unable to calm 
him. It is very flattering for papa, because in the city of 
Milan there are only three thus honoured." This was 
written on the 11th of October, 1825 : six months later 
my sister had the painful task to perform of forwarding to 
me another and most distressing enclosure, containing the 
account of our beloved parent's death. She writes from 
her home in Paris : — " The fears I expressed as to the 
illness of our dear father are only too soon realized. Con- 
fined to my bed for more than a month with an inflamma- 
tory nervous fever, which brought -me almost to death's 
door, I could not in any way inform you of the sad loss we 


have lately suffered. Now that I am a little better I dis- 
charge the duty of announcing to you his death, which took 
place on the 11th of April of this year. Although the news 
I received respecting him was not very satisfactory, I de- 
pended upon his constitution, which when I left him in 
September appeared tolerably strong; but dropsy made 
such progress that in spite of the skill of Dr. Defilipi he 
at last succumbed. So, my dear Augustus, we have lost 
both our dear parents by the same malady'* (in allusion to 
my good mother's death, already mentioned in my account 
of my arrival at Madrid). 

A time was approaching when it would be my turn to try 
the climate so unfavourably spoken of by Dr. Hutchinson in 
his letter of the 13th of September, 1824. As I anticipated, 
the Count and Countess Woronzow came back to England to 
spend some time with their father and sister, who was now 
completely restored and blessed with the comfort of be- 
holding her "dear little Sidney,^' so fervently recommended 
to my care when her own life was in peril five years before, 
now grown into a tall young man, whose studies and appli- 
cation to political science gave early promises of his after 
attainments. . " Why not under the circumstances come 
with us yourself?" said the count to me one day at Pem- 
broke House, when they were discussing their proposed 
return to Russia. " Your patients of importance will soon 
be going into the country. Come, continue your treatment 
of my dear wife, who feels already better, and would much 
regret to be placed in other hands. You have been, we 
may say, a little about the world, but not in Russia. Here 
is an entirely different country, which well merits your 
attention. ' Much has been written in your country, I 
mean England, about Russia and the Russians. I wish you 
would come and see if it is true or not what has been 
asserted in the works of Mr. Liall and Dr. Clarke. Above 


all, I should like you to make acquaintance with our system 
of medicine, that you might suggest a better course than 
that we have adopted in the instruction of our young 
students for the army and navy, since you have been a 
sailor yourself in your adventurous career." Such, or as 
near as possible, were the words Count Woronzow ad- 
dressed to me in the presence of his venerable father, with 
whom I had been in the habit of daily communication for 
some time. The old count, who was then visiting his 
daughter in Privy Gardens, joined his son in pressing me 
to accede to his request (for I considered it as such, though 
worded in the form of a question). "And who will take 
care of your excellency VI inquired. " At your age you 
cannot dismiss, but on the contrary must call for the aid of 
the doctor who has taken care of you for so long.'' " Oh, as 
for that," replied the old gentleman, " you can go without 
fear ; you will find me on your return where you have left 
me, living and doing well. One does not die rapidly at 
my age. I am only eighty-five; between that and a hundred 
there is plenty of time." In short, the affair was settled 
there and then; that is, I said, " Yes, for three months, but 
not longer, dating from the month of August." 

The count seemed indisposed to make an offer of re- 
muneration, but I suggested the following plan : " A 
mutual friend from among our acquaintances shall be 
named, to whom I will submit my fee-book of the 
current year, and on the amount of fees therein repre- 
sented he will suggest the honorarium to be paid to me 
for my three months' attendshice. Travelling expenses 
each way, with a travelling carriage and a servant, and to 
reside as a member of the family during the whole of my 
sojourn in St. Petersburg." The adjudication arrived at 
was one thousand pounds. 

On the 20th of September, 1827, the party, consisting of 


the count and countess and myself, a lady's-maid and a 
valet, together with an official feldjS-ger attached to General 
Count Woronzow, set out on the journey to St. Petersburg. 
My readers must rest satisfied with this mere indication of 
a long narrative concerning a part of my life which I have 
fully detailed jn two thick volumes, the contents of which 
require not to be repeated here. The younger readers, 
when they reach this part of the record of my life may, if 
they care for it, fill up the hiatus by referring to the 
former work.** My older readers, who remember the former 
work, either in itself or through its innumerable reviews, 
will consider that narrative as continuous with the account 
of the journey to St. Petersburg now undertaken through 
Flanders, the Rhenish provinces, Russia, and Poland, and 
on my return through Siberia, the federated states of Ger- 
many, and France, as forming part of the present work, 
which thus far may be deemed to be accomplished, although 
some people may be inclined to believe rather that I must 
rejoice at any plausible excuse of saving myself a great deal 
of trouble and labour on the present occasion, not having to 
repeat what has been so fully told before. However, as I 
shall have to tell a great deal more on the subject of the 
Russian capital, and some particulars of its government and 
mmisters affecting my own interest, when I shall have to 
give an account of a second visit to St. Petersburg, in 
consequence of a professional summons thither to a distin- 
guished patient in 1849, 1 shall reserve till then the remarks 
I may have to make subsequent to the first visit. 

The journey I found myself engaged in little resembled 
any of the various journeys and excursions I had hitherto 
performed, either alone or in the company of firiends. There 
were no difficulties as to horses to encounter, or contentions 

* ^* St. Petersburg : A Journal of Travels to and from that Capital, &c.*' 
Bvo. 182S-9, 




with postmasters or postillions. The trouble of paying for 
passports and visas never occurred, or had to be bribed for. 
At each hostelry of consequence the travelling party was 
instantly accepted and waited upon. Nor at any station 
in which Count Woronzow determined to rest a day or two 
do I remember to have missed remarking the empressement 
with which his arrival was welcomed by some great local 
authority or his delegate, through the foreign country we 
passed, and of course more conspicuously so once we crossed 
the frontiers at Polangen. What was mere politeness and 
compliment before became a matter of discipline or eti- 
quette, for in no nation in Europe are military officers of a 
superior rank treated with more consideration and respect 
than in Russia. But my present was distinguished from 
any of my former peregrinations by a feature I need not 
hesitate to confess pleased me more than any of the advan- 
tages just enumerated. Like an expert and provident 
commander who has to undertake a long and not an easy 
journey. Count Woronzow had attached to his suite a 

.ov- culinary fourgon^ with attendant cooks and marmitons, to 
supply us twice every day with such ample repasts that we 
might be envied by those who live at home at ease and 
amid plenty. Nor did this species of selfish enjoyment 
involve, as might be expected, any detriment to the houses 
of entertainment at which our party halted, for the feldjager 
" was instructed to leave in each case a certain sum as an 
equivalent for the trouble given. 
^ One remarkable person I may allude to as having joined 
our party. This was Capo d' Istria, whom I first met during 
my visit to Corfu, of which he was a native. His talents 

^ as a diplomatist need not be alluded to here, but a physical 

feature peculiar to him was ethnologically so curious and 

unprecedented, that I cannot forbear recording it. I allude 

v^o the enormous size of his ears, which measured in length 


nearly five inches, with a corresponding breadth and thick- 
ness. One might consider such a fact as a mere mons- 
trosity or accidental hypertrophy of the parts in all their 
integrity. But that was not the case, for the count 
assured me .that the same peculiarity had existed propor- 
tionately since his birth, therefore it must be looked upon 
as an exceptionally peculiar ethnological case. 

Much as was done to render the journey as little irksome 
and tedious as possible, the seventeen hundred and sixty- 
five miles of which it consisted did not occupy less than one 
month and five days, and for myself I confess, notwith- 
standing all the convenience I had secured for reading m 
my solitary little britzska, I was very glad when I found 
myself m the snug and Veil-appointed suite of rooms which 
had been made ready for us in the palatial residence of 
Count Woronzow, situate in one of the widest and most 
showy quarters of the capital, called the Malamorskoy. It 
was the 27th of October, and winter had set in at St. Peters- 
burg since the middle of September ; my surprise therefore 
was equal to my delight when I found myself in a genially 
warmed atmosphere directly I left my carriage under the 
parte cocMre and ascended to my rooms, accompanied by a 
valet who spoke French, and who had been chosen for my 
own service. He conducted me to a bedroom, which I found 
equally'and as genially warm as the apartments, although 
I perceived neither fire nor the semblance of a chimney. 

The special object that brought me to St. Petersburg 
was the state of health of the countess, and to the prompt 
recovery of the same was my professional attention directed 
from the first day of our arrival with gratifying and not very 
remote results. She was not long in recovering her strength 
the moment she had shaken off that species of nervous f(^ver 
under which she had suffered for some months immediately 
after her late confinement. As soon as the invalid began to 



find herself better, the count and countess opened their vast 
and splendid salons to receive their numerous relations as 
well as a select circle of friends and acquaintances. Being 
special favourites of the reigning imperial family, sometimes 
one, sometimes another of the grand duchesses visited the 
countess, who not unfrequently, when I happened to be 
in the room, did me the honour to present me to them as 
her m^decin intime de Londres. This sort of introduction . 
gradually extended to other branches of the aristocracy in 
St. Petersburg, to which circumstance I may attribute the 
several consultations I was called to professionally. Never- 
theless I abstained from any serious engagement which 
might possibly interfere with my own special patient, and 
it was my wish to avoid exciting the ill feeUng of the 
principal physicians in the place, with some of whom I 
became intimately acquainted, especially after my admis- 
sion as a member of the Medico-Chirurgical Academy, as 
well as of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, before which 
latter scientific body I delivered a lecture on my Egyptian 
mummy, the preparation of which, arranged in mahogany 
cases, I had taken with me from England in order to exhibit 
them to the savants of foreign countries. 

I have so fully described in my former work the active 
life I led during the time I remained stationary in St. 
Petersburg, collecting materials in every quarter for the 
compilation of that extensive work, which it was my inten- 
tion to publish on my return to London, that I need not 

^ touch upon any of these topics again. One part which is 
there omitted may properly be here introduced, being im- 

\ portant in a medical point of view. I allude to the state 

' of my own health, induced by my mode of life in St. 

Petersburg, or perhaps caused by the nature of its climate. 

It may readily be surmised that, living in a princely 

\^ mansion, with everything down to the minutest want 



satisfied, and pampered — for such is the correct word — 
with the best of a French cuisine^ not improved by 
an occasional mixture of some stchi or batvinia (Russian 
dishes), many of my very old dyspeptic annoyances re- 
turned, among which were a great tightness in the head 
and nervousness, with a deficiency of peristaltic action 
to a most inconvenient degree. Bodily exercise, that 
is, walking out, was out of the question. Driving out in 
a sledge or drosky served me but Httle as a substitute 
for muscular movements, while the confined air of the 
apartments, in which the thermometer was constantly 
ranging between 65** and 75'' of Fahrenheit, was not re- 
freshing. I brought to mind my Parisian rule, that cheer- 
fulness and constant occupation keep off nervous dyspepsia ; 
but in my present case I felt that something more than 
simple dyspepsia was brewing, which required vigilance on 
my part. I altered my daily diet, returning to simpler 
nourishment, and promoted by suitable remedies a healthier 
action of the liver ; further, in spite of the intensity of the 
prevailing cold, I insisted on walking to all the markets and 
places of popular interest, accompanied by a good-tempered \ 
and kind companion, one of the count's aides-de-camp, a ^ 
Caucasian prince, who had volunteered to be my cicerone, 
and to whom I am indebted for obtaining the many 
valuable and interesting statistics which I have recorded in 
the second volume of " St. Petersburg." Still, one symp- 
tom, or train of symptoms, puzzled me, while I suffered \ 
from an incessant tremulousness, with great depression of 
spirits. To no assignable cause could I refer this strange 
sensation, except that it occurred every morning soon after 
breakfast, at which I partook of nothing beyond a couple 
of eggs and some toasted bread, accompanied with two 
cups of tea. I came to the conclusion that my nervous- 
ness depended on the direct influence the Russian tea had 

R 2 




on my nerves. However diluted, I invariably found that 
the tea I drank had a strong and perfumed taste. The 
countess insisted that it was mere fancy on my part, for the 
tea was part of what came regularly to St. Petersburg from 
Pekin through the Russian frontiers at Kiakhta, "from 
which,'* she added, " we were distant about eight thousand 
miles. Pekin is seven hundred and fifty miles further, so 
this tea we have on our table has had to travel eight thou- 
sand seven hundred and fifty miles, to do which it would 
occupy many months. Surely during that long period of 
time whatever objectionable matter might be found in the 
young or newly-gathered tea-leaf must have vanished. 
Try again." I did so, drinking it much more diluted with 
milk, but to no purpose. * But the count and the countess 
were obliged at last to admit that I seemed to get more 
nervous and incapable of application every morning. It 
was at length determined that I should leave off tea and 
take chocolate, which, as a matter of course, gave me a 
headache from indigestion, until at last I was reduced to a 
plain bouillon and toasted bread, which formed my break- 
fast for the remainder of the time I continued in St. 
/ It was natural that I should endeavour to investigate 
\ this physiological phenomenon, and try to ascertain whether 
I in reality genuine tea obtained from the warehouse whither 
\ the Kiakhta Telegas conveyed their Pekin produce would 
give rise, to the strange effect I experienced. To the ware- 
/ house in .question, therefore, I was driven, and here a new 
case being opened, the secret was at once divulged in the 
\ appearance of innumerable little blooms, remarkable for 
1 their whiteness and from their being largely mixed with the 
\ dark tea-leaves, emitting a most nauseous effluvium, and 
characterizing the sort of tea I had been. made to drink as 
belonging to the class of pekoe, a simple infusion of which 


would act on my nerves as poison. Of this fact experi- 
ments made by 'myself on the effect of concentrated extract 
of what is commonly called green tea on young dogs and 
domestic cats had sufficiently satisfied me before in 

After seven weeks' stay, my patient being quite restored 
to health, the moment had arrived for me to return to my 
post in London. Even at this' distance of time, now forty- 
five years since, I cannot revert without a shudder to the 
two or three first awful nights I passed in posting back 
Irom Russia in my own carriage — a travelling britzska 
placed and properly secured on a double-bodied sledge, 
which compelled us to take six instead of four horses, and 
all these cattle kept together by thin ropes, gathered within 
the left hand of a single driver, who drove the horses as 
much with his long whip as with his shrill and perpetual 
whoops. My Fahrenheit thermometer, at zero when we 
left the capital, very soon sank two or three degrees. The 
constant- rolling and pitching of a vessel in a storm can 
alone convey the idea of the sort of inconvenience we were 
going through, with the additional chance in the present 
case of being overturned into compact snow. At each 
post station (and there were only four) before we should 
reach the place we. had decided to stop at, the mere time 
expended in changing horses was sufficient to freeze our 
double-bodied sledge to the snow so fast that one-third of 
the population of the village was called forth to release us 
by means of long poles thrust under the back portion, and 
so raise us in the midst of the most deafening clamour. 
In this guise we passed Opolie, Yewe, Dorpat, and Volmar, 
to enter Riga on the 15th of December, the fifth day afteir 
leaving St. Petersburg. 

But I must not dwell upon the disagreeableness of the 
present journey homewards, leaving my readers to suppose 


there were not some compensations for them. The first 
and most important of these was the fact that a gentle- 
man, a young merchant settled in Russia, had offered to 
accompany me on my return journey to England — an offer 
gladly accepted, as it procured me the advantage of a 
pleasant companion, well acquainted with the northern 
languages, though not much with the countries we were to 
pass through. Another advantage, which was common to 
us both, was, that the carriage we were travelling in was 
one I had purchased from an English resident in St. Peters- 
burg accustomed to make frequent journeys to Paris and 
back, who had had it built in that city by the first carriage- 
builder of the day. It possessed all the conveniences 
, which a traveller could desire who does not wish to make 
many stoppages, and who wished to travel at night. In 
the middle of the carriage a bearskin lined the lower part, 
and an ingenious contrivance was made for spreading a 
bed on either side. A solid apron, with a movable part 
made of stout leather, met the German glass-blind from the 
top, which would have closed the traveller in almost her- 
metically had he wished it. Suspended inside I had a 
double-scale thermometer and a mariner's compass. Note- 
books and pencils fitted one of the many pockets, while in 
others were folded maps, post directions, and my passport, 
besides the official Russian paper authorizing me to post 
with so many horses. In a select pouch all the apparatus 
was placed for smoking, either with Latakia tobacco in a 
long pipe, or with cigars, and in this pouch travelled my 
pocket edition of Horace. In other recesses immediately 
fronting us, and quite handy, were two thick crystal 
goblets and a few bottles of sherry, and one of brandy, in 
case of emergency. As I had determined to travel by 
night as well as by day, I ordered a large lamp to be fitted 
to the back of the carriage, to enable me to read, and 


which served at the same time to keep the hands warm of 
the poor half-frozen courier placed in the dickey behind. 
He had received instructions to fill the several -ample 
leather pouches that hung suspended and locked outside 
the carnage with every kind of portable provisions, including 
tea and soup. To him I had given a large sheepskin 
great-coat, providing myself at the same time with a 
complete wrapper of the warmest sables, a courteous gift 
from one of my few Russian patients. There was only one 
slight drawback to all these wise provisions. My said 
courier was one of the greatest ninnies I had ever met in 
the whole course of my life, though a Pole ! 

The most remarkable feature in my homeward journey 
was a visit to the capital of Poland, well worth seeing, and, 
in my estimation, like an oasis in the deserts of north-east 
Europe, for Warsaw is truly suggestive of the superior com- 
forts a polished society procures for a population surrounded 
by many discouraging circumstances. The courteous 
reception by the Grand Duke Constantino possibly served 
to put us in good humour with everything we beheld 
around us ; but all the impressions we received while in 
Warsaw, with the advantage of having been well recom- 
mended, and consequently able to form accurate judgments, 
warrant me in proclaiming my admiration of the city 
and the people. But our journey offered to us many 
other objects of attraction and enjoyment. The crossing 
of the wild Dwina, liow frozen over, which only a few 
weeks back we had seen covered with sailing merchant 
vessels, with a bright sun lighting up the wide expanse of 
ice and snow everywhere, was a sight truly magnificent. 
The greatest care is taken by municipal regulations, 
rigorously enforced, to prevent accidents during the inces- 
sant traffic on the river. The police take special care of 
all travellers, as it is not considered safe to run across the 


ice with loaded carriages or with too many horses. We 
were too glad to be out of the way of any risk, so we gave 
up to the police the task of drawing our sledge and carriage 
from one side to the other, and they provided us with a 
smaller and slighter sledge for our own personal use. 

Our progress was more satisfactory after we had dropped 
the cumbersome equipage of a double-bodied sledge, and 
returned to the more natural and comfortable rolling on 
four wheels, even though we had to drag through heavy 
sand for many a long track before quitting Poland. Enter- 
ing Silesia *at last, and then Saxony, till we reached 
Dresden, my attention was much engaged and interested 
in beholding a variety of scenes, people, and manners that 
were entirely new to me, especially in the last-named city, 
justly considered the Florence of Germany. Here, of 
course, my undivided attention was given to a minute 
examination of the magnificent collection of pictures, 
housed in a curiously yet judiciously arranged edifice since 
rebuilt to great advantage. 

All these sources of enjoyment I confess were em- 
bittered by the perpetually recurrent reflection, that having 
exceeded, unavoidably on my part, by a few days only, the 
leave of absence granted to me by the Lord High Admiral 
when I left England, some of the kind professional friends 
I had left behind me might not be sorry to have the 
plausible excuse to damage my interest as a half-pay 
officer, as it unfortunately liappened. But how to hurry on 
faster when I found that at Kalisz, on the Polish frontier 
leading into Prussia, I was yet many miles from London, and 
my travelling qualities did not improve, my reader may 
determine. Much, as this matter weighed on my mind, I 
did not allow It to interfere with my determination of 
having an interview with Professor Meckel, the great 
anatomist at Halle, with whom I had some important busi^ 


ness to transact ; of being introduced to Goetlie at Weimar, 
and having a very interesting interview with him ; and, 
lastly, of executing a scientific commission with Professor 
Soemmering, at Frankfort At Paris it was natural that I 
. should pay visits to my old friends and professors, nor 
could I be insensible to the honour proposed, to me by 
Lord Granville, of a presentation to Charles the Tenth, the 
last of the Bourbon kings. 

My first care on reaching London was to report to the 
Admiralty my return, and to show I was once more 
within their jurisdiction — a step required to ensure the 
regular quarterly payment of my half-pay. In my official 
communications I explained the causes of a trifling excess 
of a few days that had occurred beyond the leave of 
absence granted to me by the Lord High Admiral. 
Almost the very next care was an interview with Mr. 
Henry Colbum, the well-known publisher, with whom 
before my departure for Russia I had entered into a sort of 
engage Jni I supply him with maieriab fo. a new work 
on a subject which at that time seemed to attract universal 
attention in this country. That engagement at the present 
interview was more explicitly drawn up in a regular form, 
to be carried out with as little delay as possible. I insisted 
on the introduction of a certain number of illustrations, the 
originals of which I could supply, with maps and plans of 
-cities, and a certain number of statistical tables ; and I left 
to Mr. Colburn's own taste and judgment the style of 
bringing out, with all the most attractive appliances of 
typographic art, a work which was estimated to form two 
thick volumes. 

The public in general, and all the leading reviewers to 
head them, did fiill justice to the liberality and taste of the 
publisher. For my part I am bound to declare, that not on 
the present occasion only, but on more than one subsequent 


occasion, I have been indebted to my publisher for similar 
conscientious and profitable exertion. The late Mr. Henry 
Colbum was the publisher of three of my principal works, 
and in each case I owe him thanks for the style in which 
those volumes were introduced to the public. He was a 
particular man, I admit, the said Mr. Colburn, but honour- 
able in his dealings, thoroughly master of his metier^ a 
good authority to rely upon as to the public taste and 
judgment, and although shrewd, always straightforward. 



The Admiralty and the medical officers — How to trick them out of their half- 
pay — I am selected as a victim, and defrauded of my subscriptions to 
the widow and orphan fund — The insult of a junior secretary contra- 
• dieted by his superior — Outbieak of cholera in England — Publish the 
"Catechism of Health" — Viscount Palmerston seized with cholera — 
Novel mode of treatment — No rest for a foreign secretary — Another 
minister attacked. 

Those who have read " St. Petersburg " know that it is far 
removed from the category of such as are called medical 
or professional works. Perhaps in the thirteen hundred 
and sixty-one pages of which the two volumes consist, it 
would be difficult to find materials for a strictly medical 
pamphlet ; yet in the course of the half-dozen years that 
followed the pubhcation of those two volumes, I can with 
sincerity and justice declare that I owe to them a larger 
accession of new patients to my list than I could anticipate 
even from any positive and special publication devoted 
solely to the consideration of human health. Of course 
there is a solution to this puzzle, and my readers will have 
no difficulty in finding it out. The prompt manner in which 
the publication was effected, set me quite free to devote my 
attention strictly to my professional engagements ; and at 
the commencement of the London season of 1829, I found 
myself as regularly restored into my ordinary groove as if I 
had not been absent a single day from my post. It was 
when in the eifjoyment of the serene and placid course of 
my domestic affairs that an act of most glaring injustice on 
the part of superior officials against me was perpetrated 


with the utmost sang froid possible, which ended by de- 
priving me of my half-pay, and removing me from the list 
of medical officers in the navy — a measure which involved 
immediate loss to my wife and children of certain pecuniary 
allowance as widow or orphans, on account of which I had 
been made to contribute from the very first day of my 
entering the service, in order to keep up and increase the 
funds from which those pensions were derived. A simple 
narrative of circumstances will suffice to show the gross 
injustice of these combined acts, when I mention that in a 
pecuniary point of view they have occasioned me to this 
day an. absolute loss of 3,865Z. sterling. 

In 1826, the Board of Admiralty found themselves 
burdened with a list of medical officers of all ranks, the 
half- pay of whom formed a heavy charge in the navy 
estimates. It was their ambition to -have a larger fleet of 
inen-of-war afloat than any other maritime nation. They 
would insist on building a great number of useless ten-gun 
brigs, called " sea-coffins,'' giving them abundant patronage of 
naming commanders, lieutenants, and medical officers, much 
beyond the need of the time ; and now after the peace, 
when Nelson and his brother naval chiefs had swept off the 
surface of every sea even the shadow of a hostile sail, there 
remained a list of eight hundred medical officers on half- 
pay, for whom there was no work or any public service to 
appoint them to, but who, nevertheless, had an indisputable 
right to their half-pay for life. In such an emergency what 
was to be done? How can this heavy list of doctors be 
lightened by three or four hundred of them at the least 
cost ? To the economist this was a puzzle, but a mode to 
overcome all difficulties -was nevertheless devised, the merit 
of which rumour in my time ascribed to the keen and 
shrewd secretary, Mr. John Wilson Croker. If from 
ignorance I deprive any other ^gentleman of the credit of 


the invented dodge about to be put in practice, I can only 
say that I regret it. " Suum cuique." I for one believed 
the fact as I have given it, and it was worked in this guise. 
An ex officio circular, dated the 14th January, 1826, was 
sent from the Vi#ualling Board to every medical officer on 
the Navy List, informing them that the Right Honourable 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty had determined that 
a certain number of surgeons should be sent' out to each of 
the foreign stations, with the view of their being placed in 
such vacancies as might occur in the respective ships on the 
station, and that " those surgeons of the Royal Navy who 
had served shortest periods since their promotion should be 
first selected for that service, and so on in succession.'* 
From this measure it was expected that a considerable 
number of the younger medical officers, from considerations 
of finance and domestic interest, would refuse to serve, and 
so make themselves amenable to^ dismissal from the service, 
thereby lightening the half-pay list. The contrary, how- 
ever, took place, and so many were the junior medical 
officers who accepted the offer of full pay as supernumerary 
surgeons, that besides the difficulty of finding ships on 
foreign stations in which to. appoint them temporarily, it 
was found that, while the half-pay list became less, the full- 
pay list became larger ; the result of which was the recall 
of their circular of the 14th January, 1826, and the substi- 
tution, January, 1832, of a general measure by which every 
medical officer on half-pay would never be called upon to 
serve who should signify his acquiescence to receive a com- 
muted allowance less than the half-pay to which he was 
annually entitled, and thus the great scheme ended. 

But in the interval the working of the circular of the 14th 
of January, 1826, was brought to bear on my own case in 
a manner that elicited expressions of surprise and undis- 
gniised condemnation from more than one servant of the 


crown, who had an opportunity of perusing my case as 
drawn up by counsel and presented to succeeding Boards of 
the Admiralty, including Lord Minto and Sir James Graham, 
whose strange deliberation on the subject I possess in the 
form of a short epistle from Sir Jam(|. Mine was an 
appeal to Sir James, then at the head of the Admiralty, 
against the wrong decision of his predecessors in office, to 
which protest Sir James replied in a private letter to me of 
the 16th of January, 1834, that he and his colleagues could 
not alter the decision adopted by their predecessors, because 
they thought they had decided according to the facts and 
merits of the case. Now, the appeal showed that the said facts 
were precisely the other way, and the merits of the case had 
been consequently misjudged. As an answer to the allega- 
tion of injured eye-sight in my case. Sir James brings forward 
an observation, no doubt suggested by the Junior Secretary, 
that I had but a short time before undertaken, and did per- 
form successfully, an operation of a most delicate nature on 
a female in the presence of several eminent surgeons. 
Precisely so ; but he omits to notice the fact that a cer- 
tificate of surgeon Earle was among the documents which 
accompanied my appeal for restoration to the service, which 
stated that he, Mr. Eai'le, was obliged to assist me in tying 
up some of the minutest bleeding arteries, which I could 
not see. And again, Sir James tries to meet my allegation 
of injured health, and consequent debility, by this illogical 
refutation : that my state of health enabled me to bear the 
fatigue of an extensive practice in London. Truly so, or I 
should not get bread for myself and family to live upon. 
But the fatigue of a London practice is undergone with 
means of conveyance, which saves bodily fatigue, with a 
well-appointed diet, witn the attentive solicitude of relatives 
and domestics, with a temperature under control, and, 
finally, with an occasional rest in a well-ordered home for a 


day or two. How are all these counteracting circumstances 
against fatigue from work to be found in active life on board 
a man-of-war ? A little better logic would have spared Sir 
James the pain of using a wrong argument in support of an 
act of injustice. ^ 

By the legal statement just alluded to, accompanied by 
its corresponding documents from public (Jffices, it resulted, 
1st. That I was selected for immediate appointment con- 
siderably before my turn, in violation of the provision 
contained in the circular of the 14th of January, 1826, there 
being no fewer than ten or twelve well-known medical men 
in London settled in practice who had not been applied to, 
although junior to myself. For example, Mr. James Clark, 
who was my junior, and yet had not been appointed super- 
numerary surgeon to any ship, but left to the enjoyment of 
his well-sustained practice in London. 2nd. That my alle- 
gation of ill-health, supported by great numbers of certifi- 
cates from physicians and surgeons of the first eminence 
in London, certificates which have been invariably taken 
into consideration in all ciases of appointment to active 
service, were disregarded, quite overlooked, and my allega- 
tion set entirely aside, instead of being submitted to a proper 
impartial medical board for inquiry, as it is customary in 
the royal navy. 3rd. That to appoint me to any vessel in 
the West Indies was a wilful and direct violation of a reso- 
lution from an authorized board of medical officers who had 
invalided me home from that station as totally unfit for 
service in such a climate ; the official documents of which 
medical survey were actually in the hands of the Commis- 
sioners of the Victualling and Transport Boards when they 
signed the warrant (three days after my return from leave of 
absence), namely, on the 9th of January, 1828, appointing 
me to a vessel stationary in the West Indies, and on the 
most unhealthy island, in which I had suffered from au 


attack of yellow fever, besides other ills due to the climate, 
as stated in the medical survey. 

But it was decided that no remonstrance on my part 
should pretail, and accordingly, on the 23rd of January, 
1828 (sharp work, indeed, no time wasted), a finale was put 
to this transaction between the authorities of the royal navy 
and a humble member of it, who had ruined his health in 
the service, the merits and justice of which finale I leave to 
my readers to determine : — 

" Victualling Office. 23rd January, 1828. 

" Sir, — Having laid before the Commissioners for Vic- 
tualling His Majest/s Navy your letter of the 21st inst., I 
am to acquaint you that with reference to your letter of the 
18th inst, the Board has caused your name to be removed 
from the list of medical ofl&cers of the royal navy.j 

" I am, Sir, 

" Your most humble servant, 

" M. Waller Clifton. 

" To Dr. GranviUe." 

Knowing as I did the engines that had been at work in 
bringing about the issue I have just recorded, perhaps it 
was a folly to prolong the contest, especially with the 
Admiralty, where one of the' two hostile gentlemen I 
alluded to at the commencement of this narrative was an 
active subaltern ; still it was natural that T should protest 
before a superior tribunal against an official resolution which 
I considered as too important, and to myself fatal, to come 
from what I looked upon as a subordinate board, and I 
therefore did remonstrate, a step which brought an official 
negative reply with the gratuitous interpolation of an 
impertinence which, after all, instead of wounding my feel- 
ings, as no doubt it was intended to do, led to my being 
able to produce a document from the superior government 
officer in whose department was the naval medical branch, 


which my children will be proud to possess, and which 
forms an appropriate conclusion to my story of the loss of 
my rank and pay in the English navy : — 

Mr. John Barrow to Dr. Granville. 

'^ 3l8t January, 1834. Admiralty. 

" Sir, — Sir James Graham having communicated to my 
Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty your letter of the 
30th inst, I have received their lordships' commands to 
acquaint you, that the subordinate Board you mention acted 
entirely under the direction of the Board of Admiralty, and 
your case and conduct being truly represented by the 
Victualling Board, with the whole correspondence, which is 
on record at this office, my lords required no further state- 
ment from you to decide on the prayer of your late 

Dr. Granville to John Barrow^ Esq.^ Admiralty. 

" 16 Grafton Street February 3rd, 1834. 

** Sir, — I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, 
dated the 31st ultimo, which you addressed to me by the com- 
mand of the Lords of the Admiralty, in reply to my letter 
to Sir James Graham, marked * private.* From the term 
and spirit of your letter I plainly perceive, that so long as 
the personal misrepresentation which first led to the glaring 
act of injustice against which I complain continues to 
prevail, my chances of redress must be very insignificant, 
and far better it will be for me at present to yield as the 
weaker party to the stronger. It is now more manifest than 
ever that my last^ memorial was not properly investigated by 
the Admiralty, neither have the open charges of partiality 
and violation of rules brought by me against the late 
Victualling Board, one influential member of which is still 
regulating (though in another capacity) the fate of the 
medical officers in the navy, been duly inquired into. This 

VOU 11. 


conviction of my mind would have been sufficient to dis- 
courage me from noticing any further your present commu- 
nication, were it not for one expression in it relative to my 
'conduct.' Respecting that expression, perfectly uncalled 
for by the occasion, I might very properly have called upon 
you for an explanation, but that the enclosed printed copy 
of a certificate which I happen fortunately to possess, 
written by the late medical commissioners of the Victualling 
Board, and given to me before personal feelings of hostility 
were sufiFered to sway the public acts of that Board, suffi- 
ciently indemnify me for any mortification which you might 
have meant to produce by the uncalled-for insertion of the 
word I have noticed." 

" Certificate from the Medical Commissioners of the 
Victualling Board of His Majesty's Navy. • 

" These are to certify that Dr. A. B. Granville has held 
the rank of full surgeon in His Majesty's navy from the 
year 1808 ; has served in a great variety of climates and 
stations, and has distinguished himself as a medical officer 
of superior merit. I further certify, from my personal 
knowledge, that he went through a regular course of 
elementary instruction and examination previously to his 
entering His Majesty's navy, and that he is eminently well 
versed in the diflferent branches of medical science ; and 
that during the whole period of his service afloat he dis- 
charged his duty as an officer and a gentleman in a manner 
creditable to himself and satisfactory to his superior officers, 
as well as to the Board under whose immediate orders he 
has been employed. 

" Given under my hand at Somerset Place, this 3rd 
day of February, 1822. (Signed) J. Weir, 
Medical Commissioner, R.N." 

We are apt in this country to stare and turn our eyes up, 


uttering at the same time objurgations at the turpitude of 
certain public functionaries in foreign lands, wondering how 
certain violations of right and justice can be perpetrated 
with impunity as we are told ; what will foreigners say of 
us when they learn that an important department of the 
government of this country engage experienced and ex- 
pensively-educated professional men to give their services 
during their lifetime for the preservation of the health of 
their sailors, . in return for which service a pecuniary 
remuneration pledged to be paid to them in full while on 
active service, and in part only in future when not on service, 
and that such engagements are thrown to the winds when- 
ever it suits the said authorities to repudiate their engage- 
ment, and so filch the deluded medical men of what they 
were bound to pay them ? 

Nor were these the only considerations that made me feel 
keenly the harsh return I received for my past services. The 
mortification was much greater at seeing myself thus ab- 
iniptly excluded through hostile feelings in high places from 
a service with which many high associations were connected, 
of friendship contracted with officers who have earned for 
themselves an imperishable name, such as Sir Edward Parry 
and Captain Liddon of Arctic fame, with both of whom I 
had been intimate in His Majesty's frigate Maidstone in 1811. 

But soon more serious and important matters were to 
attract and engage general attention, respecting which the 
medical profession was called upon to take an immediate 
lead. Cholera from our north-eastern counties was making 
a stealthy yet manifest progress towards the capital, and had 
excited great alarm, exaggerated by some injudicious and 
absurd descriptions and prognostications. After ascending the 
Volga to Moscow, and thence to St. Petersburg, to reach the 
shores of the Baltic, visiting Riga and Stetting, the cholera 
came suddenly on Hamburg in the autumn of 1831. While 

s 2 


the latter city was suffering severely under this epidemic, it 
broke out in Sunderland, whence it travelled to London, 
settling first among the shipping in the Thames, and by the 
end of 1832 it had possession of the metropolis. A great 
outcry was raised, and the sanitary movement was initiated. 
The College of Physicians issued rules for preservation from 
cholera, and other medical writers propagated their own 
views on the subject in medical journals. So soon as the 
dreaded malady had made its appearance in the metropolis, 
a certain number of medical men formed themselves into a 
committee at the west end of the town, intending to visit 
and treat gratuitously all patients of the industrial classes 
afflicted by the disease, and administer to them suitable 
remedies in each case. I selected for my district Lower 
Chelsea and Fulham, as most within reach of my own 
residence. The committee used to meet every evening and 
report progress, making comparisons between different 
reports, and many were the interesting facts and conclusions 
which our reports enabled us to draw from them. On my 
part, thinking that what the humbler and more exposed 
classes required was information as to the proper mode of 
living and as to the nature of the new disease, I undertook 
the pleasing task of publishing a popular work in simple 
language and of a portable size, entitled " The Catechism 
of Health;" or simple rules for the preservation of health, 
to which were added clear notions on the character and 
treatment of cholera. This work, which was published in 
the September of 1831, soon after the appearance of cholera 
in London, treating of every topic connected with health 
and sickness, with medicine, diet, air, exercise, must have 
proved welcome to that portion of the public for whom it 
was intended, inasmuch as four editions were published in 
that month by Bentley. 

We had occasion to remark that the disease, which seemed 


to hacve crept in with no stint into the humble abodes of the 
working classes in our district, had scarcely made any im- 
pression upon the higher classes, either aristocratic or public 
characters. This apparent immunity on their part, however, 
did not last long, and not a few members of the aristocracy 
and of the government were added to those whom the 
epidemic had not spared. Among these T had soon to 
reckon one of my ordinary patients, whom I had on 
several occasions attended — ^I mean Lord Palmerston ; and 
after him, at a distance of only a few weeks, another dis- 
tinguished member of the government — Viscount Goderich, 
of whose family I had had the honour of being the medical 
attendant for some time. 

On the 4th of April, 1833, Lord Palmerston was brought 
to his house in Great Stanhope Street in a hackney 
coach, having been taken suddenly ill as he was leaving his 
office in Downing Street. The state in which I found his 
lordship when I entered his bedroom, scarcely half an hour 
after the summons to Grafton Street had been despatched, 
showed me at once with what sort of ailment I had to deal. 
The daily witnessing of patients attacked by cholera by the 
members of the Cholera Committee had made our eyes 
expert in recognizing the disorder. His lordship had been 
partially undressed and laid on his bed, where he was lying 
on his back ; his head raised high on the pillows. His face 
was deadly pale and shrunk — the eyelids closed ; both 
knees were drawn up almost to an acute angle with the 
surface of the abdomen, which I uncovered and felt all over, 
occasioning indications of pain when pressed, however 
gently, on my part I nevertheless obtained the conviction 
that the pain as well as the attitude of the limbs were not 
occasioned by an attack of inflammation, but by spasmodic 
contraction of the muscles of the abdomen, to which part 
now and then the patient would direct both his hands, 


giving signs by his countenance and a shrill cry that the 
part was in pain. The whole surface of the body was icy, 
as was the tongue in a remarkable degree ; respiration faint, 
and at long intervals ; the pulse extremely small, and beating 
with long intermissions ; very rigid. But for the contraction 
of the legs and thighs Lord Palmerston's state would have 
reminded me of that in which I had observed persons who 
had just been drawn out of the water and saved from 
drowning. One of the other symptoms we had to contend 
with was sickness, which rendered almost useless every sort 
of stimulant, for it was almost immediately rejected, except 
the stimulating alkaline drops recommended by 'me in 
the " Catechism of Health " under similar circumstances, 
and the nature of which was a combination of camphor, 
pure liquid ammonia, and essence of rosemary. This 
stimulant algne succeeded in diminishing notably the spas- 
modic action of the stomach. In my anxious moments of 
this treatment I had, fortunately, the advantage of a most 
excellent nurse in the old faithful housekeeper of his lord- 
ship, devoted to her master and grateful to him, who had 
invariably sent me to attend her during occasional illnesses. 
Her grief and tears did not prevent her from affording me 
every assistance. 

Under such alarming and discouraging features of the 
case, I shall not scruple to enter into the detailed history of 
the treatment adopted where ordinary and common measures 
inspired no confidence. It was the inspiration of the 
moment, and may serve as a guide and encouragement to 
those who come after me under the like circumstances, not 
to despair however desperate the attack of the disease may 
appear. The patient was entirely stripped and placed in a 
prone position. A long band of thick flannel, four inches 
wide, was spread over and all along the spine from the joint 
in the back of the neck down to the upper portion of the 


sacrum, the band being held firm by the housekeeper at the 
upper, and by the valet at Jthe lower end. Over this band 
I passed lightly up and down a heated flat-iron, such as is 
used in laundries. The first indication of any effect from 
this addition of heat to the spinal marrow was the relaxation 
of the contracted lower extremities, so that the pronation 
' of the whole body becfltme complete. His lordship had not 
spoken a word since he had been brought home, and had 
only uttered a more or less subdued cry now and then. 
We could only judge by other symptoms than his expressions 
whether the measure we were adopting was producing any 
salutary effect or not. On this point we were not long kept 
in suspense. It was remarked that he breathed more freely 
and at more regular intervals ; in the mean while the pulse 
in both wrists became more sensible, and with scarcely any 
intermission. Presently a deep sigh was heaved — a deep 
inspiration, I mean — and the whole skin visible to us 
assumed a rosy tint, and felt warm to the touch. I now 
directed that he should be turned on his back^ leaving the 
warm flannel on the skin when raised up to his pillows. 
Some of the stimulatory alkaline drops were now given, 
which were retained. An immense eructation of gas 
escaped from his mouth, another very deep inspiration fol- 
lowed, and my lord was heard to say " I am better." An 
ample cataplasm of linseed meal, with a small quantity of 
mustard powder sprinkled upon it, was applied to the whole 
surface of the abdomen, from which all vestige of spasmodic 
contraction or indication of pain on pressure had wholly 
disappeared. My lord was safe! Instant and positive 
silence was imposed, and every person except the house- 
keeper and the valet was required to leave the chamber, 
and his lordship to the chance of sleep. " We must have 
no unnecessary expenditure of power," I whispered into his 
ear when I left him. 


Before I left the house that day Lord Palmerston seemed 
to me to have got over the danger of a sudden extinction, 
and I flattered myself he would recover. Directions were 
given to the servants to reply to all inquiries, that Lord 
Palmerston had been taken suddenly ill with a severe 
attack of the prevailing influenza, notice of which was 
forwarded in my name to the Foreign Office, with a note 
from myself to Sir George Shee, the under-secretary, 
requesting him at the same time to communicate the 
information to both his lordship's brothers-in-law, Lawrence 
Sulivan, Secretary at War, and Admiral Bowles. The name 
of cholera was not to be mentioned, an injunction I solemnly 
gave to the porter as I entered my carriage on leaving 
Stanhope Street. It was considered prudent to adopt such 
a course instead of alarming the public with the real name 
of the disease, at that moment an object of horror to 
Londoners. Accordingly, the public journals, the " Times " 
and the "Morning Post," of the 8th of April, 1833, 
announced the illness of the foreign minister, the " Morning 
Post " stating that " Lord Palmerston has been indisposed 
during the last few days,'' &c.. The ** Times" repeated 
day by day the same account as the " Morning !Post; " and 
on the 17th bf April, Wednesday, it states that "Viscount 
Palmerston continues confined to his residence in Stanhope 

All official or any other communications with the patient 
were strictly to be avoided, and no person however con- 
nected with his lordship was to be admitted to his chamber 
in my absence. I visited the patient frequently in the 
course of the day, and remained till lat6 at night in 
attendance, although my own residence was in almost an 
adjoining street. 

I have mentioned the principal reason for having entered 
into the particulars of my treatment as an encouragement 


to my co-professional brethren, but there is what must be 
considered of much more importance under any circum- 
stance in which this formidable illness may appear. A 
sound reason for detailing the treatment is the introduction 
of a remedial agent which my brethren will admit to be 
new, and to the physiological influence of which they will 
join me in ascribing the prompt restoration of animal heat 
to the whole system, through the agency of an artificially 
excited action of the spinal nerves and vessels. 

The complaint went its usual course, and Lord Palmerston 
was able to return to active life after a short period, though 
not very strong, yet as eager for work as if he had never 
suffered more than a few hours' illness. Indeed, it became 
evident to me that I should have to interfere more abso- 
lutely in the proceedings which I perceived going on in 
the establishment in reference to my patient. Lord 
Palmerston was not yet in a state to leave^ his bed from 
sheer debility, but there were parts of the day in which I 
allowed him to attend to some of the lighter occupations 
of his ministerial duties. He was permitted to receive a 
few of the official despatch boxes, to open them, and to 
peruse some of the contents in the presence of Sir George 
Shee, to whom he was to dictate a brief precis of the 
reply the despatch might require. But my lord, quite 
impatient under this slow process of doing business, so 
contrary to his usual habits, had insisted on a more active 
mode of proceeding, and I found him one morning in his 
dressing-gown sitting up in bed, the surface of which was 
positively strewed all over with many of the said despatch 
boxes, one of which had already received his attention, and 
was closed with the slip of paper hanging outside at the 
end of the box, having inscribed on it the name of the 
individual or office for which the contents were intended, 
or a brief indication of the nature of the despatch or 


official papers inserted, with a slight indication of the sort 
of reply they might require in Lord Palmerston's judgment. 
But even this serious infringement of the rules I had 
laid down for his speedier convalescence were soon exceeded, 
and all attempts at preventing excitement and fatigue of 
the brain baffled, for in lieu of simply indicating his 
personal views and opinions of the nature of certain de- 
spatches he had perused, I found him actually now writing 
down in pencil the entire document, intended as an official 
reply to those he had received. Against these proceedings 
I seriously as well as firmly protested, urging as an 
argument that I was individually responsible for his safety 
in the eye of the public, not less than of his family, and 
that in a constitution so weakened by the serious attack he 
had just escaped from succumbing to, the exertion of the 
brain to which he exposed himself for some hours could 
only lead to but one result — a fatal one. " What is the 
use of your under secretaries?*' I asked. "To give me 
double work," was his reply : " when I commit to them 
my ideas, I leave them to embody them in suitable phrases. 
They are both clever, sharp enough, and with much 
command of their pen; but what they tell and write, 
however instructed, is not what I should have said or 
written. I dare say you saw in passing through the 
drawing-room just now, Pozzo di Borgo. He has been 
here eagerly, and I may say kindly, to inquire after me 
every day, I am told, since my attack. The fact is, he is 
looking to a reply to a proposition he has made in the 
name of his government, which I am not' in a hurry to 
submit to my colleagues for consideration. The reasons 
may be enumerated, but not distinctly told ; and that was 
the official document I was writing just as you came in and 
as usual began to grumble at me. However, be easy, I 
will in future attend more strictly to your rules, and let me 


have more of that delicious drink that you have so cleverly 

The attack of another of the most prominent ministers 
of the day, to which I have made a simple allusion, was of 
much less importance, although at its outset sufficiently so 
to alarm his lordship's family. Lord Goderich, who was 
spending the summer at a villa near Highgate, with a view 
of being near his official department in London, was attacked 
with symptoms of illness, that led the local medical man to 
declare it to be cholera. It was on a Sunday that the attack 
took place, and I was hastily called out of St. George's Church 
to visit his lordship, whose carriage was in waiting at the 
church, door. My professional acquaintance with Lord 
Goderich was of some years' standing, and I was perfectly 
aware of the state of his constitution. It was found on 
meeting the local medical attendant, that my lord was labour- 
ing under what was afterwards denominated cholerine, a mild 
form of cholera, resembling; if not identical with, what 
Dr. Sydenham called " cholera morbus," or English cholera. 
The complaint proved troublesome and exhausting, but 
gave way to the ordinary treatment under the assiduous 
co-operation of his local attendant, aided by the vigilance 
of his devoted countess, who had had unfortunately some 
regretful experience in illness with her young family. Lord 
Goderich was in fact restored to his daily occupations in 
the course of two or three weeks. As Earl of Ripon, 
I shall have to say more of my patient in the following 
pages under much more agreeable circumstances. 



Complexity of incidents — Statistics and contributions to scientific knowledge — 
Insanity — Martin's plan to improve the Thames — His scheme adopted 
in part by the Metropolitan Board without acknowledgment 

As I near the time of winding up my long account, and I 
look to the still thick volume of manuscript notes remaining 
by my side, which must be referred to in order to complete 
my narrative, I seem to get so bewildered that I can 
hardly perceive the chronological order I have hitherto 
followed, so much has one event been the effect of another. 
Labour of the mind also did not fail to intervene amidst 
adventures and ordinary domestic occurrences, and these 
have engrossed attention so as greatly to interfere with my 
professional or other obligatory duties. However, by 
taking comprehensive views of the period of my life now 
to refer to, I think I can best exhibit the nature of the 
multifarious work I was called upon to share in. 

Some time in the spring of 1826 I received a summons 
to attend a Committee in the House of Commons on 
Friendly Societies, by order of the chairman, Mr. Courteney. 
I have already had occasion to refer to this committee, 
before which I was examined, when my evidence enabled 
the actuary of the National Debt Office, Mr. Finlaison, to 
draw certain inferences deemed important for some practical 
operations concerning friendly societies in general. On the 
present occasion my evidence was again sought on the 
recommendation of Mr. James Mitchell, an able matheraa- 


tician, an actuary, I believe, and a lecturer on benefit 
societies. Mr. Mitchell addressed to me a letter on the 
17th of March, 1826, asking for information as to "the 
probable number of children a woman will be likely to 
have according to the age at which she married, beginning 
at the earliest age and going on to fifty." A memoir on 
this subject afterwards appeared in one of the very usefiil 
and creditable volumes of the Obstetrical Society of London. 
In that memoir will be found an extensive risumS of my 
experience and opportunities of observation as regards Mr. 
Mitchell's principal points of inquiry. Setting aside the 
more practical points of midwifery, and looking only to the 
physio-statistical portions of the tables which accompany 
the memoir, there will be found even more curious facts 
and inferences than Mr. Mitchell contemplated when he 
referred with much friendliness of feeling to sojgie former 
production of my pen. I may say that I am proud of those 
tables, the like of which I may assume the profession has 
not met with elsewhere. 

From the period just referred to until the end of the year 
of the cholera, which had sufficiently occupied my time, I 
applied' myself for a couple of hours in each day to the 
publication of an illustrated work on an analogous subject 
to that referred to in the preceding observations. This 
task I believe I accomplished with the approbation of the 
scientific world. In the first place I published an initiatory 
work,* and in the second place I laid before the public the 
result of several years' study, dissections, and designs from 
nature connected with the problem in hand,f and laconic 
and Latin descriptions accompanied the illustrations, which 
were lithographed and coloured by a skilful artist under my 

* *^ Prolegomena of the Development and Metamorphoses of the Human 
Ovum.*' London, 1833. 

t "Graphic lUustrations of Abortion, &c." A large quarto with fourteen 
coloured plates and forty-five figures. London, 1833. 


immediate supervision, and with the natm-al preparations 
invariably present. This work cost me 400 guineas, and 
I was not likely to find readily a speculative publisher who 
would take on himself its publication. On the other hand, 
a sufficient number of eminent medical men in all branches 
of the profession pressed me to publish it by subscription. 
Headed with their names, a list of nearly 400 members 
was presently filled, who not only readily added their 
names, but did so in language or by letters, all of which I 
preserve with no little satisfaction, conveying a degree of 
approbation which the reviewers uniformly re-echoed. 
I was made to understand that by this new work I 
had placed within reach of the less instructed obste- 
tricians, and supplied to a future generation of young 
medical practitioners, a source of information which they 
could only hope to gain after many years' personal expe- 
rience. The " Lancet " called it " a splendid work. Every 
point in the text which could be advantageously illustrated 
by original drawings is made the subject of a beautiful 
reference to nature." The Magnus Apollo of the " Medico- 
Chirurgical Review," Dr. James Johnson, not always the 
mildest of reviewers, afi;er discussing the mechanism of the 
work and its illustrations, concludes by saying that " twelve 
plates, containing forty-five anatomical figures, have been 
produced, lithographed, and coloured by Mr. Perry, rivalling 
the most successful efforts of French, German, or Italian 
artists.*' The "Medical Gazette," the third member of the 
dreaded aristarch medical triumvirate, had its own saying, 
thus : " It is a splendid volume, which in an especial 
manner deserves the patronage of the public. As we have 
been under the necessity of sometimes differing from Dr. 
Granville, it affords us pleasure on this occasion to speak 
in terms of unmingled commendation." (Valeat quantum, 
&c.) It was flattering also at the time to find the officers 



directing the libraries of the two medical colleges in London, 
and of other public scientific bodies, applying for the work. 
As one condition of the subscription was that after 400 
copies the stones should be (as in fact they were) defaced 
in my presence and that of three of the subscribers, all 
chance of procuring a single copy in the trade was done 
away with.* 

I must not omit to mention the various steps I had taken 
with the view to enlist the attention of the Lord Chancellor 
to a plan I laid before him on the treatment of insane 
people, which plan had been favourably viewed by some of 
the promoters of the Bill introduced by Lord Granville 
Somerset on that subject. But my brethren in the profes- 
sion did not deem all these acts on my part sufficient. They 
looked for further exertions in the cause, and that I ought 
not t6 relax my efibrts in any way. Thus, having heard 
me deliver the " First Oration " on medical reform before 
the British Medical Association; having sent me before 
parliamentary committees to give practical evidence on that 
subject ; commissioned me to attend deputations to minis- 
ters and to draw up memorials for their instruction, even 
in the case of the united corps of medical officers for the 
poor, it was considered that my vigilance in caring for the 
interests of the medical profession had been sufficiently 
tested, which (it was at one time suspected) I appeared in- 
clined to overlook or to put on one side. I mention all this 
to show that I was not unmindful of my own calling in the 
midst of other occupations. One of these was my attend- 
ance on the sick at the Royal Naval School at Camberwell, 
which I should have scorned to neglect or discontinue to 
attend gratuitously because of the scurvy treatment I had 

* On one or two occasionB I have noticed the work mentioned as forming a 
prize gift offered to a successful candidate in midwifery by a professor of that 
art, who must have given his own copy, or provided himself with some extra 
copies while the siihecription was proceeding. 


received from the Admiralty. For this service the unani- 
mous thanks of a general meeting of the friends and sup- 
porters of that college, moved by Admiral White, and 
carried (Sir George Cockbum being in the chair), were a suffi- 
cient reward. The following is another letter imposing on me 
fresh dutiep, which I welcomed with equal satisfaction, mak- 
ing up my mind to fulfil them to the best of my abilities : — . 

" 32, SackviUe Street. Oct. 10th, 1829. 

" Sir, — I have ihe pleasure to inform you that at the 
first meeting of the Westminster Medical Society, held on 
Saturday last, you were elected to be one of the presidents 
thereof, and to request you will meet the rest of the Com- 
mittee next Saturday evening, at half-past seven o'clock 

"I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

"F. F. Baker. 

" Dr. GranviUe." 

Immediately after my election I submitted to the Society 
a proposition of a character interesting to a body of en- 
lightened members of a medical assembly, among whom 
were some of the most experienced as well as learned 
practitioners. This acquired a greater degree of interest 
from the fact that it had come to be noticed and 
discussed in a most earnest manner in the Upper House of 
Parliament. Nor was I mistaken in my estimate of the 
ability of my co-members to treat such a question with 
eagerness and talent. According to the printed Report 
published in the " Medical Gazette " of the 12th of Decem- 
ber, 1829, which proceedings extend to an adjourned or 
second meeting, the question propounded by myself met 
with an exhaustive examination, and terminated by affirm- 
ing the opinion fiilly developed in a long discourse by the 
proposer. The case which gave rise to the consideration of 
the question will be long remembered under the name of 


the " Gardner Peerage Question." Were it likely that the 
legal profession would accept the recommendation from a 
humble practitioner of medicine, whose* impressions from 
study and observations lead him to prefer Nature's laws to 
the dicta of Chancellors and Q.C.s, I would respectfully 
advise them — '* Ere you again interfere with a complicated 
problem like the one you discussed in perfect darkness on 
that memorable occasion, cast your eyes on and read 
through the discussion referred to in the * Medical 
Gazette/ '' 

In 1837, by way of bringing forth and exercising the 
faculties and talents of my social electors, I propounded for 
their consideration a very important question, the discussion 
and consideration of which turned out as much for the 
good of the public in general as it reflected credit on the 
members of the society in particular. ^ I allude to the 
detection, by means of a series of chemical experiments, 
of the presence of a considerable quantity of arsenic 
employed in the manufacture of stearine candles, with ^^^"^^/^ 
the object of rendering them hard and giving them the *^**^^ 
polish of first-class sperm candles, a process fraught with 
double mischief, first from the injurious effects produced by 
the inhalation of the arsenical vapour during the combustion 
of the candles, and secondly from the facility it afforded to 
the evil-minded of extracting, by the simple process of 
melting the candle, a sufficient quantity of arsenic to poison 
a person without the fear of detection from discovering the 
source whence the poison had been obtained. These 
experiments and their conclusions I had published by 
direction of the Westminster Medical Society, and having 
been distributed to each foreign minister at our Court, 
elicited from their respective governments the most earnest 
expression .of gratitude. 

Another very important society, the British Medical 




Association, of which I waa the vice-president, was making 
strenuous efforts to improve the medical status in England. 
Its president had insisted on considering me hi& right- 
hand man in this question. I accepted the task, though it 
involved me in more work than I had time for, but I 
had not the courage to refuse work to a man who was so 
indefatigable himself in the same undertaking. Here is a 
specimen : — 

" Dulwich. 28th May, 1838. 

"My dear Sir, — Lord John Russell has appointed 
Saturday to receive the deputation of the Council of our 
Association, of which you were named a member, and I 
sincerely hope you will be able to accompany us to White- 
hall. Doctors Grant, Farr, Marshall Hall, Davidson, and 
some others compose the deputation. I send you a copy of 
my letter to Lord John, that you may be acquainted with 
our intention, and consider what further information we may 
be able to extract from his lordship. 

" Believe me, &c., 

"G. Webster, Pres." 

As the letter to Lord John Russell exposed in a simple 
yet admirable manner the views and intentions of the 
Association, I shall not consider a small space misapplied by 
inserting a copy in this place : — 

" Dulwich. 24th May, 1838. 

" My Lord, — At a meeting of the Council of the British 
Medical Association, held in their chambers in Exeter Hall 
on the 22nd inst., a deputation was appointed to wait on 
your lordship with the hope of ascertaining, 1st. Whether it 
be the intention of Her Majesty's government to recommend 
that the remaining portion of the valuable mass of evidence 
should be printed which was taken before the Select Com- 
mittee of the House of Commons appointed in the year 


1834 — ' to inquire into and consider the laws, regulations^ 
and usages regarding the education and practice of the 
various branches of the medical profession/ The Council 
consider that the publication (unfortunately so long delayed) 
of the important facts and opinions collected at so great 
expense to the country, is indispensable towards forming a 
just and correct judgment as to the detaUs of any legislative 
enactments for accomplishing a reform of the existing laws 
and practice of the medical colleges and corporations. 2nd. 
Whether itis probable that any measure of medical reform 
will be introduced during the next session of parliament 
under the sanction of Government ; and if not, whether, 
should such a measure be brought forward by any member 
unconnected with Her Majesty's government, they would 
sanction, or be likely to sanction its principle without 
pledging themselves to its details. I take the liberty of 
adding for your lordship's information, that the British 
Medical Association consists of a large number of legally 
qualified physicians and surgeons residing in London and in 
diflFerent parts of the kingdom, who have associated them- 
selves to uphold by every means in their power the respect- 
ability and best interests of their profession, to promote 
necessary and salutary reforms of its laws and regulations, 
and for various friendly and benevolent purposes. In 
therefore soliciting for the deputation the favour of a short 
interview, I trust your lordship will jnot consider the time 
unprofitably employed in affording them such information as 
it may be your lordship's pleasure or in your lordship's 
power to communicate on matters so generally and deeply 
interesting to the medical profession. 

" I have, &c., 

'' G. Webster, M.D., Pres." 

These various exertions on our part bore their good fruit, 

T 2 


although not immediately. It is now on record how and 
when our legislature undertook and accomplished the 
reformation of all thB abuses as well as the reparation of the 
various defects existing in medical legislation. Our medical 
annals after that date tell sufficiently how successful the 
various steps taken, and measures adopted, proved in 
nccomplishing the desired objects of the profession. It is to 
them that the present condition of the medical faculties in 
the three kingdoms bears a superior character to what 
they could boast of during the first quarter of the present 
century. But there was yet the great blot in a humanitarian 
point of view in the practice of medicine in England, which 
many agreed with me in desiring to see removed for the 
credit of the profession, and yet more for the sake of 
humanity. I need hardly name the treatment of the insane 
in public not less than in private asylums; in the latter 
indeed more especially. This had always been a subject to 
which I had devoted attention, and which I had studied, 
while resident in Paris in 1817 under Hebreard, Esquirol, 
and Pinel : studied it, I mean, more ethically than profes- 

The physical or medical treatment of the disease insanity 
may be fairly open to a collision of methods ; but only 
one plain method of ethical treatment of the patient is 
admissible — the suaviter in modo. In this respect I grieve 
to record that no country had more to learn than England 
at the time I speak of. It struck me that the machinery 
of the British Medical Association might be made sub- 
servient to the obtaining a declaratory Act which should \ 
secure a fair and humane treatment of the afSicted creatures 
confined in lunatic asylums. I have entered largely into 
this important subject in my publication of an account of the 
Lincoln Lunatic Asylum, in the second volume of a work of 
mine, " The Spas of England.'' 1 there quote the opinion 


of the theii Bishop of London, who had noticed and recom- 
mended with much eloquence the innovation, happy and 
great, in the treatment of the insane, which he found 
exemplified in the asylum of Lincoln, under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. Hill, who had long preceded the late physician 
of Hanwell Asylum, Dr. ConoUy, in adopting the humane 
treatment of the insane in order to insure a prospect of an 
amelioration of or recovery from the malady. The experi- 
ment had been tried in my native country, as the late 
eminent surgeon and philanthropist, John Bell of Edinburgh, 
testified by publishing in one of the journals of the day 
a detailed account of the arrangements of some of the 
lunatic asylums in Italy, pointing out the advantages derived 
from the adoption of a humane system of treatment as 
contrasted with the results of a harsher method continued 
in England until within the last few years, when the Society f 
of Friends proved in their Retreat at York that a treatment 
of mildness and gentleness was the one most eminently 
calculated to produce beneficial results. 

But besides this great object, the members of the British 
Medical Association, with their president, vice-president, 
and council, aimed at ensuring a just and equitable legisla- 
tion respecting the right of declaring any person to be non 
compos who was such, and consequently a fit subject for 
seclusion, and to protect people against any possible or 
probable exercise of a tyrannical application of the right of 
personal coercion under the power or authority of any 
parliamentary act on lunacy. About this time I addressed 
a memorial to the Lord Chancellor on the subject, in all its 
aspects and branches, which found its way into the "Times" 
newspaper,* and stirred up the public interest, so that a 
member of the lower House of Parliament considered it his 

♦ " Times/' Friday, April 8th, 1842: "The 3^ew County Lunatic Asylum 
Inspection Bill." 



duty to introduce a bill for the better regulation of the 
practice and usages concerning lunatics and lunatic asylums. 
This was deemed a most timely opportunity for the members 
of the British Medical Association to aid in promoting an 
object they had so much at heart, but at the same time in 
freeing from one or two drawbacks affecting the interests of 
the lesser grades of medical practitioners which militated 
against the value of the meaisure. Accordingly our presi- 
dent decided that a petition should be addressed to Parlia- 
ment with reference to what was known as Lord Granville 
Somerset's bill, and he wrote to me thus : — 

« 16th April, 1842. 

"My dear Sir, — Will you draw up the substance or 
heads of a petition as you would wish to be presented to 
Parliament on Lord Granville Somerset's bill, and bring it 
to the council meeting on Tuesday next ? As far as I 
remember, neither in your speech at the Association, nor in 
your letter to the 'Times,' which is a very able and 
admirable one, do you notice another insult in the bill, viz. : 
that in future no general practitioner shall sign a certificate 
as to the state of a lunatic patient. Surely this should be 
noticed and reprobated. 

"G. W. 

" Since writing I find that Dr. Dyke of Corsham, and Mr. 
Crosse of Norwich had both written to his lordship on the . 
subject of the clause, and that in reply they had received 
the following note fi-om his lordship : — 

"* Clarges Street April 7th, 1842. 

*' ' The bill I have introduced into Parliament contains no 
clause to alter the existing law as to certificates. I did not 
think upon the whole that I could make an alteration with- 
out producing greater evils than benefits.' " 

This question, like that of the medical reform advocated 


by the British Medical Association, came to a successful 
issue in the course of time, and after amelioration and 
additions terminated in a satisfactory legislation in force at 
this day, though in my opinion not sufficient. 

On the 20th of April, 1836, the Earl of Euston, M.P., 
requested my attendance at his residence in Grosvenor 
Place, where after a few preliminary observations on the 
part I had taken in questions of interest to the public by my 
practical testimony before several Committees of the House 
of Commons, he proceeded to say that some influential 
persons, friends of his, and other respectable inhabitants in 
the City, had expressed a wish that a committee or society 
should be formed to inquire into the nature and merits of a 
plan proposed by Mr. John Martin, the eminent painter, for 
purifying the water of the Thames, the source whence nearly 
all the water companies derived their supply. He named 
the Duke of Rutland, Sir Frederick Trench, the Honourable 
Rice Trevor, Sir Edward Lytton-Bulwer, Mr. Alexander 
Mackinnon, Daniel O'Connell, Sir H. Morley, Bart., Sir 
Augustus Cliflford, General Sir Patrick Ross, Isaac Lionel 
Goldsmith, and many of the most eminent merchants in the 
City as having agreed to meet for the purpose indicated, and 
that it had teen suggested that I should be requested 
to attend, " an object," added his lordship, "which was left 
to me to see successfully accomplished." Lord Euston in 
conclusion asked me if the proposition was agreeable to me. 
My reply in the affirmative was immediate, and I added that 
I should consider it an honour to be of any service to the 
meeting. I had had in fact more than one conversation 
with Mr. Martin himself on his idea of improving the 
condition of the Thames water by discharging the town 
sewage through two parallel tunnels north and south, 
and creating two splendid embankments or quays over 
them, affording noble sites at the same time for palatial 


edifices. These conversations took place on Sunday 
evenings, when we and many eminent artists and men of 
science used to assemble at the hospitable conversazione of 
the industrious Pickersgill, the esteemed painter, in Soho 


Before 1 took leave of Lord Euston I undertook to 
summon some of the gentlemen he had mentioned, as well 
as some of my own friends, to a meeting to ta,ke place at 
his lordship's residence, at which meeting I arranged to 
read a detailed report on the meditated enterprise. 

As it was proposed, so it was done. A meeting was 
held on the 23rd of April, 1836, at which I read a report I 
had drawn up at the request of a committee, wherein I 
developed briefly a scheme as the basis for a working 
company, to be denominated the "Thames Improvement 
Company," whose objects were to be : Ist. The total and 
simultaneous subtraction of all * filth and every kind of 
ordure from the river, leaving the water in the purest 
state ; 2nd. The establishment of an extended and magni- 
ficent public walk along both banks of the river, consti- 
tuting quays unequalled in any capital in Europe ; 3rd. The 
improvement of wharfage property ; 4tli. The saving of a 
vast quantity of the most fructifying manure, which, em- 
ployed on cultivated soil, would nearly double its produce, 
and bear a high price in the agricultural market.* 

In order to add the authority of science and experience 
to the assertions contained in my report concerning the 
fourth of the before-mentioned objects, I supplied informa- 
tion (for which I had prepared suitable materials during a 
long inquiry into 'the matter) in the appendix on the fol- 
lowing subjects : 1st. A calculation of the amount of human 

* " Report of a Committed of Gentlemen appointed to take into consideration 
Mr. Martin's plan for the Improv^ement of the River Thames." Presented at a 
General Meeting held at the Thatched House Tavern, April 23ixl, 1836, by 
A. 13. Granville, M.D., F.Pv.S. 


impurities that enter the River Thames in the metropolitan 
district; and 2nd. Memoranda of the nature, value, and 
application of human impurities, deduced from facts and 
agricultural experiences. 

The report, with all its substantiatory accompanying 
documents, was ordered to be printed, and found its way, 
among the general public, creating no little stir and interest 
in the City. A copy was presented to each member as he 
entered the House of Commons on a call day ; and I stood 
in the lobby to see that this was done. In the interior, in 
the mean time, a bill was read a first time, establishing the 
Thames Improvenient Company. 

With the view of being fully prepared to meet the inves- 
tigation before the committee, which might be expected to 
come on in the course of six weeks or two months, the 
managers of the company were directed to collect not only 
in this country, but on the Continent, all such indisputable^ 
evidence as was likely to assist us in going through the 
committee satisfactorily and creditably. The commission 
was intrusted to myself to execute, as more conversant 
with foreign transactions referable to the desired end. I 
may as well terminate all I shall have to say on this matter 
by observing that I performed a journey of many hundred 
miles through the agricultural districts of central Europe, 
and returned with a vast mass of information on the points 
of inquiry, which I embodied in a- report read before the 
subscribers, and with the contents of which Earl Everton 
was so well pleased that he insisted on defraying the cost 
of publication of an abstract.* 

In the report I took care to state that Viscount Palme r- 
ston had materially assisted me in my inquiry, by supplying 

* " Dr. Granville's Report to the Board of Dii-ectow of the Thames ImpVove- 
luent Company, dated January, 1837, containing all information rcBpecting the 
value of human manure among foreign nations, &c." London : Printed by 
order of the Board. 


me with letters addressed to several British ministers at 
the court of the nations I should have to visit, instructing 
them to put me at once in direct communication with the 
proper authorities, with the view of facilitating my inquiries, 
and of obtaining all authentic documents in support of any 
information granted ; and I owe it to his lordship's memory 
to declare that I am almost entirely indebted to his sagacity 
and foresight in offering me the letters of introduction 
alluded to for the full success of my expedition. In saying 
" full success "I am in error, for the evidence I collected 
never came before the committee of the House ; nor did 
the bill, which ever since has continued in single blessed- 
ness in heaven knows what part of the House of Commons, 
our directors not being prepared to meet the standing orders, 
which required a previous deposit of a certain proportion of 
the capital to be invested. It was " no pay no success " 
with the poor Thames Improvement Company, and the bill 
was dropped. 

But the vigilant eye of those who watch over the interests 
of the millions was not likely to close in the face of such 
unparalleled demonstration of an obtainable boon to the 
multitude as our plan had supplied, and, presto 1 the 
Metropolitan Board (recently created), putting itself in the 
room of the paralyzed Euston Company, seizing hold of the 
idea of Martin as well as of the fall development and 
statistical information of Dr. Granville, undertook to realize, 
(with the aid of four millions and a half of civic rates, and 
after a long period of years), the Euston project, without in 
a single instance having the honesty to acknowledge the 
sources whence they had derived their wisdom. Rather 
worse than that, indeed, for overlooking all considerations 
of that sort, they had the courage to ask the ratepayers of 
London to contribute a supplementary sum of £10,000, to 
be presented to their acting engineer as the originator of 


the plan they had adopted! Poor Martin was dead and 
gone, and could not protest, but the individual who had 
assisted him in developing and bringing before the public 
his grand originial idea, since carried out by the civic 
authorities with the millions of pounds ParUainent empowered 
them to abstract from metropolitan tills and sachels, was 
not yet dead, and he forthwith, on hearing of the proposed 
gift to the wrong person, published and sent to the Lord 
J^Iayor and other civic authorities, as well as to the Metro- 
politan Board, a protest against the proposed measure as 
unjust.* Of this work I published the historical part only, 
as my object was to show to whom the merit of the plan 
really belonged, and not to put those who had filched the 
plan and its adjuncts in possession also of the practical in- 
formation we of the Euston scheme had collected' at much 
trouble and expense, and knew how to put into profitable 
action should we be able to procure money, a consummation 
the authorities have not yet been able to accomplish, f 

But now again, after a lapse of more than thirty years, 
during which little advance has been made either in the 
house of legislature or out of it to profit by the investigation 
promoted and carried on by Lord Euston and fi'iends, a new 
and loud complaint is set up by Mr. John Lascelles, of 
Manchester, against the universal state of pollution of our 
rivers and water-courses. The injury and danger to the 
public health are set forth categorically, as we of the Martin 
plan had shown in 1836, but on the present occasion with- 
out any of the specific demonstrations such as we exhibited 

* " The Great London Question of the day, or can Thames sewage be con- 
verted into Gold ? " 1855. 

t WeU did an able writer observe, treating of the use to be made of what 
poUutes our rivers : " It rests with ourselves whether the ordure that now 
pollutes our rivers shall henceforth fertilize our fields, and ceasing at length to 
breed disease and death, shall spring up strangely transmuted in rich crops of 
the life-sustainiijg grain." — "Times," 13th September 1849. 


in our published report before alluded to. The remon- 
strances of Mr. Lascelles ofifer only generalities, unsupported 
by specific facts and the all-powerful statistics which dis- 
tinguished the report in question. The mischief to be 
remedied, however, requires no fresh or stronger evidence 
than we possess of its existence. The remedy is the 
question. We have successfully applied such by adopting 
Martin's plan. What more generally applicable remedial 
measures can be suggested to submit to Parliament for 
adoption? No commission or associations of individuals 
has yet suggested any better plan for legislation on this 
most vital point of the sanitary question. . It will be said 
that observations like these are beside my province, as 
having no reference to my personal existence. ' Most 
readers, however, will opine differently when they shall 
have reflected on the active part I have taken in the 
consideration of the general question. 

I am sensible that I have entered too largely into profes- 
sional matters, all the while intending only to prove that 
after having written many pages of general desultory 
political and superficial matter, I was not likely to overlook 
my own individual share in those transactions which 
referred to my profession. Zealous to preserve the charac- 
ter of a laborious medical man, I ventured to take a survey 
of a few of my professional exertions — the narrative of 
which may possibly in the opinion of some of my readers be 
deemed to have been better calculated for a chapter in some 
new history of medicine in the present century than suited 
to the many-htied pages of an autobiography. I can only 
reply with a humble "Peccavi," which confession comes 
accompanied with an assurance that such medical divagations 
shall not again occur through the few of my remaining 



Theodore Hook — His escposi^yf Lord Brougham in "John Bull" — Facts of the 
cade — How to secure an election — The dedication of the " Catechism of 
Health '' — Lord Brougham and La Senora d'Acufia — A dinner in the 
company of two lord chancellors — Mr. St. John Long— Coonter-irrita- 
tion — Miraculous cure. 

Theodore Hook is a name that requires no particular 
introduction to — I was going to say London, but it should 
be English readers, for who that reads English has not 
read some of his many smart conceits ? His " Sayings and 
Doings," like the " Household Words " of a more modern bel 
espntj has become a familiar phrase. As a relative to the 
Farquhar family by the marriage of his brother to a 
daughter of the medical baronet of that name, we fi-equently 
came in contact, although he professed not to be particularly 
fond of medicos. Still medicos may be, and are occasionally, 
.useful in rendering services to, people of more value even 
than the remedies which save life, if intended to maintain 
character. Theodore esteemed that an early act of mine 
on his behalf, soon after his return from the western hemi- 
sphere, had proved useful to him in .the sense just referred 
to, and our intimacy continued from that day. Belonging 
to the same club, opportunities for meeting were frequent 
and easy, although I never joined his little snug corner 
table in the coifee-room of the Athenaeum, where three or 
four choice spirits revelled in calembours and smoking- 
hot bishop! Theodore, one day in June, 1828, paid me a 
visit in Grafton Street, when I had just got rid of my 
morning consultations, and addressed me thus : " I have 




been told that you have got into a hrouillerie with a neigh- 
bour of yours at number four in this street ; in fact, that 
you are in open rupture with Henry Brougham on account 
of some trick (so like him) to prevent you from obtaining 
the professorship of obstetrical medicine in the university 
in Gower Street, of which he is president or chairman ; 
and that he has purposely kept back from the consideration 
of the council many, or I believe all, the testimonials in 
support of your application, which would have rendered 
the election of your competitor more than problematical, 
but which, I am assured from a member present, was 
carried demhlee^ as your letter of application for the chair 
was completely destitute of any document in support Are 
these facts ? Because if you affirm them as such, I tell 
you at once that I shall consider it my duty to expose the 
whole affair in * John Bull.' " 

I was still smarting so (I confess it) under the unex- 
pected and unmerited disappointment thus alluded to, that 
I experienced a degree of satisfaction at the chance thus 
offered to me of publicly exposing what primd fcude 
appeared (and as it proved ultimately) to be an intrigue 
against me, purposely adopted for a particular end, that I 
at once said, " I accept the offer of your assistance in this 
matter, and will put you au fait of all the circumstances 
of the case, including documents and correspondence, 
leaving it to your judgment and sense of right to represent 
the affair in whatever light your pen may please to ensure 
the exposure of a knavish trick." The following day my 
statement, with all the pieces justijicatives^ as he styled 
them, were in the hands of my friend. Those who at that 
time enjoyed the pleasure of perusing "John Bull,'' a 
periodical sparkling with wit, may possibly recollect how 
Theodore Hook treated the subject in question, and how he 
handled the new-fledged chancellor and peer in that matter. 


My own task is only to relate the whole story as it got 
into general circulation, being in fact part of my own 
story, and an illustration of one among the not few dis- 
appointments I have met in life. 

The council of what was then called the University of 
London, in April, 1827, made known by advertisements 
that they were ready to receive applications from properly 
qualified candidates for the chairs of professors, which appli- 
cations were to be accompanied with such testimonials as 
the candidates intended to rest their claims upon, and by 
which alone the council declared they would be guided in 
their selection, canvassing being strictly forbidden. My 
, friend, Dr. A. T. Thomson, being well acquainted with 
Mr. Brougham, chairman of the council, induced me to 
become a candidate for the professorship of midwifery, as 
he was himself a candidate for the chair of materia medica, 
and offered to introduce me to Mr. Brougham. Accordingly 
shortly afterwards I had that honour at his residence in 
Grafton Street. I did not solicit his vote, but simply 
explained that among my testimonials there were some of 
foreign origin, would they be accepted with others of 
English origin, which I wished likewise to present? On 
receiving an affirmative answer, I remarked that in a day 
or two I should have the honour to transmit to him through 
Dr. Thomson, my formal application for the professorship 
of midwifery, supported by a certain number of testi- 
monials, and our visit came to an end. To show that this 
was not a hole-and-corner manoeuvre, I think it right to 
bring forward other documents, proving how openly I 
presented my claims to the chair I was desirous to occupy. 
They are letters from the Marquis of Lansdowne and 
Lord Auckland, both members of the council and of the 
committee of education. The former, under date of the 
22nd of November, 1826, states that he thouglit it due to 


the interest of the proposed university (aad he believed 
most of the gentlemen whose names are upon the council 
have pursued a similar course) not to promise his support 
to any candidate for a professorship until the period of 
election arrived, a determination he communicated to several 
applicants who had addressed him ; but he begged to add 
that "he is fully aware of Dr. Granville's high reputation 
and great qualifications for such a situation as that which 
he seeks, and that it gives Lord Lansdowne great pleasure 
to find Dr. Granville would be willing to accept it.*' The 
Earl of Auckland's sentiments on the question were thus 
expressed : 

*' I beg to acknowledge your letter with one that I have 
received firom Sir Gore Ouseley, and I have had great 
pleasure in recommending your application to the consider- 
. ^tion of the committee to which this subject refers. At 
the same time you must be aware that we are only digging 
the foundations of our buildings, and probably no decision 
will be very immediately made ; but you may be assured 
that your application will not be lost sight of. 

" Yours very faithfully, 

" Auckland." 

A few days after, my official application to the council, 
addresssed to H. Brougham, Esq., M.P., as chairman of the 
council, was delivered to him in person, together with the 
requisite testimonials in two packets. Of the receipt of 
these I never had any official acknowledgment, although I 
made more thstn one inquiry at the University Chambers in 
Furnival's Inn. At length, wishing to be assured that the 
papers were in Mr. Brougham's possession, I wrote to the 
acting secretary, Mr. Coates, who on the 16th of May 
(eighteen days after my letter) replied as follows : — 

" I have delayed answering yours of the 29th of April, 


until I heard from Mr. Brougham that your testimonials 
were in his hands, as well as the letter addressed to the 
committee applying for the chair of obstetrical medicine and 
surgery. Mr. Brougham informs me that he holds it, and 
will immediately present it with the other documents. 

" Furnival'3 Inn. 16th May, 1827.'' 

So it appeared that while the testimonials of the other 
candidates and competitors had been lying daily before the 
council, working their influential effect, my own were closely 
enshrined in Mr. Brougham's pocket. In the mean time, 
week crept on after week, the election took place (that is, 
the selection by the council was made), and Dr. Davis, 
Mrs. Brougham's medical attendant, got the professorship. 
Anxious to repossess myself of my valuable documents 
after this decision, two days after the result of the election 
had been made public, I applied in person at the University 
Chambers to have them returned to me by the secretary. 
I was requested to call again. Two other visits proved 
equally unsuccessful ; still the documents were not forth- 
coming, and each time some frivolous excuse was made to 
account for their detention, until, becoming more and more 
pressing on Mr. Secretary, his sense of honour and candour 
prompted him to declare, that in order to clear himself from 
every appearance of neglect, he was bound co state that he 
had never seen the documents in question, and that con- 
sequently they were not and had never been in h's 

Here was a naive confession by the responsible official 
of the council — ^who had been present at the election, when 
it would have been his duty to read aloud to the membess 
at the board of electors my twelve testimonials, justifying, 
while they supported emphatically, my application as a 
candidate for the chair — telling me in plain words that he 
had never seen the important documents alluded to ; and 



yet when questioned by a friend (as we shall see presently) 
on the report spread, that at the meeting of the council 
my individual application had been passed over, as being 
unsupported by testimonials, Mr. Brougham replied, with 
the amenity and pleasing manners which are said to be 
peculiar to him, "I can assure you that in the selection 
from among the candidates the coimcil took frill notice of 
every testimonial in their favour." " Oh, vir bonus et 
simplicis veritatis amicus ! '^ would Cicero have called the 
worthy M.P. ? 

To Mr. Brougham alone then could I apply as a last 
resource if I desired to gain possession of my documents. 
In order to do this with due effect, I deemed it expedient 
to obtain from the secretary the purport of his verbal 
assertion to me. Accordingly I addressed to that gentleman 
the following letter : — 

" To Mr, CoateSf Acting Secretary of the University of 


*' 13th August^ 1827. 

" Sir, — Although you candidly admitted at our last 
interview that you had not seen, and consequently had not 
in your possession the several testimonials, English and 
French, which I forwarded to the council of the University 
of London through Mr. Brougham, in support of my appli- 
cation for the professorship of midwifery, I cannot refrain 
from again, and for the fifth time, appealing to you as the 
only official organ of the council I know of, for an explicit 
answer on the subject of the papers in question, which I 
officially claim on the present occasion, and which I trust 
you will be able to restore to your obedient servant, 

" A. B. Granville, 

" P.S. — My official application to the council was placed 
in the hands of Mr. Brougham on the twenty-fourth of 


December, 1826, and annexed were the following certi- 
ficates : — 


" Sir Henry Halford, P.C.P. " Professor Serres, Paris 
" Dr. Maton. Piti6 Hospital 

" Sir Humphry Davy,P.R.S. " Capuron, Lectr. on Medi. 

" Sir Gilbert Blane, Bart. " Tadilot, Physician, Hosp. 
" Sir Everard Home, Bart. Sick Children. 

" Professor Chaussier, Paris " Baron Cuvier, Natural 
Matemite. History." 

To this letter the following reply was received after a 
fortnight's delay : — 

" University of London. 

" SiBl, — I beg leave to repeat to you what I said when I 
had the pleasure of seeing you here, that I am unable, 
until Mr. Brougham returns to London, to restore your 
testimonials to you, 

" Yours, &c. 

"Thomas Coates. 

« Fumival'fl Inn. 17th August, 1827." 

Mr. Brougham at length returned to town, but the 
documents came not with him, and the acting, secretary 
again declared that the papers in question were not and 
had not been in his custody, and that as I had caused 
them to be delivered into Mr. Brougham's own hands, the 
application for their restitution should be made to him. 

My journey to Russia intervened to prevent me from 
applying on that subject to Mr. Brougham until the 28th of 
January,, 1828, "when I did so, citing the secretary's extra- 
ordinary declarations. A mere promise to look after the 
documents came in reply, which had not been fulfilled even 
after a third and a fourth letter from myself had been 

u 2 




written. Four months and a half after this correspondence 
I wrote, on the 28th of June, that unless the papers were 
forthcoming, an expos6 of the aflfair would be published, 
and legal proceedings instituted for their recovery ; as for 
any explanation of so extraordinary a transaction, I re- 
nounced it altogether. This last communication proved 
the most stimulatory of those that had passed with Mr. 
Brougham, inasmuch as it brought a common friend, General 
Sir Robert Wilson, with a proposition for an interview with 
Mr. Brougham at his own house. 

The interview took place with no other result than 
smother promise. I however elicited on this occasion the 
following facts : Firstly, that he did not contradict the 
assertions of the acting secretary ; secondly, that he would 
not say positively that he bad executed his trust of deliver- 
ing to the council my application and annexed documents, 
as he had undertaken to do ; thirdly, that the only ex- 
planation of the irregular transaction he could give was 
that the testimonials must have been lost in his house ; and 
lastly, that when I presented to him copies of the said 
testimonials for his perusal, he declared that he did not 
recollect having read them, or having heard them read 
before. All these facts I supplied to Theodore Hook in a 
condensed letter, accompanied by copies of the testimonials 
alluded to, in order that he might judge whether, under an 
ordinary and equitably "conducted mode of electing, or 
rather selecting, a professor for a practical branch of 
science among other candidates for the same chair (and I 
believe there was only one who competed — namely, Mrs. 
Brougham's own medical attendant), the candidate who 
could exhibit such testimonials as I tendered would not 
have had every reason to expect that success which a 
canny device so triumphantly marred. 

I must add as a corollary to this story, which forms a 


fitting end to it, soon after Henry Brougham Lad been 
raised to the high dignity of Chancellor of England, I 
received through his private . secretary one of the packets 
containing some of the foreign certificates, with many 
apologies and an avowal that they were found in the new 
chancellor s private box. Two years later a second packet 
was sent me in the same way (and with the same 
apologies) containing the English testimonials, but two of 
the most important of the latter were missing, which I had 
added to the rest for the purpose of identifying my person 
(as a stranger by birth), namely, the diploma of my alma 
mater, and the licence of the Royal College of Physicians 
in London, dated November, 1817, which constitutes me a 
member of fifty-four years' standing of that royal college ; 
in fact, senior, member. 

In reply to a letter from myself concerning this inex- 
plicable imbroglio, my friend Professor Thomson, who had 
been elected to a chair in the new university, informed me 
that my memorial to the council, after a delay of fifteen 
months, like its attendant testimonials which I had com- 
mitted into the hands of Mr. Brougham, never went further 
than Grafton Street, his residence. 

What other inference could Theodore Hook and his 
thousands of readers draw firom this pretty story, than that 
I had been cleverly (query honourably) tricked out of the 
professorship I solicited, and which I should have con- 
sidered as a great professional distinction ? It may be 
readily imagined that, being satisfied of the truth of the 
story, the editor of *' John Bull " made a pretty firee use of 
the name of the president of the Cower Street university 
Sunday after Sunday. In such a course, however, he was 
not inspired by me. I left him to act on his own judgment, 
for however much my amour propre might feel mortified, 
I harboured no vindictive feelings against the ofiender ; nay, 


/ the very reverse course I soon had an opportunity of adopt- 
ing proved the nature of my feelings on the occasion^ for in 
learning some time later from my friend Dr. Birkbeck, that 
\ he and Lord Brougham had founded a Society for the Diflfu- 
^ sion of Useful Knowledge, I dedicated personally to him my 
/ popular " Catechism of Health/' just written, as an apt 
^ ':'^^^^ publication for the industrial classes, for which he returned 
^' KmX ^^^ ^^s thanks in a holograph note fi-om Grafton Street. 
^ Howbeit Ihad to bear at the same time a slap on the face 
from the facetious editor of the " John Bull,'' who laughed 
at my ultra-Christian forbearance. 

Nor was this the only infliction I had to bear from 
the fact of my dedication, since it brought upon me also 
the ponderous crushing weight of a hostile review in the 
" Quarterly Review,'' by no means inclined to favour either 
Stinkomalee, as they used to call the institution in Gower 
Street, or Theodore of the " Bull." I recognized the hand 
of the medical reviewer at once. I had before castigated 
him in reference to plagiarism from my own writing, and he 
now took his revenge. To make it still more bitter to me, 
he induced the good and honest proprietor of the review to 
present me, several days before the pubUcation of the num- 
ber, with an early copy containing the damning article,, 
which I need not add excelled in misrepresentations and 
false quotations. The notice I took of this little imperti- 
nence was a short note of thanks to Mr. John Murray, 
thus worded : — 

" Dear Sib, — I am very sensible of your great and 
considerate kindness in presenting me thus early with a 
copy of the new number of your quarterly, containing a 
truly ridiculous article on a work of mine, ' The Catechism 
of Health.' I give you and the writer joy of having so 
delightftil a bantling among the many that grace the nur- 


sery of that wonderfiU trimestrial propagating machine. I 
shall not reply to so witty a production, but advertise it and 
the learned periodical in which it appears as far as money 
and influence can circulate the fact of its birth in the news- 

" I remain always truly yours, 

"A. B. Granville 
(fearful of adding M.D., in terror of Dr. Macmichael). • 

" John Murray^ Esqre." 

It was an unfortunate coincidence in my present position 
as a physician looking for advancement in public estimation, * 
and considered as an authority worthy to be consulted by 
ministerial committees, that I should have unwittingly come 
into collision with a second lord chancellor, having pre- 
viously wrangled with a former one, Lord Lyndhurst, at 
the bar of the House of Lords, on a question (as I stated 
before) where common law was pitted against the law of 
Nature. I was thus squeezed in as it were between two 
formidable powers of the State, though my insignificance 
and the care I took to keep clear of their fangs, and the 
lapse of time also, so diverted their attention from those 
fortuitous incidents, that no evil accrued to me ; rather, I 
should say, the reverse, as a curious, and for myself an in- 
teresting, rencontre will show, and which I may as well 
recount in this place, at the risk of being charged with 

I was called to Sloane Street to treat a lady suffering 
from the effect of a sudden transition from the mild climate 
of Spain to that of London — from light malaga to heavy 
port. At that time Lord Brougham, who occupied the 
woolsack, was residing in the same house in Sloane Street, 
where he carried on his ordinary official business, and where 
every morning and evening the judicial as well as the 
cabinet messengers waited upon him with despatches. 


My patient was all right in the course of eight or ten days, 
but in the interval she informed me that Lord Brougham 
had told her he knew her doctor quite well, and he would 
be glad of an opportunity of meeting me again. Upon this 
she had remarked to him, " In that case I will contrive to 
have a little dinner party for you to meet at.*' "Capital," 
observed Lord Brougham ; " the earlier the day the better ; 
and if you, dear good lady, will permit me to add a third 
guest, I think I can promise you the presence of the famous 
Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst. At least I flatter myself that 
if I propose in your name that he should be one of the 
charming party you intend to give, his lordship will be most 
happy to join it" 

I copy from my diary of August, 1831, my account of 
this choice dinner party, which, together with my reflections, 
I committed to paper at once : "I dined this day at the 
table of Madame d' Acufia, a very handsome Andalusian lady, 
sometime settled in London, and who has been for some 
days under my professional care. Lord Brougham, an inti- 
mate acquaintance of the lady, had requested her to arrange 
a petite partie quarr6e at dinner, that he might meet me, as 
he told her he knew her doctor well. My Lord Lyndhurst, 
the ex-chancellor, was of the party. I sat at the bottom 
of the table at the lady's request, Lord Brougham took 
the chair. There was also present a young gentleman, a 
Mr. Alfred Montgomery, sickly-looking rather, and thin, 
having a slight hesitation or impediment in his speech, but 
otherwise a fashionable; excellent company for either a 
table or a drawing-room. Lord Brougham, who " was all 
empressement, studiously affable to the guests, was during 
the dinner trds-vtf clever, ever on the qui vive^ full of anec- 
dotes and observations, or quiet as suited the subject, 
referring to it or quitting it in three different languages. 
His demeanour was that of a man who had never done 



aoything else but live in fashionable society, loved its fri- 
volities though he accepted its more serious obligations, 
■ and was not loth to gather the applause of his auditors by 
appearing perfectly an fait with every art, thing, or conver- 
sation that could add 'distinction to a man of the world. 
My Lord Lyndhurst, on the other hand, with some degree 
of polite and softened, not austere, reserve (as I should have 
anticipated frotn a knowledge of his public and judicial 
character), appeared sufficiently gay, inclined to enjoy him- 
self, as well as make the company with him quite pleased 
and contented. He entered into the mirth of the others, 
shared with the rest of the guests the prevailing satisfaction 
of the moment without appearing to be carried away en- 
tirely by the occasional wit and the repartees, or the mer- 
curial and endless agitation of his noble colleague. His own 
remarks and his replies, not less than some of his critiques 
of a few of the sentiments uttered by Brougham, partook 
more of a sedate reflection, yet they were sufficiently prompt 
and spontaneous as not to assume the garb of sententious 
pedantry. Both eminently enjoyed the treat of being in 
company wuth the handsomest woman possible, who on her 
paii; conducted herself in a manner to surprise me, and to 
secure for herself the most strict consideration. Both lords 
were exceedingly polite and considerate towards myself, 
commencing by allusions to the ' Spas of Germany' and 
' St. Petersburg,' the talent shown for writing, and for 
accuriite descriptions. I could not help profiting by this apt 
opportunity of throwing out a little sarcastic allusion to 
Lord Lyndhurst for his venture in cross-examining Nature, 
and endeavouring to bewilder her in my poor person when 
under his lordship's examination at the bar of the House of 
Lords, in the Gardner Peerage case. ' Ah, dear doctor,' 
said he, ' physicians and lawyers have different logics.' The 
doctor on the present occasion could not afford more time 



to listen to either logic, so I took my leave before the party 
broke up. 

" The manner of the two great oratore towards one 
another was on ne pent plies cordial, and wore the sem- 
blance of sincerity. On the part of Lord Lyndhurst, much 
of his conversation and bearing towards Brougham impUed 
evident admiration of his talents. One instance of which 
particularly, in reference to himself. Lord Lyndhurst seemed 
delighted to bring forward. Brougham not only accepted 
the incense with pleasure, but took up the subject, and hesi- 
tated not in going on with it all in commendation of himself. 
I do not think that either is sincere towards the other, and 
I believe that each has an object or a by-play to enact in 
their present respective position when vts-d-vis with one 
another. Still, in appearance that would not be suspected. 

" Lord Brougham, among many curious facts connected 
with his former and present habits of living, mentioned to 
me that for a few-years, when in chambers, he never went 
to sleep without having his pipe in his mouth after he had 
got into his bed. He is temperate, drinks sparingly, eats 
little, and has seldom required a doctor ; although he takes 
pills of his own accord, and occasionally a dose of rhubarb 
or magnesia. I reminded him of the occasion on which I 
had ministered a slight correction to his knowledge of 
\ chemistry (acquired at Edinburgh University), when we 
were both before the Privy Council in 1827, on the subject 
of granting a prolonged patent for the manufacture of 
artificial mineral waters at the Brighton Spa. His lordship 
\ contended in opposition to the patent that he had all his 
life drunk artificial mineral waters, inasmuch as he never 
went to bed without drinking a glass of soda water. * In 
that case I must inform the Privy Council that Mr. Brougham 
never drunk artificial mineral water, for what he drank was 
water and carbonic acid.' He was pleased to remember the 

DR. ST. JOHN. 299 

fact, and deemed the correction a proper one at the time. 
At our dinner in Sloane Street, however, with the brilliant 
black eyes of the hostess shot here and there over the 
company, my lords neither spared the champagne, the 
paxarete, or the maraschino." 

Such of my readers as can remember the excitement 
produced by the trial and consequent incarceration of a 
noted empiric with an aristocratic name, who had on a 
sudden inspiration exchanged a painter's palette and in- 
different brushes for the more profitable handling of pots 
of ointment and rubbing, are aware that the medical pro- 
fession had their attention on that occasion directed to 
the study of counter-irritation. That physiological principle, 
brought conspicuously into notice by that famed trial and 
Jts prehminary investigation before a coroner's jury, at 
which I was present [tempore Wakley), had been adopted 
by the incriminated Doctor St. John as a means of defence. 
Hence the large number of communications which appeared 
in the medical journals, as well as in separate memoirs on 
the subject, need not excite surprise. Among the members 
of the medical profession who took a chief part in the 
investigation, I may reckon myself as not among the least 
interested. Some chance coincidents contributed to give 
me a part to perform : the knowledge of the defendant's 
antecedents on the one hand, and a long practical acquaint- 
ance with what are called counter-stimulating agents on the 
other, a subject I happened to have been studying ever since 
I attended Professor Rasori's lectures Sul contrastiviolo in 
Italy. My acquaintance with the defendant's antecedents 
came about in this manner. Being in conversation one day 
with Sir Gore Ouseley, not long after his return from his 
embassy to Persia, he mentioned to me that among the 
several applicants who came to him with the view of finding 
the means of emigrating to that country in hopes of pro- 


curing a living, a gentleman had presented himself as an 
artist, who thought he might readily find employment in 
that benighted country. 

" And what, may I ask, is the branch of the arts you 
profess, sir ? " " Portrait painting, full size,'* was the reply. 
" In that case I can tell you at once that Persia is no 
country to make your fortune in. Look round my room. 
Here are the full-length pictures of the last two shahs, and 
one of the two present first ministers. Here is the very 
last I brought from Teheran, fiiU length, and strikingly like 
the original ; in fact, I imagine you must have seen him in 
public in London not long ago. Can you paint like that, 

Mr. ? I beg pardon, I did not catch properly your 

name when the footman announced it." " St. John Long 
is my name ; I am connected with noble families." " Ah ! 
but that will not help you in Persia. It is only your 
brushes and colours and skill in drawing that can be of use ; 
and there I can tell you you have no chance of competing 
with such colourists as you see here suspended before you. 
If your pictures are inferior to these, they will be rejected ; 
if superior, they will not be accepted, for there is in Persia 
as mucli detestation of superiority in any art or profession 
as there is in England of what you call professional jealousy, 
especially against a foreigner. Depend upon it, Mr. St. 
John, you would lose both time and money, and subject 
yourself moreover to much mortification. Are your means 
large enough to enable you to waste an indefinite number 
of years for the chance of making your way as a painter by 
dint of perseverance ? " "Why no, Sir Gore, else I should 
hardly try to do better for myself by leaving my country." 
'*Then permit me to offer you sound advice. Remain 
where you are, and strive on with your brushes and colours. 
Good morning." '* In such a case," added Mr. St. John, 
" I know what remains for me to do. An ancestor of the 


St Johns has left behind a memorandum teaching us a 
precious secret for curing many formidable complaints by 
rubbing external remedies on the parts affected. Fll cast • 
aside canvas and brushes, and take to physic." " You 
mean," added Sir Gore, smiling, "a little charlatanry, I 


suppose. There again you are at fault, Mr. St. John. The 
Persians are the greatest quacks in the universe in the way 
of illness. Of all the eastern nations, they are probably the 
most ignorant in such matters; but no man, however learned, 
can compete with the old Persian hags for curing, or pre- 
tending to cure, the most desperate diseases. So you have 
no chance there." " What a barbarous nation your pet 
Persians must be. Sir Gore, of whom you have written with ^ 
the enthusiasm of a poet ! " observed the visitor, and the 
interview concluded. 

The coroner's inquest brought this old story back to Sir 
Gore's recollection, and he thought I might like to add it to 
my memoranda on professional matters. The nobly con- 
nected St. John Long was not long in discovering that 
although it is easy to assume the character of an M.D., its 
illegitimate exercise will lead to some ugly scrapes, and 
thence to the cells of Newgate. There Mr. St. John 
liong spent a certain time, receiving professional fees and 
giving consultations to titled patients, whose carriages 
might have been seen in files along the Old Bailey and down 
Newgate Street. A statuary group from the ateliers in the 
New Road stands now on a conspicuous spot in Kensal 
Green Cemetery, recording (opposite the memorial to Ducrot), 
in a long inscription, how genius and talent were cruelly 
oppressed and extinguished by envy and malice. 

It was in the midst of the general commotion occasioned 
by the St. John trial that I took the opportunity of publish- 
ing my volume on counter-irritation,* with the view of 

* " Counter Irritation : its Principles and Practice, iUustrated by one 


explaining on simple and physiological principles a system 
or doctrine which was as old as the medical ara longa of 
Hippocrates, and had nothing particularly striking or new 
in it, except when misemployed, as it had been by our 
aristocratic empiric with the intention of gulling the igno- 
rant. The medical profession received with undisguised 
approval this addition to our practical knowledge of thera- 
peutics, and people can now understand what is meant by 
counter-irritation. I took care in that work to give a 
lucid and plain account of the eflfects produced on the 
human frame while labouring under particular or special 
complaints by certain liquid preparations of ammonia of a 
definite strength, and mixed with one or two other aro- 
matic stimulating ingredients. The operation or action of 
the said ingredients on the human skin is similar to that 
produced by an ordinary blister, but it possesses the great 
superiority over the last-named application, of being able 
to produce the required effect in as short a time as three or 
four minutes, instead of as many, or perhaps double, that 
number of hours. The rapidity of action is one of the 
elements of its virtue as a remedy, and in this aspect I 
claim the merit of having brought more ostensibly forward 
agents much more active as well as more manageable 
than those already adopted for the desired effect. 

It was (to use a common phrase) a ticklish matter, while 
publishing a new work on such a subject, how to avoid 
trenching on empirical grounds. On the one hand there 
was the apprehension that to divulge at once the nature of 
the agents recommended might do harm, by placing in the 
hands of the ignorant an agent of great power which might 
do hurt instead of doing good. On the other hand, my 
professional brethren might accuse me of wishing to keep 

hundred cases of the most painful and important diseases effectually cured by 
external applications." London, 1838. 

^Sy"^T"i»f" y. — « 


secret my new remedial agents. I therefore adopted a 
neutral course, and I am glad I did so. The profession has 
received the preparations as well as the views of the 
writer, which establish their value and importance, and the 
" London Pharmacopoeia," in its last edition immediately 
previous to the change in its title into that of " British 
Pharmacopoeia/' introduced' under an officinal denomination 
the compound I originally recommended. 

One illustration of the truth of the doctrine of counter- 
irritation, and of its successful application, was exhibited in 
a case so striking that I cannot hesitate to record it. The 
case commenced in a noted trial in one of the courts of 
law in Paris in which an English nobleman was defen- 
dant. His lady, subject since her last confinement to 
periodical attacks of spasm, accompanied with very acute 
pain in the loins, had been under the care of a notorious 
homoeopathic and almost magnetic attendant of the Jewish 
persuasion in Paris. The attendance wSis of severaFmonths', 
I may say some years' duration, incessant and inexplicable. 
The demand for fees amounted to a preposterous sum, 
which was resisted, and hence the law-suit. A suitable 
professional remuneration in fiill discharge being tendered, 
it was declined, and the original demand insisted upon. 
The mystery in which Mordecai had involved his whole 
treatment, and the explanations he now and then vouch- 
safed, suggested to the defendant's lawyers the propriety of 
an arrangement which should entirely preclude the possi- 
bility of those disgraceful investigations, which in French 
courts not unfirequently furnish rich and mysterious mate- 
rials for such novelists as Sandeau, F^val, and Sand. A 
compromise, I believe, terminated the litigation.. It signi- 
fied not an air-bubble to the quarrelsome Esculapius that 
his patient was just as much suffering firom the original 
complaint now as she was when first the attendance com- 


menced. The noble defendant had to pay the heavy bill, 
and bring his suffering lady to London. Here she was 
immediately placed in the charge of Sir Charles Mansfield 
Clarke, Mr. 'Copland, the well-known surgeon, and her own 
physician. Dr. Hugh Ley. Some other eminent practi- 
tioners were also occasionally consulted. There was con- 
nected with the case a sort of mystery, which arose from 
the fact that the attack accompanied the most agonizing 
pain, invariably came on at one and the same hour — eight 
o'clock in the evening, and that notwithstanding the stale 
trick under such circumstances, of altering the hands on 
the dial-plate, had been h^-d recourse to, in order to test the 
genuineness of the periodicity of the spasm, the attack still 
persisted in coming on at the same time. 

The case had proved one of the most important examples 
of what are commonly called nervous diseases, and it was 
suggested to the mother of the lady that I should be con- 
sulted, to know whether the patient was likely to be bene- 
fited by my ammoniated applications. I felt it due to the 
credit of the profession, as well as to the public, to procure 
the best information I could obtain respecting the origin 
and progress of the case. The public press in Paris during 
the trial for the reciovery of the exorbitant fees for attend- 
ance — so exorbitant as to throw into the shade the noto- 
rious demand of a Piccadilly medical firm at the commence- 
ment of the present century against the executors of a certain 
antique duke of virgin-milk celebrity — had dilated to such 
length on the mystical character of the disease under treat- 
ment, and upon the many pretended metamorphoses it was 
said to have undergone hourly, that we on our side of the 
water were left without a guide to determine which way 
we should view the case, and how to treat such an unde- 
fined malady. I had a preliminary private conversation 
with the lady's mother, and then with the patient herself. 


who fortunately from the first had kept a record of her own 
feelings and notions as to the disturbances going on in her 
own constitution. 

I found her considerably reduced in flesh, .unable to walk 
upright, and altogether in a state of health far from satis- 
factory. Her written statement of the origin and pro- 
gress of the complaint, including some particulars of the 
Israelitic doctor in Paris that astounded me not a little, was 
placed in my hands by the lady, and I promised to be in 
attendance any day fixed, at the hour of the expected 
attack, feeling confident that the acute sufferings of the 
moment, such as she had described from former attacks, 
would be greatly mitigated, if not altogether subdued and 
dispersed, by the qse of my application. 

The case is so curious in itself that, as an illustration of 
my doctrine and prejudice in such cases, I think it right to 
republish it in the present history of my life. For what does 
the case represent ? A gentlewoman, mother of two children, 
the cynosure of her own circle, is suddenly stricken by 
illness consisting of acute spasms of the lower part of the 
spine (attended with the most • agonizing pain), a part cor- 
responding with the internal uterine region, and the attacks 
are renewed daily at the same hour of the day. Being 
abroad, she consults and is attended by a foreign medical 
man of notorious fame ; but after months of unrelieved 
sufferings and waste of money, she comes back to her 
native air and medical advice and attendance with all the 
comforts and appliances that wealth can command and 
secure. Still the destroying, the painful spasm recurs, 
and nothing seems to make the slightest favourable im- 
pression on it. I am present at one of the attacks, to 
which I had been called, for one was expected. I heard 
my patient screaming as I was ascending the stairs to her 
bed-chamber, and the house* clock had just done striking 



the hour of eight. The lady's mother was present in the 
room, an attached friend, and two other lady-friends were 
likewise present assisting in the management and control 
of the suffering patient, who on my asking her as to 
the seat of the pain, replied that it pervaded at first both 
arms, then the neck, whence it ran down to the lower 
extremities, with at times cramp in the calf of the legs and 
shootings almost incessant in the hollow of the backbone 
(sacrum). With all these sensations there supervened a 
sense of constriction at her throat, as if she was about to be 
suffocated. She was lying on her face ; and her spine bone 
could not be kept still nor straight. It bent violently for- 
ward during the spasm, so as almost to double the spine and 
throw off the pressure of both my hands and those of one 
of the ladies applied to keep the spine straight. The scene 
was truly heart-rending, and not to be described in words. 
We all stood aghast at what was to come next. All the 
antecedents of the case were against hope ; the present 
occurrences were not more encouraging ; what does ' the 
future predict ? That is what we are about to see almost 

If I have formed a right conjecture of the nature and 
character of the case, if I have not placed an exaggerated 
confidence in the anti-spasmodic counter-irritating virtue of 
the ammoniated lotion, in twenty minutes our suffering 
patient will suffer no longer. The bottles of the ammo- 
niated lotion were forthwith brought up out of my carriage, 
and a suitable sized compress of linen several times doubled 
was applied first to the principal seat of the pain in the 
loins ; another such compress was applied a little higher up, 
and lastly one more was imposed in the nape of the neck. 
The lady complained of a new pain, like scalding fire, yet 
one which she rather liked ; presently she could breathe 
quite freely ; she liked the new pain outside, for she now 


no longer felt the inward agony. Soon after, the con- 
tracted arms and legs became supple; she spoke more 
cheerfully, said she thought she was already cured, and 
remained at length quiet and silent. There was no blister- 
ing of the parts, but these were intensely red and intensely 
hot. She was turned gently on her back and left to her- 
self, after which time she fell asleep, and no further attack 
of spasmodic pain at 8 p.m. came on again for eight days, 
when a single application of the lotion sufficed to prevent 
its endurance beyond a few minutes. 

Dr. Hugh Ley, who attended on the following day after 
my successftil visit, could hardly believe the story told him 
as here described. He thought it almost fabulous, but he 
happened to be present when the fresh attack after the first 
eight days came on, and witnessed the application of the 
lotion to the part, as well as the instantaneous dispersion of 
the spasm ; and so he was convinced. 

The strongest, as it is also th% most flattering, testimony 
a physician can receive of his having accomplished his duty 
successfully, is the one which conscientious and grateful 
patients or their friends will address to him as a spon- 
taneous expression of feelings of thankfulness for the 
benefits rQceived ; such a testimony it was my good fortune 
to receive from the lady's husband three weeks after I had 
taken leave of her. I have preserved the letter, not for 
my own sake, or through vanity, but as a most impressive 
admission in favour of the new system of medical treatment 
I had been trying to bring into public notice, and for that 
purpose alone have I resolved to insert it in this part of 
my narrative :— 

" June 22nd, 1836. 

'* My dear Sir, — I cannot send the enclosed without at 
the same time endeavouring to express the sentiment of 

X 2 


obligatioii which I feel to you, not only for your most 
valuable and valued services, but for the undeviating 
anxiety and attention which you have displayed during 

your attendance upon Lady 's difficult and trying case. 

To you she owes, as far as medical skill is concerned, her 
restoration to health ; and I will only add that both she 
and I shall ever entertain the greatest gratitude for so ines- 
timable a benefit 

" Believe me to be, my dear Sir, yours very truly, 

ii 99 



Joseph Bonaparte — My relationship to the Bonaparte family — Jerome Bouft- 

^ parte — Prince Louis — The affair at Strasburg — Interview between 

uncle and nephew— Joseph seized with apoplexy — Prince Louis' parole 

iPhonneur — The landing at Boulogne — Shock to Joseph — ^A chapter of 

secret history — Diplomatic spies. 

I AM now nearing two of the most interesting epochs 
which served to give a colour to my noonday life it had 
not before, yet made no material or sensible change in my 
destiny. I went through each, taking my part in it 
without suffering the even tenor of my medical career and 
profession to be in the smallest degree changed or interfered 
with. I allude to my connection with the Bonaparte family, 
and to the stupendous change that marked the commence- 
ment of the revolutionary movement in my native country 
in 1848, and to which 1 boldly lay claim to havmg con- 
tributed by many years' writing and no trifling interference 
by personal influence and exertion. As regards the first, 
recent and curious revelatio;is from the highest quarters 
within the last fifteen years have shed a broad light on the 
female lineage of my race. 

In October, 1853, Joseph Napoleon published an his- 
torical fragment of his life in one volume, which forms the 
first of a series of ten volumes entitled " M^moires et Corre- 
spondance Politique et Militaire du Roi Joseph." The 
work was edited by one of his aides-de-camp. Colonel du 
Casse, with the assistance and under the supervision of 
Monsieur Mailliard," who for a quarter of a century had been 


Joseph's private secretary, and during his reign in Spain 
had filled the post of his home minister, with the rank of a 
grandee. In the first of those ten volumes, at page 42, we 
read as follows: "La maison que Ton montre k Ajaccio, 
dans laquelle Napoleon est n^, appartenait originairement 
k la famille Bozzi, qui Tapporta en dot dans la n6tre/'** 
So unexpected a piece of intelligence, though not likely to 
surprise me, since I was perfectly aware of the fact of 
members of our family being settled both in Corsica and 
Genoa, was nevertheless calculated to make me pay more 
attention to that branch of our genealogy, and accordingly 
I addressed proper inquiries to Monsieur Mailliard, with 
whom I had been in habits of intimacy for many years 
during his residence in London. His reply was not long in 
coming : — 

" Monsieur de Pietra Santa, to whom I addressed myself, 
has been to me to tell me that the Madlle. Bozzi spoken of 
by King Joseph, was the grandmother of Charles Bona- 
parte, father of Napoleon the Fii-st. She was born in 
Corsica, but of a family coming from Italy, and that there 
are several families of the name of Bozzi in Corsica. "| 

In a work entitled "Memorie Storiche dell' Abbate Gerini," 
which was brought to my notice by Sir Anthony Panizzi in 
1853, there is a copy of the memorial or petition which 
Joseph, then plain Giuseppe, Buonaparte, at the age of 
twenty years, presented to the Grand Duke of Tuscany in 
1789, claiming to be admitted into the religious and eques- 
trian order of San Stefano, as a member of a noble family 
descended from ancestors whom the Republic of Genoa, 

* " The house shown in Ajaccio in which Napoleon was bom originally 
belonged to the Bozzi family, from whom, as a marriage portion, it came 
into ours." 

t We gather from a '* Storia o Ragguaglio deUe nobili Famiglie di Corsica," 
that the branch of the Bozzi therein named were from Qenoa, con^jeqnently de- 
scended in a direct line from the Lombard stock, the only one in Italy. 


then in possession of Corsica, considered as noble, and 
further alleging that " i Buonaparte di Corsica si trovano 
alleati in detta citta d'Ajaccio coUe faraiglie nobili Colonna, 
Bozzi, d'Omano, Durazzo, Lomellini di Genoa, e si trovano 
godere dei diritti signoriali del Feudo Bozzi/' — that is, the 
property brought as her dower into the Bonaparte family 
when the great-grandfather of Napoleon 1. mamed a Bozzi. 
Whether these statements can be construed or not into any 
claim of connection with the highly fortunate and exalted 
family therein referred to, especially as there does not exist 
another distinct family of the name of Bozzi in Lombardy, 
it is nevertheless a curious coincidence, that chance, and 
many important circumstances, should have combined 
within the last forty years to bring me in contact (in- 
timately in two or three instances) with more than one 
member of the French imperial dynasty. But the reference 
I shall afterwards bring forward to that family subsequent 
to their elevation to the imperial dignity in France does not 
allude or take cognizance of the fact I have related, inas- 
much as I was not aware, nor was anybody aware of it 
until some time after my personal acquaintance with the 
several members of it had commenced. Had I been known 
to them by the name of my father's instead of that adopted 
from my deceased mother's family, under which my pro- 
fessional standing and reputation were attained, the result 
to myself might have been far otherwise. 

Joseph Bonaparte, ex-King of Spain, arrived in England 
at the end of 1832. On reaching London he secured 
a handsome house in Park Crescent. He had only been 
a few weeks settled in London when his ex-Queen, Julie, 
sent him their second daughter, Princess Carlotta, widow 
of an elder brother of Louis Napoleon. The princess 
was the bearer of a letter from her own physician at 
Florence, addressed to myself, claiming my professional 


services oek account of her health, which was stated in the 
letter to be in an indifferent condition and to require at- 
tendance, which was of course immediately bestowed upon 
it with the utmost care and attention. It chanced that in 
the course of this attendance, her father, known in this 
country as the Comte de Survilliers, falling ill himself also, 
his daughter recommended me for his physician.*^ That 
office I continued to fill from that time until the count left 
England finally for Italy, abojit the middle of 1840, where 
he died at Florence, aged about seventy-seven, keeping up 
an active con-espondence with his London physician. 

A coDtinuous intimacy of seven years could not fail to 
procure me the acquaintance of most of the surviving heads 
of this extraordinary family, including the one who until 
the great onslaught at Sedan sat enthroned in France from 
the second day of December, 1852, after having exhibited 
no great reluctance in the short course of his early years to 
engage his personal faith and adhesion to a fourth form of 
government, to . all the previous forms of which he had 
equally pledged himself in turn— republicanism, ten years' 
presidency, imperial regime with personal government, and 
then Cesarism with responsible ministers and an inde- 
pendent Chamber of Deputies, when any such shall be 
possible in France! 

* It was after his recovery from this iUness that I received the first auto- 
graph letter, which I give in its original language as interesting perhaps to 
some of my readers : — 

" Londres. Le 14 Janvier, 1834. 

•* Monsieur, — Je suis passe chez vous pour avoir le plaisir de vous voir et 
V0U9 renouveller ma reconnaissance pour le vif inter^t que vous avez bien voulu 
me temoigner. Ma fiUe m'a charge aussi de vous rappeler tous les soins que vous 
lui avez donnas. J'ai consult^ le docteur Stokoe, ne connaissant pas les usages 
de ce pays, et j'esp^re que vous voudrez bien agr^r le mandat ci-joint, etsurtout 
ne pas oublier que je m'eatimerais heureux toutes les fois que vous m'offiirez 
Toccasion de vous temoigner les sentiments d'affection que vous m'avez inspires, 
ave^ k'squels je snis bien veritable meut, monsieur, votre affectueux, 

"Joseph, Cte. de Survilliers." 


It is necessary to the verification oi what I may have to 
state further in this matter, that I should introduce here as 
a member of Count Survilliers' family, with whom I have 
held a constant intimate intercourse, his private secretary, 
M. MailHard. This honest, upright, and most trusty man, 
worthy of such a royal master, adhered to him with an 
unwearied zeal and loyalty in adverse not less than in 
prosperous fortunes, until death removed the eldest brother 
of the great Napoleon in 1845. There were other followers 
who had remained faithful to the exiled king, and who 
formed a select circle around him, with domestic attendants, 
some, of whom were English. His establishment, in fact, 
was like that of a wealthy English nobleman ; certainly not 
inferior in hospitality^ inasmuch as agreeable guests at his 
daily table were never wanting, including some well-known 
military officers both English and French, with occasionally 
an American, and two or three London civilians specially 
acceptable to our host on account of their eminence in law 
or general literature, but chiefly for their bel esprit and 
fluency in the French language. 

1 remember meeting often Lucien Bonaparte, and oc- 
casionally his eldest son. Prince Musignano, who, as a 
son-in-law anfl the progenitor of nearly a dozen grand- 
children, had the right we might say to be part of the 
family circle. King Jerome, ex-King of Westphalia, paid 
also one or two visits, coming purposely from across the 
Channel, not always on a disinterested errand as I under- 
stood. With respect to another of the count's brothers, 
Louis, King of Holland, whose state of health had always 
been too inditferent to enable him to move about like the 
rest of the family, the intercourse between the two brothers 
was confined to epistolary correspondence. 

One day, early in the winter of 1835, I found my illus- 
trious patient much depressed at the receipt of a letter 


from his brother, King Louis, written the previous Christ- 
mas, at the tenor and spirit of which he expressed himself 
much pained. The star of Louis had never shone pro- 
pitiously. His unlucky family circle was broken up when 
he reconducted his Queen Hortense to Paris from the 
baths of Arrens in the Pyrenees, and he never after the 
10th of September, 1807, consorted again with that remark- 
able princess and most excellent mother. A widower in 
October, 1837, and having declined a second matrimonial 
alliance, he wrote in better spirits to Joseph, who replied 
to him on the 23rd of June, 1838 : " Mon cher fr^re, — J'ai 
regu ta lettre, par laquelle tu m'annonces que tu as conserve 
ta liberty. Je t'en fais mon compliment. A notre Sge 
c'est ce qu'on a de mieux k faire lorsqu'on a cess^ d'etre 
marid." « 

During the early part of King Joseph's settlement in 
London, Prince Louis, his nephew, was absent in Switzer- 
land or elsewhere.. His presence in London had not 
attracted much attention. It was only after his exploit 
at Strasburg in 1836, and his return from exile in America 
which had followed that adventure, that the prince toot up 
his abode once more in London in a sumptuous palace in 
Carlton Gardens. 

Having made up his mind to settle altogether in Europe, 
and if possible in Italy, Comte de Survilliers paid a short and 
last visit to the United States for the purpose of disposing 
of his large and magnificent palace at Point Breeze, his 
vast territorial possessions on the Delaware, and of better 
securing his large investments. In this determination of 
proceeding once more across the Atlantic, where he success- 
fully accomplished his object, Comte de Survilliers avowed 

♦ " My dear Brother, — I received your letter in which you teUme you 
have preserved your liberty. I congratulate you. At our age it is the best 
thing one can do when once one is free." 


to me that he had not been a little influenced by Prince Louis' 
ill-judged attempt in Alsace. In his " Quelques Mots sur le 
Roi Joseph," Louis Napoleon has declared that "cette 
affaire eut lieu sans Tautorisation et sans la participation 
de Joseph." * He should have gone further in his avowal, 
and confessed that the news of its occurrence threw the 
uncle into a state of great irritation, and that he was often 
heard to exclaim, " Well, then, all chance is now lost of 
our family being readmitted into France as French citizens, 
which is what we have demanded of the king and the 
Chamber. Ce vaurien ^ tout g&t^." 

Louis Napoleon has admitted that when Joseph heard of 
the affair he was " extremely displeased ; " but he goes on 
to say, "in 1837 he returned to America. When he came 
back again he found his nephew in England, and restored 
him all his affection." The last passage forms a part of a 
biography of Joseph, written after his death by Louis when 
emperor, which, to say the least, is inaccurate. King 
Joseph was not in America in 1837. I can answer by a 
reference to my own journals, de die in diem^ that from 
January, 1837, to the end of July, 1838, I hardly missed 
a day without seeing him professionally or en ami; and as 
regards any " affection " exhibited by the offended uncle 
towards the guilty nephew, if by that term be meant the 
reconciliation, which certainly did occur (though at a much 
later period than the nephew would make us believe), that 
event took place under such solemn circumstances as ren- 
dered a subsequent breach of its conditions by the nephew 
the more to be deplored. 

After an absence of a few months, the Comte de Sur- 
villiers returned to London to Thomson's Hotel, Cavendish 
Square, on the 2nd of December, 1839, where he desired 

* " That affair took place without either the authorization or participation 
of Joseph." 


my attendance. The object of the summons was soon 
explained by the count, who declared that it was not in 
consequence of ill-health he had required to see me, but 
from a wish he felt to have me present at the first interview 
he was about to have with Prince Louis on the subject of 
his conduct at Strasburg, " which " (Joseph added) " I can 
never forget nor forgive. After the many protestations he 
had made never again to compromise our name, I hesitate 
to receive any explanation or promise he may be disposed 
to offer without a witness more impartial from his position 
than any member of my suite, to whose testimony I may 
refer in case of need.'' 

Flattering though the proposition was, it was also 
slightly embarrassing ; but I should not have known how 
to extricate myself without seeming lukewarm in the 
interest of a person who had won for himself the good-will 
and general esteem of all who knew him by his highly 
honourable demeanour while in this country, his candid 
and trustworthy character, and kind, genial, and straight- 
forward mode of intercourse. The sudden announcement 
of Prince Louis put an end to all such reflections. The 
count at once introduced me as his rnMecin and hon ami 
(his doctor and good friend), whose presence need not 
prevent any communication the prince might have to make. 
Although I wrote down in my diary (to which I am now 
referring) directly I drove home the greater part of the 
conversation which ensued, it would be superfluous to repeat 
the whole of it in this part of my narrative. 

The prince commenced by protesting that his uncle had 
been strangely deceived by false reports and hostile journals 
as to the motive and intention of the Strasburg afiair. 
*' Voire neveu s'est expos^ pour votre cause. Personne ne 
comprendra que votre neveu et ceux qui avec lui out 
expos^ leur vie et leur bien pour reraettre Taigle sur nos 


drapeaux soient trait^s par vous en ennemis. Je vous 
avais d6j^ dcrit cela dans une lettre quelque peu de temps 
apr^s rinsurrection de Strasbourg, k laquelle vous m'aviez 
r6pondu, et dont jte fus vivement pein^. J'espfere que vous 
reviendrez k des sentiments plus justes k mon dgard." 

The count in reply insisted on the absurdity of the 
attempt in the first place, and next on the presumption 'on 
the prince's part in putting himself forward immediately 
after the death of the Due de Reichstadt, as the representa- 
tive of the Napoleon dynasty, in defiance of the proclaimed 
law of succession of the 27th of November, 1804. But the 
count more emphatically dwelt on the irreparable damage 
inflicted on all their own kindred, whereby all chances of 
being relieved from the law of perpetual banishment from 
France had been demolished. 

" Crois-tu" (the Count went on to say); " crois-tu que si 
le peuple franjais aurait voulu de nous, pendant les trois 
jours de Juillet il serait aller chercher le cadet des Bourbons 
qu'il d^teste ? Tu es fait pour tout gater ! Nous sommes 
d'accord sur les questions fondamentales, mais qous difil^rons 
sur Tex^cution. Je dis qu'il ne faut rien pr^cipit^r ; qu'il 
faut se r^signer et attendre tons du temps. Tu, au contraire 
impatient, veux acc^l^rer les ^v^nements. Eh bien, tu as 
vu k quoi cela t'a mend et nous tons avec." 

" J'avais soUicitd" (insisted the prince) "de nouveau du 
Roi Louis-Philippe la faveur de rentrer en France, non pas 
comme prince, mais comme simple citoyen. Pour rdponse 
on renouvela la loi de bannissement contre notre famille ! 
La mort du Due de Reichstadt ranima en moi les senti- 
ments de mes droits, et j'ai vu le moment d'agir arrivd. 
La trahison seule a empechd mon succ^s." 

" Pour moi, au contraire " (reiterated the count), " cette 
mort m'inspira un autre devoir, celui de rester plus que 
jamais fidfele k la declaration du peuple fran9ais de Tan 


douze de la R^publique, jusqu'^ ce qu'il plaira k la nation 
d'en decider autrement." 

The interview was likely to last much longer, with 
faint prospect of its ending in pacification. Neither party 
was warm, but both positive, though unifonnly courteous 
towards one another. It seemed to me that the hour of 
reconciliation between uncle and nephew was far distant. 
Louis Napoleon has undertaken the task of supplying us 
with a kind of biography of his uncle, in which he shows 
himself an inaccurate as well as an imperfect narrator. The 
details of that period of his uncle's life which are interwoven 
with those of his own the biographer passes over in entire 
silence, while the concluding part is purely imaginary. The 
bitterness of heart the count experienced at that act of 
foolhardiness of his nephew, which had marred for ever the 
hope of his uncle re-entering his beloved France, was 
a feeling which Joseph had often been heard to declare 
" ^tait plus fort que lui." Nor was it likely to be softened 
down by the information which used to reach the count of 
a fresh plot being concocted in Carlton Gardens, where a 
number of strange persons of many nations and characters 
were known to congregate daily, amongst whom Comte 
de Survilliers pointed out to me one who had published a 
defence of the revolt at Strasburg, and who was destined, 
from a marichal de logts in the 4th regiment of hussars, 
to become duke, minister of the interior, and finally am- 
bassador of France to the court of St. James's.** That person 
Comte de Survilliers considered to be a spy of the Paris 
police, employed by Louis-Philippe to betray Prince Louis, 
an opinion shared by many people in London, but without 
foundation; still a writer, who in defending his patron's 
violation of French territory at Strasburg, declared that 

* Persigny. 




among a great many officers in garrison of all grades, those . 
who spoke of " leur fidelity k leurs serments 6taient le petit 
nombre," and who farther on utters the following opinion : 
" Depuis quardnte ans le sennent donn6 aux gouvemements 
qui se succfedent Tun k Tautre n'est devenu qu'iine formule, 
et n'a put rester un engagement d'honneur." Such a 
writer, I say, duke as he is, could be but a bad counsellor for 
the nephew of Joseph Bonaparte. 

We must not therefore attach much importance to the 
" Quelques Mots sur le Roi Joseph," already alluded to, 
which the ex-Emperor Napoleon III. has inserted in the 
second volume of what he has called " His works." 

However, the lucky arrival in London of Jerome, the ex- 
King of Westphalia, on a visit, with the presence also for a 
few days of another relative, Arrighi, Duke of Padua, served 
to mollify the good-hearted uncle at last. A further inter- 
view with the nephew took place at Hanover Lodge in 
their presence, when a fresh engagement to abstain from 
all sorts of political " entreprises t^m^raires " (^chauffour^es) 
was entered into by Prince Louis. 

"Je crains ton entourage, Louis," said the count. 
" Defais-toi de tons ces mauvais conseillers qui te volent et 
te trompent. Garde ton argent pour des temps meilleures ; 
ne le gkche pas en subventions au * National * et au ' Journal 
du Commerce/ et attend tout du temps." 

" Je volts lepromet^ mon (mcle. Tout ce que Ton dit est 
de Texag^ration. Quant k moi, je suis bien d^cid^ de ne 
plus jamais m'immiscer dans des complots politiques." 
And the uncle and the nephew embraced each other. 

In retracing in his memory this remarkable scene, the 
d-devant empeioT will remember all this conversation, and 
many more assuring words he pronounced than I have 
recited, for they were followed by that very reconciliation 
to obtain which he had solicited the intercession of more 


than one individual having a degree of influence with his 
offended relative, and I may name among them his advocate, 
Cr^mieux, and mj^self, his physician* 

In an account of the rejoicing that took place at Han- 
over Lodge not many days after the auspicious event, this 
portion of the unpublished page of his own biography 
will be brought to the emperor's recollection. Comte de 
Survilliers, finding himself surrounded by so many members 
of the Bonaparte family, was desirous that they should par- 
take with him in his joy. A full-dress banquet was there- 
fore ordered for the 16th of February (we were in the year 
1840), at which were present Joseph, ex-King of Naples 
and Spain ; Jerome, ex-King of Westphalia ; Prince Louis, 
eldest surviving son of Louis, ex-King of Holland ; Prince 
Lucien Murat, second son of the dethroned King of Naples ; 
Count Mandelsloh, Minister of the King of Wiirtemberg, 
in attendance on Jerome, brother-in-law of his sovereign ; 
Colonel Vaudry, the leader of the revolt at Strasburg ; 
Prince Bacciochi, nephew of the prince of that name who had 
married a sister of the Emperor Napoleon I. ; Baron von Stal- 
then, chamberlain of the King of Wiirtemberg, in attendance 
on King Jerome ; Monsieur de Leonsthern, a great traveller 
recently arrived from Mexico and China ; Dr. Stokoe, who 
had been physician to Napoleon at St. Helena ; Monsieur 
Mailliard, ci-devant Grandee of Spain, and the count's private 
secretary ; Monsieur Thibaut, the faithful treasurer of King 
Joseph ; his daughter ; _and lastly myself. 

There was only one toast, and no speeches ; but many 
" touchez-U " between ex-royals, princes, gi-andees, and 
commoners, all seemingly truly rejoicing at the hearty 
reconciliation (so interesting to the Bonaparte family) be- 
tween the direct and the presumptive successor to the 

* This was written a few months before the lamented death of the imperial 
exile.— Ed. 



imperial crown of France, should that dynasty ever again 
be recalled by the French people.** 

All went off merrily as a marriage bell, and I, the 
least of those who shared in the general joy, felt it perhaps 
more sincerely from the conviction I had long entertained 
that the shaking health of my illustrious patient could not 
long withstand the pressure of these perpetually recurring 
shocks to his nervous system. Henceforward everything 
went on evenly and agi-eeably at Hanover Lodge. The 
intercourse between Carlton Gardens and that villa became 
frequent, and on many occasions I noticed early meet- 
ings of the prince's friends closeted with himself in the 
lower apartments before the count had left his own rooms 
upstairs,- and of course unknown to him. These meetings 
appeared to me to be always seriously engaged in animated 
conversations or- discussions as I passed through the apart- 
ment. Among the persons present I recognized General 
Montholon and Colonel Vaudry, and "the editor of the 
" National," but on not a single occasion did I observe M. 
de Persigny, although at Carlton Gardens he was every- 
thing, yet in bad odour with the count. 

What the object of those deliberations was, at which 
there were convened now and then persons recently arrived 
from Paris, and returning thither in a day or two, I never 
learned, nor was it my business to investigate. Prince 
Louis had by this time become popular, and gave frequent 
dinners at Carlton Gardens. His dark green coupS^ in 
imitation of that of the Great Napoleon, with the imperial 
arms, was to be seen at the door of many of the principal 
mansions in London during the day, while at night some of 

* *^ Le peuple yeut Th^r^dit^ de la dignity imp^riale dans la descendance 
directe, naturelle, legitime et adoptive de Napoleon Bonaparte, et dans la des- 
cendance directe, natureUe et legitime de Joseph Bonaparte et de Louis Bona- 
parte, ainsi qu'il est r^gl^ par le Senatos Consultum, Loi du 28 flor^al, ann. zii." 



the brilliant salons were open to him ; in one of these, that 
of a baronet's wealthy daughter (now a peeress), whose 
name is synonymous with charity and benevolence, I met 

I am tempted to copy from my diary the account I find 
in it of this agreeable rencontre : — " 2nd February, 1847. 
Piccadilly. I was much pleased at the reception at Miss 
Coutts's last night, and spent a very pleasant evening. 
The lady herself was most amiable, Prince Louis, who 
was standing by her side, near the fireplace, was very cor- 
dial ; also Lord Brougham came across the room as soon 
as he saw me, and shook hands heartily ; and a host of 
other people engaged my attention very soon. The Duke 
of Wellington came in shortly, when the prince was 
introduced by the lady of the house. I spoke several 
times in the course of the evening to Miss Coutts. 
She has a charming, pleasing manner, seemed particu- 
larly courteous to Prince Louis, whom she introduced to 

My own accidental meetings with the prince were neces- 
sarily frequent, 'and I reckon it among my gratifying remi- 
niscences that of having been sufficiently often in the 
prince's company to enable us both to become acquainted 
with one another's character. Prince Louis was aware that 
his uncle extended his personal confidence in his physician 
to the degree of fi-equently claiming his services in the 
settlement of family affairs ; as in the instance, for example, 
of a daughter of Lucien and first cousin of Louis, married 
to an English diplomatist, but separated just then from her 
husband. To her, at my intercession, the warm-hearted 
uncle came forward in such a way as to save both mother 
and children for a better fate, as the documents in my pos- 
session testify. 

"Le Dr. Granville pent vous dire," she writes to her 


brother, the Prince de Canino, " que mon oncle ^tait dis- 
pose, lui avait m^me proinis, de me donner les moyens 
d'aller en Italie et de payer toutes mes dettes." A son, 
not as " wise '' as bis father, I rescued by means supplied 
by the count, and through my professional and firm inter- 
ference, from sickness and a plot to confine him in a private 
lunatic asylum.* 

There was no reserve, therefore, between the Bonaparte 
family and the count's medical adviser, the advantage of 
which state of things was not long in making itself 

On June the 15th a pressing message at daybreak sum- \ 
moned me to Hanover Lodge, where I found the count ! 
labouring under a sudden apoplectic seizure, which had 
made him speechless, drowsy, insensible, and paralyzed on 
the right side of the body. The danger was imminent, and 
so the appliances for relief were immediate. The count, a 
person by nature predisposed to fulness of blood in the 
head, had partly brought on the present seizure through 
intense head application, having sat up that same night 
until twelve o'clock with Monsieur Cr^mieux, the well- 
known eminent avocatj who had arrived a few days before 
from Paris with the count's will, which he had prepared 
by his direction. In my attendance on the count I had the 
benefit of the advice of Sir Henry Halford and Dr. Cham- 
berlain, both of whom I called in consultation after the first 

* " The will of Her Imperial Highness Princess Letizia Bonaparte, lately re- 
siding at Viterbo in Italy, daughter of the late Lucien Bonaparte, Prince of 
Canino, and relict of the Bight Honoui*able Sir Thomas Wyse, K.C.B., formeriy 
a Minister of the British Cabinet, M.P. for Tipperary and Waterfdrd, and 
deputy-lieutenant of Queen's County, was proved in Her Majesty *s Court of 
Probate, on May 19, by Signor Dominico Falcioni, the sole executor. The 
personal property in England was sworn under ^£4000. The will is translated 
from the Italian. Her Imperial Highness was a native of Milan, and was 
married in 1821 to Sir Thomas Wyse, by whom she leaves a family." — The 

Y 2 




day of the attack. After a steady, though slow, recovery, 
in two or three weeks my patient was in a fit state to go 
and spend a short time of his convalescence at Newnham 
Paddox, the seat of the Earl of Denbigh, who cousiderately 
placed a great portion of his mansion at the service of 
the ex-king and his small retinue. It was my inten- 
tion as soon as the patient should have gained sufficient 
strength to travel, to send him to some of the thermal 
baths of Germany, with the view to assist in restoring 
the tone of the paralyzed limb, and improve his general 

At Newnham Paddox I used to visit the count every 
other day by the Rugby express. On our return from the 
country it was decided in consultation that the patient should 
repair to the baths of Wildbad, but as the count was 
anxious to determine at the same time whether he should 
return and settle in England, as he wished, or go to his wife 
and daughter in Florence, which the family would have 
preferred, another consultation of relations and medical 
advisers was held, at which, by request of Prince Louis, 
his own physician, Dr. Conneau, was admitted, to whom I 
explained viva voce my view of the case, and the good result 
I expected from the bath recommended. 

While in consultation, the Due de Padoue (Arrighi), a 
relative, entered the room, and placed in my hands a letter 
he had received from Baron Larrey, concerning the question 
about to be discussed, requesting me to read it to the 
meeting. I have preserved the holograph, which I now 
produce : — 

x" Paris, 1840 

" Monsieur le Due, — ^Comme j'avais un m^moire k lire k 
rinstitut le lendemain du jour oh vous vous fetes donn^ la 
peine de venir me voir, je n'ai pas eu le temps de tracer 
la r^ponse k la lettre que vous m'avez fait Thonneur de 


m'^crire pour me demander quelques conseils sur la nature 
du climat des villes de Londres et de Florence, et laquelle 
de ces deux villes pourrait le mieux convenir k la sant^ de 
M. le Conite de Survilliers, ayant congu le projet de fixer 
d^finitivement sa residence dans Tune ou Tautre de ces deux 
villes. Certes k moins de motifs particuliers et tr^s-impor- 
tants qui foroeraient le prince k se fixer k Londres, cette 
ville m'a paru offrir des grands inconv^nients pour la sant6 
des personnes sensibles et accoutum^es aux climats chauds. 
l"" Cette ville est constamment envelopp^e dans un brouillard 
^pais, humide, surcharge de gaz hydrogfene et de la combus- 
tion du charbon de terre, le seul combustible qu'on emploie 
dans ce pays. 2"" L'hiver y est d'autant plus facheux que 
Vhumidit^ pr^domine toujours. Les efiets de ces influences 
sont dans le premier cas de pr^disposer les individus aux 
congestions c^r^brales, et dans le second aux affections 
catarrhales plus ou moins intenses et k la diathfese scor- 
butique. Le climat de Florence est trfes-bon ; Fair en est 
pur est salubre, et les campagnes qui environnent cette 
ville sont ravissantes et tr^s-riches par les productions de 
1;out genre, et surtout par les fiiiits d^licieux qu'on y trouve. 
Les maisons, et surtout les palais, sont construit de matifere 
k pouvoir tempdrer les chaleurs de T^t^. L'atmosphfere est 
condens^e dans les appartements de ces palais par une 
disposition particulifere des fenetres, qui permit T entree des 
vents du nord et nord-est et s'oppose k Tintroduction dans 
ces appartements des vents du cercle meridional La re- 
gime alimentaire usit6 dans cette contrde est tr^s-propre k 
entretenir T^lasticit^ dans nos organes et la fluidity dans 
les liquides qui les parcourent, ce qui conserve la sant6 et 
prolonge la vie. Au Caire et en Syrie, dont les climats ont 
beaucoup de rapport avec celui de Florence, nous avions un 
grand nombre de centenaires ; nous en avons compt^ plus de 
trente dans la capitale de TEgypte, et nous avons eu un 


Samaritain au camp devant St. Jean d'Acre lequel ^tait 
venu presenter au G^n^ral Bonaparte sa sixi^me g^n^ra- 
tion. II avait cent vingt ans r^volus (voyez mes com- 
pagnons, &c.). 

" Veuillez, je vous prie, faire agr^er mes respectueux 
hommages k sa majesty, et recevoir pour vous, Monsieur le ^ 
Due, Taisurance, &c. 

'' B^"- Larrey, M.D/' 

The tenor of this, letter decided the question as to the 
count's ultimate and fixed residence. By the middle of July 
Comte de Survilliers was able to walk unsupported, take 
an airing for an hour or two in an open carriage, until at 
length, having recovered his faculties — his vision wholly, 
and his hearing in part — he became able to settle his 
worldly affairs with Monsieur Cr^mieux, and sign his will, 
I witnessing his signature. Prince Louis was assiduous 
in his inquiries, but he was not, neither was any one, 
admitted into the presence of the sufferer until such 
time as considerable progress had been made towards 
recovery, and the count able to go from one apartment 
to another. My own peremptory recommendation that 
the patient should proceed to the hot baths of Wildbad, 
in the Black Forest, was now accepted, and my advice 
was taken. 

And now comes that episode in the life of the count"" 
which is entwined with an unpublished page of the " Bio- 
graphie de TEmpereur Napoleon III.," a page which 
recalls a fact suppressed by order, as calculated to embarrass 
the readers in the choice of a right appellative to be afi&xed 
to the conduct about to be described. The principal state 
rooms and adjoining cabins were retained on board the 
Batavier, a Dutch Steamer, to convey the count and suite 
to Rotterdam, and thence by a Rhine boat to Carlsruhe. 




Passports had been procured from the Dutch, Baden, and 
Wurtemburg authorities, through whose states the party 
would have to pass or reside in. Sunday, July 26th, 1840, 
was the day on which we were to set off from the south side 
of the river, below London Bridge, and the whole party 
were conveyed to the vessel and embarked. On deck they 
were joined by, Prince Louis, who had come to bid.adieu to 
his uncle. A meeting had taken place the night before, 
during which the count had recalled to the prince's recol- 
lection the solemn promise he had given not to embark in 
any fresh plots which (he added) *' compromettaient Thon- 
neur et le nom de la famille Bonaparte, et rendaient plus 
difficile .la rehabilitation en France de telles de ces branches 
qui d^silreraient y rentrer.*' 

On the present occasion we were standing on the quarter 
deck in front of the state room. The count, supported on 
one side by his secretary, whilst my hand was under his 
right arm on the other, stood facing Prince Louis, who 
seemed at the moment affected by the scene. Before him 
he beheld the eldest brother of the great founder of his 
dynasty, ,who had himself filled two kingly thrones, now a 
wreck in health and prospects, having no country of his 
own to live in, about to quit one strange land to proceed to 
another equally strange to him, with but a faint hope of 
returning quite recovered — ^perhaps not at all ! The prince 
must really have felt the precarious situation of a most 
excellent relative, from whom he was about to part perhaps 
for ever. But the bell for visitors to leave the vessel 
sounded, and the nephew and uncle separated — Josepli 
still holding the hand of Louis, repeating these words: 
** Point de complots, entends-tu ? Garde ton argent pour 
des meilleurs occasions ! Quand la France voudra de nous, 
elle saura nous appeler." 

**Soyez tranquille, mon oncle," was the reply; "vous 



pouvez compter sur moi/' retreating one or two steps in 
the meanwhile. 

" Vrai ? " cried the uncle, with tears in his eyes. 

^^ Ma parole d'honneur^' exclaimed the prince, with one 
hand on his heart, and he was gone. I hear those 
words ringing in my ears even now as I am writing a 
circumstance which I reeoirded in my note-book in the 
state room of the steamer, whither we immediately 
withdrew, my patient perfectly exhausted, as he himself 

We reached Wildbad on the 2nd of August, and in the 
very first week I noticed a visible improvement in the 
power of using his right leg and arm, and of clutching 
another man's hand, trying to squeeze it, a simple test 
which served my purpose for estimating the rate of increase 
in muscular power. At twelve o'clock on. the lOtli of 
August, the King of Wurtemburg arrived at Wildbad, and 
desired my immediate attendance. On entering the room 
where the king was with a single aide-de-camp, he at once 
addressed me in French. *' I have just received a despatch 
containing sad news, which may be fatal to your patient, 
King Joseph," and he went on to say that Prince Louis, 
with a party in arms, had landed at Boulogne last Thurs- 
day, the 6th, trom a steamer coming from London. After 
a short conflict with the military and the authorities, during 
which it is reported that the officer who tried to arrest him 
was shot, the prince was captured and lodged in prison. 
"And now," observed the king, "how are we to break 
such miserable news to your patient, or how is it to be con- 
cealed from him ? " In reply I declared that the sudden 
communication of such an event to the count might prove 
instiintly fatal. I insisted upon the necessity of keeping 
from his knowledge for the present the untoward event, 
and " until I shall have prepared him to receive it with 



less chance . of mischief." So orders were given that no 
" Galignani," nor any French newspaper, should be ad- 
mitted into the count's apartments. But the unfortunate 
sufferer, while spared for a time from this painful news, was 
not equally fortunate with regarf to other distressing family 
tidings, for King Jerome, who had come to see his brother, 
had brought him the intelligence of their brother Lucien's 
death, and by-and-by a letter was read to the count, 
stating that Jerome himself had made up his mind to make 
his submission to Louis-Philippe. Coup sur coup! The 
news of the death of Lucien, to whom he had been much 
attached, afflicted the count greatly, and now the defection 
of another brother seemed too much for his nerves. For- 
tunately the arrival of young Jerome Napoleon, Prince de 
'Montfort, eldest son of the ex-King Jerome, a charming 
young man, afforded some pleasure to my afflicted patient ; 
and when in a few days he left, his younger brother. Napo- 
leon Joseph, now Prince Napoleon, a youth about eighteen 
years of age, full of spirits, came to enUven our circle on 
the 1 7th of August. 

Both these young princes had received their education at 
the military college of Ludwigsburg, the elder of the two 
having been fellow-collegian with my son, whom I had the 
misfortune to lose at the age of one-and-twenty. I men- 
tion this fact merely because it served to place me at once 
on an agreeable footing with the young princes, especially 
with the eldest, who expressed his great sorrow upon learn- 
ing the fatal accident which had deprived me of a most 
promising son. A stronger contrast I have never met with 
in the course of my long life between two brothers, as I 
beheld here before me. While Jerome Napoleon, Prince 
de Montfort, had the appearance, gait, manner, and notions 
of a true aristocrat of the Teutonic type, the younger bro- 
ther. Prince Napoleon, professed the most opposite prin- 


ciples to those of his great ancestor and own brother, being 
in fact a determined repubUcdn, and violently opposed to 
Caesarism. He used to say, and often repeat to good Mr. 
Mailliard, his uncle's secretary, "Fi ! de toute cette canaille 
de Juillet! II va pleuvoir bientSt des baionnettes; vous 
allez voir. Et alors Vive la R^publique ! *' 

We were then a few years yet from 1848, and the 
bayonets did indeed and in truth rain not unlike thick hail 
at that epoch. But what did they serve for ? To set Up 
a republic one day to pull it down again the next, and 
thus elevate his cousin to the Caesarism he detested. 

At length it became impracticable to keep the news of 
the Boulogne affair from the knowledge of the count, and 
accordingly I undertook to communicate it to him one day 
during which he had appeared to be much better in every 
respect; The effect of such a communication soon made me 
regret having made it. For the first moment he stood 
aghast, then literally screamed out, " Impossible ! Pas 
vrai ! pas vrai ! Oh pauvre nom de Bonaparte, que tu as 
baiss6 aux yeux de la France ! V And his voice was be- 
coming husky, his face red, his breathing difificult. I endea- 
voured to soothe and tranquillize him. I had him put to bed, 
placed ice water at the back of his head— for it is the cere- 
bellum, and not the brain, which in such cases is in danger. 
He felt grateful for the application, which presently pro- 
duced sleep. I had promised not to leave him, and I 
remained in the room some hours, when, after a long and 
agitated sleep, he awoke in the morning of the 6th of Sep- 
tember, talking coherently but pronouncing his words with 
difficulty. There was not a moment to lose: we were 
approaching a fi:esh stroke of apoplexy. I directed him to 
be cupped forthwith. The rescue from the threatening 
symptoms was almost immediate. But I need not proceed 
any further with professional details, simply adding that 


four days after this dangerous paroxysm I was able to 
declare that my patient was in a fit state to undertake his 
return journey to England, which we reached after a whole 
week's travelling, and a most tempestuous passage of nearly 
forty hours crossing from Rotterdam to London, where the 
whole party arrived on the 17th of September, the count 
weak in body, but his mind normal, able to walk slowly, to 
grasp firmly with bis right hand any hard object of a mode- 
rate size, and feeling more cheerful and happy, as he 
declared, at finding himself once more in this "happy 

Here ends, I may say, an unpublished chapter in the 
life of two men more famous perhaps than many of the 
notabilities whom the political tornado that shook Europe 
during forty years brought up to the surface. It may be 
asked, were the facts here recorded worth collecting and 
being made public ? I answer, Yes, most emphatically. 
Are facts, ii'refragable facts, demonstrative of the character 
of one, at all events, of the two sovereigns herein depicted, 
holding in his hands the fearful privilege and power of 
wielding six hundred thousand bayonets and thousands of 
cannon against the peace and well-being of millions of 
people, to be ignored when, on the contrary, the know- 
ledge of those facts would serve to put those millions on 
their guard against fresh deceptions ? 

Between Louis Napoleon and the writer of this episode 
in his life there cannot subsist any personal feeling. The 
last time we met, namely, when the prince was about to 
leave London for the second time on his return to take his 
seat in the Assembly in Paris on his second election for the 
D6partement de la Seine, we shook hands in Piccadilly as 
we had done on ordinary occasions. On his election as 
president I made it the subject of a congratulatory epistle.. 
Again a few congratulatory words were addressed to the 



president when he reached the throne. I had hoped that 
the declarations I had often heard expressed by the prince 
in the pi'esence of his uncle, " that the monarchical form of 
government in England was the best, the safest, and the 
most endurable," would now be put to the test in France. 
Hating democracy as he most cordially does, the writer of 
these lines rgoiced to see a prince who had had such abun- 
dant opportunities of putting in practice the monarchical 
system he had so much eulogized, placed in a position to 
apply that system to his own country. 

Now for a small account of a species of contraband diplo- 
macy, which, although dating from 1836, comes apropos 
of the revolution of 1848, in which Prince Louis took a lead. 
A series of documents are in my possession, forming an 
instructive as well as interesting record of part of the secret 
history of Louis-Philippe's interesting reign. The collec- 
tion, which might have found a most appropriate place in 
Louis Blanc's clever " Histoire de dix Ans," and which that 
astute historiographer would have doubtlessly so employed 
had it got into his possession, has no chance at present of 
seeing the light of day. The story itself of the papers, 
though brief and simple, is almost a romance. A middle- 
aged nobleman. Count Rh — in, every way qualified in 
person, rank, manners, and talents, was sent by Metternich 
secretly to Paris in 1835 en voyageur^ to reside there as his 
emissary, to watch, study, and report on all questions of 
political interest likely to be of use to the crafty Caesarian 
minister. He was to be introduced at court by the Austrian 
ambassador (kept in ignorance, of course, of the motive), 
and to put himself in communication with the king and 
Monsieur Thiers, but not with de Broglie, Minister for 
Foreign affairs, with whom Metternich did not sympathize. 
The duke was to be kept absolutely in the dark of the plot, 
which was confined to three persons only. The Austrian 


emissary was to be the medium through whom the secret 
correspondence was to be conducted, and it is amusing to 
notice by these letters how, while the plotters seemed to 
act harmoniously together for one and the same object, 
each secretly communicated on certain occasions his own 
individual opinion and judgment on his colleagues to the 
secret emissary. Thus we have the character of Monsieur 
Thiers openly dissected in an interview between the king 
and the emissary ; while in one of the emissary's reports 
to Metternich of an interview with Thiers, he divulges the 
private opinion of the latter as to the character and abilities 
of his sovereign. 

The plot appears to have been ingeniously contrived. 
In order to make matters quite safe, Herr Graf Hh — in con- 
ceived the brilliant idea of dispensing with a hired secretary, 
and employing as his amanuensis a lady he had known some 
time, to copy the several letters and despatches received 
and sent out. Madame , who not long after had occa- 
sion to consult me, was a highly educated, clever German 
lady, jan4 lent herself most gracefully to this occupation. 
Noticing after a short time how important the successive 
papers she was busy in copying were becoming, she judged 
that she might as well employ part of her time in making 
an extra copy for her own private purposes, in case of a 
rainy day, as she had no great faith in the Graf's sunshine. 
Accordingly a second copy of all the papers was made, and 
when death parted the two friends, and Metternich got 
possession of all the documents and papers left by his clever 
emissary, Madame remaiped possessed of the fruit of her 
nimble and untired pen. Thus a whole 'petite comSdie ter- 
minated as cleverly as it had been skilfully devised. 

Why and how her papers came into my possession it is 
no part of my duty to divulge. As I before hinted, these 
documents would impart a surprising and interesting 


character to a new " Histoire de dix Ans/' while they would 
bietter prepare us for the advent of that fresh republic in 
France which ended in and with Caesarism. The following 
list of the papers forming the collection will not prove un- 
interesting, and will excite political as well as ethological 
reflections. One of the pieces in the appendix, called 
" Liste d* Agents Secrets *' (all of whom we are to under- 
stand werfe paid by the respective courts to which they 
reported their espionage), shall never go out of my hands. 
If the nameiof these spies are correctly reported, one may feel 
humbled rather than hurt at having received and honoured 
by our confidence and friendship people deemed worthy of 
both. The first on the list (only so, I suppose, because in 
an alphabetical list his name required to be placed at the 
head of the letter A) was a count who, during the whole of 
the years of his exile from Naples (as I had been made to 
believe) frequented my family, and never missed one of the 
sotrSes I used to hold at my house, faithful, no doubt, to 
his work of " reporting progress." 

The authentic copies of letters in my possession are as 
follows : — 

l"^. Koenigworth, 11 Sep., 1835. * 

Le Prince Metfcemich a son Agent Diplomatique k Paris. Piice 
ostermbU, with a P.S. confidentieL 
2"^ Du m6me an m^rne, 2 Oct., 1835. Pi^ce confidentielle. 
8"*. Du m6me au m^me, 80 Oct., 1835. Pitee confidentielle. 
4-. Du m6me au mfime, 30 Oct., 1885. Pi^oe senate confidentielle. 
5"^. Prince Mettemich h spn confidant, 9 Jan., 1836. 

1«. Conversation de Louis-Philippe avec le confidant de Mettemich. 
S"*. Conversation du confidant de Mettemich avec Mons. Thiers. 
8"'. Conversation de Mons. Thiers avec le confidant de Mettemich. 
4'°«. Conversation du m^me avec le mfime. 

Appmdice.^^ote du confidant au Pr. Mettemich, 15 Juin, 1887. 



Exfcrait d'une note pr^liminaire de Taote d'asaociation da Comity 
R^volutionnaire Fran$aiB; avec celi^i (}£ la Jeune Europe, fait k 
Ste. Pelagie le 10 Avril, 1835 ; oommuniqu^ an Pr. Metbernich. 

Liste d' Agents Seorets de plasieups Cabinets eu 1836, fourni par 
TEmisBaire particnlier du Pr. Mettemich. (They are sixty in nnmber.) 

N.B.— Tout le dossier de ces difB^^nts docun^ents ocaupe qnarante- 
huit pages d'une foriti^re Que (8yo, large). 


• * 



Singular absence of information on a subject of importance — A tour among the 
springs of Germany — Presentiment of my son — ^His death — A visit to 
Buxton — ^Tbe mineral springs of England — Bournemouth — Excuses for 
leaving England — Eissingen : efficacy of its waters — Gastein — German 
mode of treatment — Dr. Grjmm, 

That sprightly and spirited trifle from the pen of Sir 
Francis Head, which, under the title of " Bubbles from the 
Briinnen of Nassau," caused such a stir, and sent shoals 
of the upper ten thousand to Germany in the year 1835, 
suddenly inspired me with the idea of visiting during the 
summer months all the other Brtlnnen of that vast region of 
Europe, besides the very few paraded by the worthy baronet : 
Ems, Wiesbaden, and the "source of beauty,'* with the 
" fountain of snakes " adjoining, My own persuasion of 
the medical benefit to be derived from mineral waters, 
especially of some of the continental springs, was not a new 
conviction. I had had sufficient experience in the treat- 
ment of particular diseases by means of those medicinal 
auxiliaries to know, that were the attention of my profes- 
sional brethren in England to be properly awakened, both 
they and the public in general would welcome the informa- 
tion, test its facts and their value, and finally accept the 
whole as a novel, scientific, and acceptable branch of medical 
treatment. I put to myself this question : Which are the 
works in the English language published of a sufficiently 
recent date and worth that can be referred to and made 
available for bringing about the result mentioned above ? 



I looked round the great req-ding-room of the British 
Museum, that garden of literature, ipto which once entered 
you luxuriously sit before a well-appointed desk, ready to 
collect and treasure up into your memorandum book what* 
ever ki^owledge you can gather from the thousands of 
volumes within your own reach, or from a,ny other which 
you desire to have brought to you by prompt attendants 
from the mapy inner halls of that gigantic library. Here 
you can pick and choose, transcribe and collect, whatever 
can help you in the prosecution of any projected work you 
may happen to be engaged in, and sure it is that the process 
will be one of cramming rather than of depleting. 

It turned put otherwise in my case, and I came away 
with the conviction that no standard printed work, ele- 
mentary, practical, and descriptive, giving a continuous and 
special account of the various mineral springs throughout 
Germany, combining the utile dulci, was to be found at the 
epoch I refer to, A subsequent search in the libraries of 
the Colleges pf Physicians and Surgeons in London proved 
equally fruitless, In fact, the reality being that English 
bibliography was deficient in modem scientific and practical 
works on mineral hydrology. Thus did I conclude aflier 
ample search in 1836, and hence the determination at once 
taken to carry into efiiect the plan of visiting, studymg, and 
experimenting upon the sources of mineral waters in 
Germany, which produced for the pubhc the work mentioned 
in the note,* Accordingly, accompanied by my two sons, 
Augustus and Walter, still m statu pupillan\ I set out for 
Germany from Paris early in the summer of 1836, in the 
same carriage that had served to bring me home from 
Russia a few years before, fitted up with all the conveniences 
which posting days demanded, taking with me a plan 
previously studied and sketched out for a tour of about four 

* « The Spaa of Qermany.'' 1837. 



thousand miles, with the iijtentioij of visiting and describing 
more or \eB» fully foftj principal mineral springs in that 
country, besides others of minor importance. The public 
opinion of pay profession?,! brethren concerning the tWo 
volumep I ^fter^ards produced ip expressed in ^ few short 
sentencep, whiph I hope an author may be permitted to 
repeat without being taxed with vanity: *^They (the 
volumes) are a remarkable acquisition to the invalid and the 
traveller, not less than to hisi professional brethren in Eng- 
land, They contain a scientific analysis of the several 
spas of Germany, which they describe minutely ; and they 
present to the reader an itinerary over a pleasant route in 
which the companionable qualities of the writer are no 
sjight recommendation. Not that be saprifices utility to 
apxusemept with the view of captivating his reader ; far from 
it, for there is enough and to spare of the real solid, matter- 
otfact business introduced everywhere to constitute a work 
haying at the time of its appearance no competitor in 
English literature on the same subject treated in the like 
manner ; " on a subject, too, as I ptated in the preface of 
the ^rst edition, perfectly new. Thirty chief or principal 
springs, divided into geographical groups, were visited and 
inquired into personally in the course of the entire tour, 
which lasted four months. The information collected in 
that period fills one thousand pages, in' which are views of 
some of the most salient objects, as well as itinerary maps 
to guide the traveller. Ope feature especially I will venture 
to signalize as perfectly original in this work, namely, the 
introduction of what I have called a chemico-pneumatic 
thermometrical table, embracing at one view the analysis or 
composition of each mineral water as taken from the spring. 
How tedious and surfeiting would it not prove to readers to 
have had their attention arrested (on every occasion of the 
introduction of a new spring) by the names, nature, and 

(< »,-r,^ r.«*« ^« ^^^,,t <^>r,^ >' 


quantity of its mineral ingredients in the middle of an 
interesting or instructive description ! Some publications of 
a like nature to the '^ Spas of Germany '*' have appeared 
since in imitation of it, and this great defect is found in 
them, namely, a perpetually recurrent insertion of abstracts 
of chemical aualysis, which render the perusal of the works 
almost repulsive. Now, by the use of a single general table 
devised as mine is, all such repetitions in the body of the 
work are obviated, The table enables us at a glance to 
judge of the nature of every spring, to see at once the 
most prevailing and characteristic ingredients in them, and 
lastly, to sum up the respective quantities of solid sub- 
stances held in solution in a common measure of mineral 

Another feature which distinguishes the present from the 
rest of the treatises on mineral waters is the essay which 
precedes the first volume, entitled ** Popular Considerations 
on the Use and Powers of Mineral Waters." Being on the 
point of laying before the English reader a whole catalogue 
of foreign waters, which, judging fronl the complicated nature 
of the mineral ingredients they contain in solution may d 
prion be deemed to possess some action oa the system of 
those who drink them, it became an almost absolute duty on 
my part to enlighten them how to use the waters as 
remedies, whether internally or as baths; what diet to 
follow during the treatment, with many other considerations 
I need not repeat again. Those considerations for the 
present stand unique in the history of hydrological works. 
I felt qualified to give the result of positive and direct 
experience, and not merely didactic recommendations. The 
date and appearance of the two volumes in question, and 
the favourable reception they met with from the press, are 
circumstances so near our own time that I needed to have 



done no more thgai give tKeir title ^d date in the chrono- 
logical order of my other published works. 

My own feelings would induce me to pass over in silence 
the period during which I was going about the world gather- 
ing materials for a new work destined to be associated with 
the most painful period of my life — the ever-recurrent me- 
mento of an irreparable and fatal loss which has embittered 
my days. On determining to set off to Germany, my eldest 
surviving son, Charles, just recovered from a da^gerous 
fever, hoping that his leave of absence fi'om his post of 
lieutenant and adjutant of the 89th Foot, then stationed in 
Ireland, which was about to expire, might on application 
to Lord Hill be prolonged some weeks, entreated me to 
take him along with his brothers, that he might revisit the 
scenes of his collegiate life in the military school of Ludivigs- 
burg, near Stuttgart. But I had, in ^ private interview with 
Lord Granville Somerset, learned that no further extension 
would be granted beyond the present one, given on the 
score of illness, as, he added, " the Medical Board reports 
him at present improved." The regiment was on the point 
of sailing to a foreign station, and the two or three wpeks 
he had yet of his leave would not enable him to accomplish 
what he so much desired without the risk of losing his rank, 
and possibly subjecting himself to dismissal from the service. 
Unwilling that he should face such a risk after his success 
in the service and the flattering reports made to the Com- 
mander-in-Chief of his diligence and military knowledge, I 
decided it could not be. Still he pleaded long and earnestly, 
repeating his own dire forebodings that if we parted we 
should never meet agaia on earth. It was a bitter moment, 
a moment of suspense, which a sense of stem duty alone 
put an end to. No, it could not be ; and so we parted. 
Many affectionate letters from him followed me, until, as I 
was on my return home, a letter from my constant friend at 


the Foreign Office, so often mentioned, reached me at 
Berlin, detailing an accident by which my boy had perished 
— drowned, in Dampton Bay, from a sudden seizure of the 
heart while bathing on the recommendation of Sir James 
Macgregor, who had attended him professionally after we 
had parted. My wife was then in Paris, add no relative 
was at hand to attend to the dead. Old friends kindly 
assumed the pious part of the absent relatives,- and so the 
dear remains were temporarily received in the parochial 
cemetery at Broadstairs, whence^ on my return to London, 
I had them removed to the catacombs in Kensal Green, 
where, after twenty-five years, in a twin-niche, was de- 
posited in 1861 the dear mother he had loved so Well; a 
third vacancy by the side of the last, yfiiwning with its Hark 
maw waiting for its ftiture occupant,^ who tarries behind to 
console himself with the Words of the prophet Isaiah : " The 
righteous is taken away from the evil to come. He shall 
enter into peace." 

I have already in the " Spas of Qerniany " detailed this 
painful episode in my life, and to the perusatl of it in those 
two volumes I might refer my present readers. But no ; 
the heart is bleeding still, after thirty-five years, as if the 
wound had been only fresh inflicted. Had I taken my 
beloved and most worthy son ^long with me, he might now 
be by my side, a superior officer, helping me to sketch 
-more accurately the varied scenes of my life, and cheer up 
his now almost decrepit father. But it was not to be. 

An intended visit to my medical friend Sir Charles 
Scadamore, who was following at Buxton with his London 
patients the example I had just set him in attending my 
London patients at the Spa of Kissingen, in Bavaria, first 
brought to my knowledge that my laborious task on the 
" Spas of Germany " was considered at Buxton to be the 
chief cause of its waning glory. Indeed, I had at times 



experienced some qualms of conscience as to whether I did 
not owe it to my adopted country to try to make amepds 
for whatever damage to English interest that work of mine 
might have produced, and so exert myself in remedying 
any such mischief, by doing for the mineral springs of 
England what I had done for those abroad. Had such an 
inspiration needed a stimulant to convert it into a reality, that 
agent was not long in presenting itself before me on my 
first appearance at the Grand Hotel in the aristocratic spa 
of Buxton. "You wish to see Sir* Charles Sctidamore, I 
am informed, sir ? A room, the last in the hotel at present 
vacant, has been kept for an expected friend of Sir Charles." 
And then accosting me nearer, with peculiar grace, the 
comely lady added, " May 1 venture to ask whether I have 
the honour of addressing the author of ' The Spas of 
Germany ? ' I bowed assent. " Then permit me to tell 
you that your book has done for us and othef similar estab- 
lishments in the country, what the report of a raging of 
small-pox or scarlet fever would have done if propagated in 
this place. All the lame and limping people, the nice 
elderly gouty gentlemen who have always so many wants 
we are glad to provide for, the many invalided officers of 
the late Peninsular war — dear good creatures, the nervous 
courtiers and their ladies — all, in fact, and everybody, now 
turn up their noses at the mention of Buxton. They must 
go to Wiesbaden or Baden, or I know not to what other 
bad-en place for their recovery ! As to this hotel, I assure 
you such changes have brought about our ruin. Our land- 
lord is about to give up the place, and the one who has just 
retired, Mr. Shaw, declares that we may as well shut up at 
once and go digging.'^ 

"Then I think your landlord and his predecessor are 
both wrong and precipitate in their judgment. Let them 
wait a year or two after the publication of a fresh work by 


the same author who has done all the mischief, in which new 
work the nature and value of the Watering and sea-bathing 
places in England will be set in contrast with those of 
Germany, and you will sing, dear madam, a difierent song 
when next we meet. Nor shall I have less reason to rejoice 
to find that I have effected many favourable changes in 
your mode of managing the baths and^ treating your guests 
the patients — changes which will render your establishments 
as attractive and popular as those over the sea. In truth, 
my present visit to Sir Charles has the double object of 
gi'eeting him and of studying a little the nature of the bath 
he specially patronizes, as being one of those which^ under 
the more general title of *The Spas of England,' I meditate 
soon to write upon.'' 

After the lapse of thirty years, reiiietiiberilig what I said 
to my handsome interlocutrix, the well-bred representative 
of the Duke of Devonshire's interest in the Grand Hotel at 
Buxton in 1840, I think I may venture to ask whether any 
prediction could have been more completely realized, not as 
regards Buxton only, but also Bath, Harrogate, Scar- 
borough, and for not a few of the sea-bathing places, with 
the addition of some entirely new resorts for invalids, many 
of which were wholly unknown before the researches I 
undertook regarding ^medicated springs, climates^ and sites 
to suit people of weak health, without the necessity of 
banishment from home. Who had ever before heard of our 
iodine spa in this country until I singled out Woodhall near 
Lincoln, where scrofulous patients can find the same medi- 
cated water as at Kreuznach in Rhenish Prussia ? Who had 
ever dreamt of such a Nice-like haven as Bournemouth before 
I undertook to investigate the natural peculiarities of our 
south coasts, and pointed out to the owners of the land in 
the place just named (mere heaps of sand fetching five 
shillings an acre) the very locale for a sanatorium, where 



now building land fetches twice and thrice as many pounds 
per Acre as it before fetched shillings ? 

"I have no hesitation in stating/* I ^aid, at the conclusion 
of a speech in answer to a toast drank at a bslnquet given 
\ in February, 1841, by the members of Poole, Christchurch, 
\ Dorchester, and some of the owners of the land, who were 
present at the hotel at Bournemouth to welcome my visit 
and hear my report of its capabilities,-^" I have no hesitation 
I in stating, as the conclusion of all my observations, notes, 
\ and experiments in every nook and comer of your di^nct, 
that no situation I have had occasion to examine along the 
entire south coast possesses so many capabilities of being 
made the very best invalid's sea- watering place in England. 
For you, Mr. Chairman, for Mr. Drax (the member). Sir 
George Jetvis of Christchurch, Messrs. Skittle, Sydenham, 
and others who have a personal interest in this question, 
my assertions will prove satisfactory, and the more accept- 
able because founded on tilith. I see present^ my friend, 
the clever editor and proprietor also, I believe, at all events 
the clever writer of the ' Salisbury Herald,' Mr. Halpin. 
To him will belong the pleasing task of giving publicity 
to the professional judgment I have this evening ex- 
pressed ; the more satisfactory to him as he was the 
one to suggest to the owners of the property the mea- 
sure you adopted for ascertaining the real worth of your 

"I look upon Bournemouth and its yet unformed colony as 
a perfect discovery, not only as a sea-bathing place, but, 
what is of more importance, as a winter residence for the 
most delicate constitutions requiring a warm afid sheltered 
locality at this season of the year. As such I hold it 
superior to Bonchurch, St. Lawrence, or Ventnor in the -Isle 
of Wight. Although situated ten miles less to the south 
than the extreme coast line of that island, Bournemouth has 



the stiperioi' advantage of being as many and more tniles to 
the westward, which make amends for the trifling difference 
in regard to its southern position. But the Bourne has 
other claims of superiority over Ventnor^ being in the centre 
of a beautiful curTilinear sweep of the coast (which should 
be called Bourne Bay, and not Poole Bay), the two extreme 
points or ends of which, equidistant from the Bourne^ serve 
to protect the latter place from the direct influence df the 
two most objectionable winds that blow. But above all is 
Bournemouth superior to the Isle of Wight from its entire 
exposure to the south in a position protected from all easterly 

" I hardly need totich upon its superiority as & bathing- 
place, should you or youf visitors be inclined to turn it 
into one, as the isftnds and the form of the beach generally 
are better than in the majority of sea-bathing places on the 
neighbouring coasts. It is as an inland and sheltered haven 
for the most delicate invalids that I would call your special 
attention to the great capabilities of Bourneniouth, for you 
would look in vain elsewhere for that singular advantage 
which is here presented to Us, of two consolidated banks of 
sandy cliflfs clothed with the verdure (like those of the 
Black Forest) of pine trees, planted here twenty-five years . 
ago by a provident landowner, running inland from the sea, 
with a smiling vale between them watered by a rapid brook, 
the Bourne — which divides them just enough to allow of 
complete ventilation, with sufficient coolness during the 
summer months, yet afibrding sheltered spots for the erection 
of residences, not only^ for convalescents free from positive 
disease, but for patients also in the most delicate state of 
health with reference to chest complaints. For this special 
class of invalids, . the many glens which run across the 
western cUfl*, and which I pointed out to one of your 
architects, afibrd beautiful retreats, surrounded by balmy / 












and almost medidinstl entansttioiis iroiri the fir plantations, 
which are found so beneficial in all casesx 

" In fdct, gentlemen/' 1 went on to remark^ '^ you have a 
spot here which you may convert into a perfect blessing for 
those among the wealthy who are sorely afflicted with 
disease, and who do not like to teat* themselves from home 
to go in search of distant foreign salutary climates. I have 
pointed out to you in the course of our rambles all that 
is requisite to be done to make the place perfect, and it will 
be your own fault if Bournemouth does not soon become an 
object of attraction and admiration/' 

It was not likely that I should patt with my attentive 
audience without giving them some wholesome advice as to 
the manner of disposing of their promising possession, and 
therefore I added in conclusion : " You must take care not 
to commit the blunders that have been committed in many 
other of our sea-bathing places. You must riot let in 
strangers, speculators m bricks and mortar, or contractors, 
to erect long streets of inferior lodging-houses, with 
' parades,' * crescents/ dnd ' terraces ' interminable, with all 
the dwellings facing the roaring sea, and confronting every 
severe gale that makes the window frames of a poor invalid's 
bedroom rattle by night as well as by day^ and shakes his 
own frame. in bed also. The laws of climate, of locality, of 
aspect for houses, of site, and for arrangement, have hitherto 
been overlooked, neglected, and misunderstood in this 
country. My own experience, abroad as well as at home, 
has enabled me to lay down certain principles on all those 
important points, which can only lead to success by pro- 
ducing satisfaction. Those points I have explained to you 
and to the gentlemen surveyors who were good enough to 
accompany me in my examination, to whom I showed how 
they may be made applicable to Bournemouth in order to 
be triumphantly accomplished." 


This Speech was concluded on a snowy winter night over 
thirty years ago. Some of my hearers are still living ; the 
provincial papers, which reported the proceedings in full, 
are in existence ; they, and bettei* still, my present readers 
who may have visited, or heard of, or experienced the benefit 
of a residence at Bournemouth^ and the thousands besides 
that year after year have crowded that winter asylum and 
contributed to make it famous (though they may never read 
my present statement) ; — all such witnesses will testify that 
in this one striking instance, at all events, the author's 
work* has proved a source of public benefit, and so put me 
all right again with the " Belle " of the Grand Hotel at 

There is one talent which the writer of a long and diver- 
sified nan-ative of worldly occurrences possesses in common 
with a scene-shifter during the performance of some grand 
dramatic representation — I mean the art of varying by un- 
expected shifts and transformations the scene of the drama 
from gloom to cheerfulness or the reverse ; from a picture of 
distress to one of merriment ; from a dismal dungeon to 
resplendent halls of enjoyment. Such is my bent and course 
at this moment. I have given glimpses of the spas of 
England sufficient to show what they are intended to repre- 
sent, and what they are good for ; and we will now change 
the decoration and the scene by bringing the reader into the 
very centre of the spas of Germany, thus accomplishing to 
a moderate extent the duty of an autobiographer, of referring 
in turn to the several works he has published. I designedly 
say, referring, for to do more, or to enter into the nature 
and scope of such works would be on my part an absurd 
and gigantic pleonasm. A short preliminary deviation will 
be. permitted, to put me straight with my readers. More 

* ''The Spas of England, and Principal Sea-bathing Places." London, 


than once I have been charged with a capricious tendeiiciy 
or a restless lorp of change, both of country and home. I 
hear people say : " He has no sooner succeeded '' (beyond 
his deserts, the ill-natured ones will add) " in settling him- 
self-^an alien-^in this great metropolis as a respectable and 
respected physician, forming most enviable professional 
connections with some of the best families, than, disre- 
garding all personal considerations, oflf he starts, first to 
Italy^ then to Russia, next io Germany, and we know not 
how many times to France; besides running through the 
whole. length and breadth of England, leaving behind him, 
to take care of themselves as best they may, the people who 
relied on him in case of illness." 

Thus plainly put, the proposition is against me, and in- 
volves a merited condemnation, for which reason I deem it 
a duty to notice it. I am not so indifferent to public opinion 
as not to feel how important it is to my character not to 
* allow such an impression as conveyed above to pass un- 
noticed, still less unexplained, and I consider the present a 
suitable occasion for disposing of the charge by adequate 
explanations. For there are more narratives in store to 
come forward of flights through England and to foreign 
countries equally amenable to the aforesaid criticism, yet 
equally explicable and pardonable on the same grounds. 
And what are they ? In not a single instance but one of 
all 'my wanderings, subsequent to my final settlement in the 
capital in 1818 as a candidate for public patronage, have 
I absented myself for any but objects strictly professional. 
The exception was my visit to my own family in Milan, 
whom I had not seen for a period of sixteen years. 

By no other selfish purpose was the absence complained 
of occasioned when not positively summoned to attend a 
pressing case of illness in a distant foreign country or in 
any of the English counties far remote; my journeys 


in every case being either for the purpose of affording 
immediate succour to some ailing person, or of acquiripg 
a practical knowledge of the many meaps for improving 
the health of my patients, and finally to cure thejn, 
by methods or agents that could only be obtained 
away from London, or even away from England, To thep© 
results I had committed my reputation as a medical map 
when I recommended as a treatment in many impprtapt 
cases of disease, the use of foreign baths and the dripking 
of mineral waters, either abroad or in this country, apd I 
proceeded to the one or to the other to witness the working 
of my own recommendation, to assist by my own super- 
vision when possible or required, and by suggestions cal-, 
culated to make the recommended treatment perfectly 
successful, and so hasten the desired.-consummation. Wh^n 
the straightforward account I am about to commit to the 
world of my ups and downs of life shall have been read, it 
'will be admitted that the whole course of my professional 
career has been an uninterrupted study for the adv^^ntage 
of such persons as had trusted themselves to my car^, even 
while I was absent. I have already mentioned what share 
I had in bringing into notice one of the miper^^l springs in . 
Germany, which has since become one of the most fre- 
quented and famous, not on account of any of those 
attributes which have made and still sustain the popularity 
of Baden Baden and Homburg, for at Kissingen (the spring 
I refer to) there are no such temptations. The fame of 
Kissingen stands on the well-established fact, that the 
many maladies to which the weaker sex ar^ liable find 
their relief and cure. I am not afraid of being suspected 
of puflfing, but I am desirous, as one who has intimately 
studied the branch of the profession which relates 
especially to the female portion of the creation, to 
let it be known as pay cppvictjop before I quit this 


earthly scene, as J have already left the professional 
cq^Urng, that with the assistance of the internal use 
of thp powerftjl lUgoiji, jwdicjously ^administered with 
baths of Pandur (alone or mixed with a third spring called 
the Soolei^), with the application in the form of a bath of 
carbonic acid, to ba had in abundance, and lastly with the 
plunging for two or three n^iijutes into the Wellenbad (one 
of the most powerful restoratives of nervpus energy I am 
acquainted with) ; I s^y that with such aids, either partially 
or generally resorted to, there is no defect or f«,ilure or 
morbid condition in the fenjale system, married or single, 
that has not given way or been put to rights to the lull of 
my knowledge and experience. 

It has been a frequent source of satisfaction in my old 
age to run down the long list pf this class of patients I 
have had the happiness to restore to health. This assertion 
I am confident will meet many assenting nods of confirma- 
tion from my fair readers. In the very outset of my career 
as a medical hydrographer, I brought the Spa of Kissingen 
fully before the profession and the public. After watching 
the efiects of the various springs to be found in this highly 
favoured place in a great variety of complaints for the space 
of six seasons in succession, upon a large number of cases 
recommended by myself and by such of my brother prac- 
titioners as had taken pains to make themselves acquainted 
with the subject, it wq-s natural that I should not only 
publish in the little volume on Kissingen** the result of 
my observations, but continue to patronize and recommend 
the spa in all suitable cases. The bare inspection of my 
medical register would satisfy the most incredulous of the 
utility of mineral waters, and they would be surprised at 
the wonderful regularity with which happy results followed 
the proper employment of the various mineral resources of 

* <' Eissingen ; its Soiuces and Eesomces," London, 1846. 


Kissingen. The lists of the compUintg cured ippliida many 
of that proteoform class which are commonly denominftted 
nervous. It would be g^n easy task to quote letters from 
grateful patients testifying by personal experienpe the truth 
of what has been advanced, but J consider such a pleasure 
both superfluous and inexpedient. 

Whep a watering-place kuowu in 1836 to only a few 
natives of the coimtry in which it lies, as was the cape at 
my first visit to Kissingen, becomes in the courpe of a few 
years the rpndezvous of sovereign princes and branches of 
royal families from different part? of Europe, and even from 
beyond peas ; when we find gathering at thip same place 
hundreds of the aristocracy qf Bussia, France, Germany, 
Italy, and England, and not a few of the notabilities in 
science, literature, and the arts, together with remarkable 
military and diplomatic pharacters, all pf them equally 
anxious to adopt and strictly to follow the same plan of 
water treatment for the space of four or five weeks ; we 
may jnstly conclude that the mineral springs of the place 
are bon4jlde remedies for diseases not otherwise curable, 
and are the motive which brings together suph an assem- 
blage of invalids at the new favourite ^pa pf Bavaria. 

From the year 1840 1 hac} been in the practice of attending 
at this spa for the space of about three of the summer 
months in every year, down to 1868, keeping a strict ac- 
count of all the patients I attended, of their different ailments, 
progress, and the ultimate result. Jn the course of that 
time thirty-two thousand patients attended the spa from all 
parts of Europe and iVnierica, apcprding to the official list 
(Kurliste) published dajly. Of that number, about one- 
sixth part were English; tjjat ip, five thousand four hundred 
belonged to that natiop, and were principally attended by 
myself. This number of patients, it may be supposed, 
afforded me ample opportunity to test the virtue of the 





several springs (there being four essentially different). The 
history of their cages being carefully recorded by daily 
obseryatioi^s, were after ^ach season collated, and the names, 
as well as that of their complaints, indexed, so that to this 
day I caQ refer to any individual case I treated, apd how 
many of thena successfully, during the pepod here ^.Uuded 
to. Their histories fill twenty-three thick volumes of the 
same form of n^y volume descriptive of I^issiugen, of about 
four hundred pages. My brethren will admjt, I am certain, 
that with such data it was a plain professional duty on my 
v part to communicate so much knowledge to the profession, 
I should think it unnecessary to proceed ii^ the game 
course of reflection with regard to Gq,stein, were it not 
that propriety prompts me to refer ^o the nanic of an 
individual eminent ii) his career, who has, in. the most 
direct and distinct manner, benefited to the extent pf ob- 
taining a complete cure by the use of that bath. My 
readers will ^ot have forgotten "My dear, (J^ar Sidney'* 
of Wilton House, on the memorable night of the 2^nd of 
February, 1822. Dear little Sidney was in 1336 a big as 
well as a great man, and a minister to boot. li\ the midst 
of incessant applicatioij and work his health had given way, 
and I had had frequent visits from hinj in the morning (as 
we, were living iq^ the same street) on account of his health. 
What still remained after a recovery from a positive attack 
of illness was a total prostration of the nervous system, 
meaning by this term that d^bile condition of his physical 
nerves, as the late Dr. Baillie used to call them, in contra- 
distinction to fancy nerves. And this state of Mr. Sidney 
Herbert, I promised him, his mother, and his sisters, would 
be completely and absolutely remedied by the cautious use 
of the bath of Gastein. Some, if not all, of those sisters 
are, I hope, still alive to attest the truth of what I assert, 
and the country at large fully knows, and must remember, 


what 'excellent use my lamented friend made of his restored 
health in the service of the people he loved so well. I 
promised Lady Pembroke to time a second visit I in- 
tended to pay to Gastein with that of her son, so as to 
enable me to superintend for the first days the application 
of that powerful water, that he might avoid the danger of 
any attack in the head, to which I had exposed myself 
inconsiderately in the first personal experiment I had made 
with the bath, the strength of which water is really for 
midable. However, *^Dear Sidney" was restored, with 
the full use of his firm limbs, which enabled him to ramble 
about those Alpine recesses and take a sketch of Gastein, 
which I made use of with his permission as an illustra- 
tion for my chapter on Gastein, my account of which 1 may 
specially and confidently recommend to my professional 

These several illustrations of the worth of mineral waters 
may fairly be referred to by the author of " The Spas of 
Germany,'* as proofs of the desire he has ever experienced 
when employing his pen of being useful to the myriads of 
his fellow-creatures, by detailing the many and often singular 
methods by which Providence brings about such a blessed 
result. How right, then, it was that in thankfulness for so 
many blessings every year being presented before me, I 
should have appealed to those patients who enjoyed them, 
to aid me in erecting a suitable house of prayer — a church, 
in fact, for divine worship according to Anglican rites, which 
I found celebrated in a stable loft when I first visited Kissin- 
gen in 1836 ! The appeal was not made in vain : a handsome 
and commodious edifice has since risen, duly consecrated, 
in which divine service has been since celebrated twice each 
Sunday, from the commencement of June to the 15th of 
September, supported by voluntary contributions and 
donations. The entire cost of the building and appur- 




tenances being paid and any debt extinguished previously 
to my relinquishing Kissingen, the sacred trust was com- 
mitted to the Colonial and Continental Church Society, whose 
zeal and continued exertions in successfully promoting mea- 
sures for religious worship among English communities in 
foreign lands are well known. That I have humbly contri- 
buted to the spiritual as well as to the bodily benefit of my 
patients who visit Kissingen, will ever form a pleasing 
recollection, which will follow me to my grave. 

To an indifferent spectator, not a sufferer himself from 
any formidable disease, a day in Kissingen presents him 
with a spectacle more impressive than the most showy 
dramatic procession. I may commence by saying that it is 
almost always fair weather in Kissingen during the months 
of what is called the " Kur." The blessed sun is the great 
helper in such matters, and no sooner have its rays tipped 
with gold the verdant hills on either side of the valley, 
through which flows the sluggish Saal, and in which the 
springs are found, than an alarum from a band of 
brazen. instruments awakens both the sound and the un- 
sound inhabitants to rise, and for the latter to repair at 
once to the fountain of health. Two of these, the principal 
springs, the Pandur and the Ragozi, are quaffed in goblets 
holding each about four ounces of water, either at its 
natural temperature of 45** Fahr., exceedingly pleasant to 
the taste and refreshing from its effervescence, or warmed 
slightly by dipping the glass for a couple of minutes into a 
copper basin of water kept ever on the boil for that 
purpose on the spot. But for any further description or 
instruction I must refer my readers to the volume already 
mentioned, as I do not feel disposed to go over the same 
ground again. 

It is a local fashion, or rather the habit of the German 
\ physicians authorized to practise in the place, to plant 




themselves under and against some particular tree dose to 
the pavilion (due to the liberality of King Ludwig) under 
which the two principal springs are situated. This tree, 
henceforth sacred to the man who chose it, marks the spot 
where they listen to all such of their patients who choose 
to consult them on his or her malady. The applicants are' 
speedily dismissed with their laconic instructions, and thus 
a long file of them are to be observed going up to the 
oracle, whisper a few words, answer two or three questions, 
and being dismissed for another and yet another waiting 
in their turn to go through a like ceremony. The farce is 
suflBciently ludicrous : that it can be of any use to either 
party except the doctor, may be readily conjectured from / 
the fact that the pulse is never felt nor the state of the / 
.w^'Tjjongue ever inspected, for in truth what lady patient, ' 
^^"*^" though she be a German, would open wide her mouth \ 
'^ sub divo and exhibit its interior ? J 

I suppose that my brethren of the Alemannic race would 
refer me for an explanation of their mode of consultation 
to the primitive ages of gastrology, in the times of good , 
Hippocrates and Galen, when patients placed themselves 
in front of their own dwellings and waited for the passing 
of the great healer, who inquired into and prescribed for 
the case. A much more selfish feeling guides the German. 
He has only to pay his medical counsellor once for all at 
the end of the treatment, and may in the mean time go up 
to the oracular tree to interrogate its deity as many times 
as he pleases, albeit he is often dismissed with only two 
words and very little comfort. 

I adopted a very different practice. Each of my patients 
was visited every day at home. His symptoms and con- 
dition noted down in a little day-book left with the patient, 
in which the kind of water to be drunk, and the quantity, 
the baths to take, and their temperature, and many other 

A A 2 





•• .' 


particulars respecting the pulse, state of the tongue, &c., 
were registered, and this day-book I carried away home 
when patient and physician parted company at the con- 
clusion of the season. As each book began with a brief 
description of the case as it appeared at first sight, written 
in Latin, I had little apprehension of doing harm to the 
patients by enlightening them too much on the nature of 
their ailments, whilst to myself a collection of such records 
has proved of much interest and advantage in a professional 
point of view. But such a raiio medendi could only extend 
to etbout twenty or five-and-twenty patients daily, and that 
number I was able to visit each day by having my own 
carriage, which I brought with me from England, when I 
found the distances rendered it an absolute necessity. 

It would be only repeating myself were I here to give 
a description of the scene which presents itself to the eye 
at six o'clock A.M., the first hour at which patients are 
expected to attend. " Le spectacle," as a Frenchman would 
say, " qui s'ofire k un stranger,'' is one of the most interest- 
ing we can imagine. The grand pavilion, the alleys, the 
colonnade, parterre, which were an hour before in the still- 
ness of the grave, now resound with the Babel-buzz of many 
tongues, scarcely drowned by the harmonious resonance of 
the orchestral instruments close at hand. It is a scene full of 
interest, for here some hundred individuals, leaving behind 
home comforts and probably home afiections, seek relief 
from bodily sufferings by going through the same process 
they see hundreds of other fellow-sufferers do, with an 
earnestness and precision that bespeak their faith in the 
remedial efficacy of the measures they are adopting. And 
what encouragement, in truth, is it not to an invalid to 
behold many who were as ailing as himself when they 
arrived, and perhaps worse, getting now gradually and daily 
better ! and to others who associate or group together day 

DR. GRIMM. 357 

by day at the wells^ to talk over their own case, to be able A 
to form comparisons between their own and other people's I 
cases, deriving comfort in consequence ! Speaking pro- 
fessionally, I assert that this daily operation of the mind V 
among a congregated mass of well-educated persons labour- / 
ing under chronic or recent functional ailments, is calculated 
to, and does, produce wonderful sanative effects. Nor is 
another of the peculiarities of this mode of treating maladies 
less useful or encouraging in the way of obtaining successful 
results ; I allude to the knowledge of the fact that many 
among the nameless crowd are persons of high standing in 
society by rank, learning, and talent ; persons not likely to 
be easily swayed by mere fanciful appreciation of fashion- 
able doctrines or prejudices. Such a fact itself forms an 
additional encouragement to faith in the virtues of the 
mineral water treatment. HenceJ I hold the distribution 
of a list of arrivals of new visitors, setting forth their 
rank and profession, which takes place early every morning 
at the springs and promenade, to be productive of a good 
effect, besides supplying a fund of curious, amusing, and 
often interesting information. 

Doctor Grimm, an eminent physician connected with the 
Berlin court, was present at Kissingen in 1854, when we 
had occasion to converse on these metaphysical considera- 
tions connected with the treatment of disease by mineral 
waters. We were sitting in a long line of patients resting 
on chairs for a while (against their doctors' orders), and 
noticing particularly the people as they went by. I had 
the " Kurliste " of the day in my hand. Dr. Grimm, himself 
a Prussian, had I might fancy his " Almanach de Gotha " 
by heart. Thus informed, we watched and scanned the 
most notable of the persons as they marshalled up and 
down before us. They had each their particular history, 
but I cared not to keep it in remembrance. 


" But now look there," said Dr. Grimm. '* Here comes 
one who, if I am not mistaken, will in a few years hence 
become a very influential character in Austrian political 
questions ; whether for good or for evil depending on the 
mind and calibre of whoever it will be his destiny to 
encounter during his career of a state, minister. We have 
his name here inserted," and Grimm read to me, " Seine 
Excellenz Herr Graf von Hohenthal, Koniglicher Sachsischer 
Wirklicher geheimrath, ausserordentlicher Ges3,ndter und 
bevollmachtigter Minister am Koniglichen Preussischen 

" By-the-by," I said to Dr. Ghrimm, "this reminds .me of 
a gentleman and his wife of the name of Beust from 
Dresden, whom I attended last year at the H6tel Bellevue. 
Mr. or Baron Beust was said to be Minister of Public 
Works in Dresden, and to have an elder brother prime 
minister of Saxony." 

'* Quite correct," said Grimm. " We consider him in 
Germany a statesman equal to Mettemich, and his Saxon 
countrymen look upon him as a man of first-rate genius 
entirely lost at the petty court of Saxony. For such a 
mind a vaster field is needed to expand and work out his 

" I am inclined to believe you, for I remember what the 
sister-in-law, Baronne Beust, used to tell me. She herself 
appeared a most interesting person, as much endowed with 
intellectual accomplishments as she was gifted with natural 
charms, and she looked forward to a great destiny for her 
relative." Looking to the political affairs of the Austro- 
Hungarian empire within the last few years, the pre- 
sentiment of the fair baroness has become a matter of 

My friend Dr. Grimm was Leibarzt seiner Majestat des 
Konigs von Preus^en, General Stabsarzt der armee und 


geheimer ober Medicinalrath. He was a hale man of 
about forty years of age, and likely to live as many more. 
Yet I doubt whether he looked forward to paying another 
visit to Kissingen twelve years later, under circumstances 
very different from the peaceful scene we were now survey- 
ing together. We never dreamt of the great battle of , 
1866, when his valuable services would be put in requisition. ^ 
The good doctor's acquaintance with the English language 
was such as to make our discourse a matter of difficulty, 
and he preferred the French language, " the common 
idiom," as he called it, " of travellers.'' We therefore had 
frequent recourse to it, as in the present instance when I 
quitted him, saying, " Ah, voil^ la Princesse Esterhazy qui 
descend de sa barouche," and I proceeded to meet the 
princess, who went through the usual doses, walking the 
while, in which latter exercise- I escorted her but a 
short time, her highness being presently surrounded by 
numerous friends, admirers, and relatives, for her arrival 
had been duly recorded in the " Kurliste " of the day — 
Prinzessin Esterhazy, n6e Louise Grafin Almasy, ambassa- 
drice," &c. 

Our acquaintance had commenced in London under some 
ridiculous misunderstanding, arising from a supposed per- 
sonal likeness in me to her husband, which some pretended 
was really striking (with the exception of a glass eye), a 
likeness, by-the-by, which had caused me some droll vexa- 
tions in London. On subsequent occasions, however, my 
personal acquaintance with the prince became direct and. 
official, he having had the commission of remitting to me 
in the name of his sovereign, Ferdinand, an enamelled clasp 
with a large letter F in brilliants on a blue ground, to be 
worn on the left breast. With the princess herself our 
summer acquaintance ended in a letter from her in reply to 
one or two from myself, occasioned by some contretemps 


that supervened in the transmission of some petits souvenirs 
sent by the ambassador's messenger, or by private hands, 
in both which instances we were equally disappointed. 
Here is her letter : — 

" Vienne, ce 12 Aoiit. 

"II me fiit impossible, cher M. le docteur, de r^pondre 
plutSt k vos deux aimables lettres, et je laisse a votre 
amour propre la croyance que je fus bien contraride par 
mon silence. II se trouvait d^j^ au commencement de 
rhiver une lettre pour vous en route, mais mon ambas- 
sadeur Tavait port^e pas plus loin que Ratisbonne, tout 
au plus k Nuremberg, ce que les gazettes vous auront 
appris, car le Prince Esterhazy me rapporte la lettre k 
Vienne avec la malheureuse croix bris^e en pieces. A 
mon retour k Vienne j'ai trouv6 le petit paquet que vous 
avez eu la bont^ de m'envoyer par la Chancellerie de TEtat ; 
mais il est d^cid^ que je ne dois pas porter une croix 
Anglaise, car je J'ai trouv^ bris^e en huit pieces. Le coeur 
Anglais me resta seul et en entier. Je voulais done vous 
envoyer une seconde fois la croix, mais il fallait qu'un 
ambassadeur devienne malade dans notre qapitale pour 
entraver encore une fois mon intention. Malgr^ tons ces 
contretemps je vous remercie infiniment de votre com- 
plaisance, et j'esp^re que j'aurais Toccasion de vous remercier 
moi-m§me au courant de cet ^t^ k Kissingen, ou je compte de 
me rendre au commencement du mois de Juillet. Venez-y 
et envoyer d'aimable Anglaises et Anglais. Adieu, dans 
Tespoir d' avoir le plaisir de vous revoir. 

" Louise C^*^=- Almazy." 



Tlie Britiflii Association at Newcastle — Miss Martineaii — Sir John Bowring 
visits the Continent at great cost to goveniment — The Duke of Korth- 
umberland at Alnwick — An epidemic in London — Lord Palmerston 
again a sufferer — His sanctum at the Foreign Office — Sketch of his 
character— The Italian Question — Letter to Charles Albett 

Two periods in the year 1838 deserve to be noticed, as 
full of personal interest, not unmingled with much that 
refers to public advantage. The season for visiting the 
British Association for the Advancement of Science, of which 
I was a life member, and which was to meet in August in 
its migration at Newcastle, had arrived, and a most agree- 
able arrangement had been made of reaching that destina- 
tion by a large steamer named the Ocean^ which was lying 
conveniently at a wharf at Blackwall. We embarked and 
steamed off on Friday the 1 7th of August. It was perhaps 
the first argosy rich with an intellectual freight tliat ever left 
that almost unknown littoral, for therein were assembled the 
heads of the different sections of the Association, celebrated 
professors and members of every learned society in England, 
including not a few of the dons and square caps of Oxford 
and Cambridge. The principal saloon was crammed. I heard 
the name of Martineau mentioned ; and on the table lay her 
recent " Society in America." I directed my attention to a 
part of the saloon where a party were taking their break- 
fast, and amongst them I beheld the fair authoress herself 
much f&ted, though the otlner works which were to cast a 


greater 6cl(it on her name in subsequent years had not yet 
seen the day nor thrown a new light on poUtical economy. 

At a luncheon given by Mr. Greenhow, the geologist, 
Miss Martineau being among the guests, I had the 
advantage of being introduced to the gifted authoress, 
an introduction that naturally led to interesting conversa- 
tions on subjects which my own early travels suggested, 
and which she mentioned it was hei* great desire and 
intention to perform at no distant period. It is surprising 
(some say not) how quickly and sympathetically this com- 
munion between a man made wise by age and experience 
and this highly-gifted maid of Norwich was brought about. 
I esteem this fortuitous meeting with Miss Martineau as a 
good fortune. It certainly made the passage from London 
to Newcastle very pleasant, and placed us on a footing as 
if we had been acquainted for years. We have never met 
since ! I do not think I can accuse myselt of having 
adopted laudatory language in speaking favourably of 
this clever Englishwoman, because she had herself com- 
menced our acquaintance by a very flattering opinion she 
expressed to me and others on a work I had very 
recently published respecting Germany, a country Miss 
Martineau said she was " very anxious to visit, as Madame 
de Stael had done," whose memory Miss Martineau seemed 
to me to revere to an almost superstitious degree. 

During the different meetings of particular sections of the 
Association, I took a slight part in their transactions and 
diverse academical labours and investigations whenever 
they offef ed any temptation, either on account of the subject 
matter treated, or in view of listening to some eminent 
reader or speaker. My business was with the medical 
section, and in it I took my part most earnestly, and I fear 
in some degree perhaps in a manner chargeable with a 
fractious and touchy disposition in my address, having 



thereby contributed, no doubt with many more testy 
speakers, Scots and Northumbrians, especially in having 
brought about that state of oratorical bewilderment both in 
the section itself and (by adjournment) at the general 
meeting also, which led to the entire suppression of the 
medical section from the original scheme of the British 
Association. But how could a physician (for example) of 
age and experience be expected to listen unmoved to 
medical rhapsodies uttered in public with unabashed teme- 
rity, and not refute them ? Such was the case in one 
instance as regards my encounter with a savant and M.P., 
which, while it lasted, was a fierce one, albeit it never / 
interrupted the respect and esteem the two litigants enter-* • 
, tained for one another. Sir John Bowring had just returned 
from the Levant, and a certain return called for by Parlia- 
ment had just informed the world that he had received a 
consideration from one of the principal branches of the 
government, to the amount of some thousand pounds, for 
visiting Syria, Turkey, and other parts, as well as for 
looking into the public accounts of France and Belgium. 
What must have been my astonishment to hear Sir John 
(thus qualified) at one of our meetings, 24th of August, 
1838, in the medical section, utter such expressions as 
these : " that the doctrine of contagion in plague was an 
illusion to be laughed at," while the existing European 
records of recent date had almost overwhelmed us with 
contrary evidence ? 

Sir John had brought me a letter of introduction from 
my good friend Angeloni, the Italian litteraie and staunch 
advocate of Italian independence, then residing in Paris. It 
were useless to reiterate all the arguments, or to recall the 
many examples of destructive plague introduced into several 
districts. of Europe, owing to the relaxation or absence of 
quarantine laws. The latest melancholy reports laid before 


government respecting Noia, Malta^ Cephalonia, and of sdttie 
of the lazarettes of the Mediten*anean ports were quoted in 
vain. Neither did all the official documents corroborating 
my assertions appear to be of any avail. ** Had not Sir 
John" (asked his supporters) "travelled in Turkey and 
Syria, &c., by order of Lord Palmerston, to collect evidence 
and all requisite information, for which the public had paid 
suitable compensation on the recommendation of the Right 
Hon; the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs ? " 

In the face of all these observations directed at me, what 
other line of debate could I have adopted but to urge my 
opponent to make use of more substantial ai'guments, and to 
oppose facts to facts, such as I had alleged, in the room of 
mere idle declamation or of other matters foreign to our 
discourse. Our warmly-contested discussion did not con- 
clude with the adoption of any positive resolution by the 
section, but served to revive at the distance of a few years 
later the identical question in the House of Commons, 
much in the same way or spirit it had been conducted at 
Newcastle, although it terminated more consistently with 
truth and for the interest of that very national trade which 
injudicious people were nearly destroying utterly by con- 
signing England to the list of infected nations. 

The attendance at Newcastle was not " all work and no 
play,'' neither was it the converse, as some captious auto- 
crat from Printing-House Square took pains to make its 
readers believe in the spirited columns of the leading 
journal. The nobility and gentry of the neighbouring coun- 
ties and the neighbourhood of Newcastle itself dealt out 
their unstinted and gracious hospitality to the strange 
visitors, making them welcome within their own cheerful 
and well-appointed mansions. His Grace of Northumber- 
land, at his princely castle of Alnwick, led the way. The 
Earl and Countess Tankerville were not backward in 


afFording to the southern savants curious in natural history 
an opportunity of observing, as closely as it was safe to do 
so, and from under a most hospitable roof, the still sur- 
viving v^ild bulls which have added celebrity to Chilling- 
ham ; while Lord Ravensworth, a nearer neighbour, received 
his guests all day and entertained them with a Jete cham^ 
petre in his enchanting grounds at Ravensworth Castle. 

To the gentry no member of the Association had greater 
reason to be gi^ateful for acts of politeness and good offices 
than myself, who was received by the charming family of 
the Brandlings at Low Gosforth, close to Newcastle, yet 
away from its smoke and noise. More than one member of 
that agreeable family may svrvive to peruse this acknow- 
ledgment of their kindness and attention to the writer, who 
at their table had the good fortune to dine by the side ot 
the great Scotch Teniers, David Wilkie, who, with Sir 
Thomas Brisbane, Edheim Bey, Andrew Combe, and other 
notabilities, often adorned the cheerful and animated circle 
round the Brandling table. 

An invitation to dine at Alnwick Castle was turned into 
a s4jour of three days at the suggestion of the duchess, 
joined to the very tempting offer of Lord Prudhoe, who had 
just returned from Egypt, to exhibit before me a fine collec- 
tion of interesting antiquities, including specimens of mum- 
mies, which he had displayed in a series of rooms on the 
ground-floor of a colonuade on one side of the Cour des 
Princes^ or principal court of the castle, where one beheld 
two feudal pieces of ordnance standing one on each side of 
the entrance into the vestibule and great staircase. 

Both at the meetings of the Association and at his own 
table the duke had conversed seriously with me concerning 
agricultural science, His Grace being a model farmer, whilst 
I, since the scheme of the Martin's Thames Improvement 
Company, had paid much and varied attention to the com- 


position of manures, as described in some of my writings. 
On this account the duke submitted that I was bound to 
remain at Alnwick a short time longer, that he might drive 
me round to his farms, and show me how he had engaged 
his attention on agricultural matters. This was accordingly 
done on the 22nd of August, 1838. An open phaeton, with 
a pair of smart horses driven by the duke himself, attended 
by his " Master of the Horse " and two grooms, took us 
round twelve miles of a walled enceinte inclosing several 
farms and a vast domain in the highest state of cultivation. 

In the act of explaining to me some of the particulars of 
one or two of his model farms, I had occasion to allude to a 
"Petition" I had very recently circulated for subscribers' 
names, addressed to the general committee of the Asso- 
ciation for establishing an agricultural section in the society. 
The idea struck His Grace as a very appropriate and neces- 
sary measure, and his name was therewith added to the 
petition, which I generally carried about in my pocket. 
His name was followed by one hundred other names, and 
the petition for the creation of a new section for agricultural 
science was deposited by me with one of the local secre- 
taries the day after. 

It was rather a curious coincidence that Her Grace the 
Duchess, whose guest I thus found myself to be, had been 
among the first distinguished patients I was called upon to 
visit with the celebrated physician and anatomist. Doctor 
Matthew Baillie. 

It was about the middle of the year 1838 that my inter- 
course with Lord Palmerston recommenced, during a 
strange eruptive epidemic rife among the better classes of 
society in London. There had been some cases among 
well-known and distinguished persons that had proved 
fatal, so that people began rather to quake when any of 
their friends became attacked. Lord Palmerston, who had 


enjoyed the best oT health since the cholera up to the 17th of 
June, 1838, requested my attendance at the Foreign OfiBce 
on that morning, and received me in his sanctum sanctorum 
— I mean his own innermost bureau in that retired part of 
his office which looked over the park, and in which he used 
to shut himself up in front of a tall standing desk daily 
to read more attentively the despatches or official papers he 
had received and opened in his own spacious receiving- 
room. Here, in this contracted and innermost sanctum^ he 
wrote all his replies and notes, never sitting down to do it ; 
and upon this high four-legged desk I had to indite my 
brief prescriptions or directions. There was a little settee 
in one comer, and a single chair by its side, so that two 
people might rest if required, but I would defy any third 
person to find room in this vrai cabinet. 

" You do not enjoy a very large proportion of pure air, 
my lord, in this snug box," I said. 

" No ; I get that in the morning early, when I take a 
ride round the park, enough to last me for the day. I can- 
not write in a large room, it prevents me reflecting, and as 
I never require an amanuensis, but send all my brouzllons 
to the .under-secretaries to get them copied by clerks, my 
little snuggery here I find quite sufficient. No foreign 
minister or other applicant of any sort is admitted within 
these four walls. Possibly you will have to see me again 
more than once. Mine, mdeed, is more of a surgical than 
a medical case, for which reason I rejoice that you combine 
so well the character of both branches of the profession. I 
do not care for the public knowing I am undergoing 
medical treatment, and therefore I have asked you to come 
to me here." 

My attendance continued daily from June to September, 
and had become at last tedious and disagreeable to both 
patient and doctor. I had pretty well exhausted all my 


chatty and desultory subjects, including those connected 
with science, physiology, and chemistry, of which Lord 
Palmerston, an old SlSve of the High School of Edinburgh, 
had imbibed much knowledge. I had no other subject left 
for a pleasing conversation with my patient, until at last 
his lordship entered into the consideration of some political 
questions, at which I had reason to rejoice, since it oifered 
me most propitiously a chance of divulging my views of the 
Italo-Austrian question, which was just -commencing to 
engage the attention of English statesmen and legislators 
with more or less judgment, yet with a scant amount of 
historical or statistical knowledge of Italian affairs, respect- 
ing which we were destined to read not long after so many 
extraordinary speeches from Brougham, Smythe, Disraeli, 
and sometimes even from Lord Palmerston himself. 

At length I was able to take my leave, as I considered 
him for the time quite cured, but with the promise that in 
the course of a week or two I would renew my visit to 
give him some general directions for the preservation of his 
health, and (I might have added, though I did not just 
then) " for giving satisfaction to your clerks in Downing- 
street, who grumble sadly that, your lordship keeps them 
for hours from their dinner two or three days in the 

With all the bantering way Lord Palmerston had, and 
his apparent readiness to enter into any humorous attempt 
to make light of what in reality was serious, his lordship 
had a remarkable and distinctive feature in his ostensible 
character, which at once served him to maintain that sort 
of insular and unapproachable position which precluded all 
possibility of establishing familiarity, or even mere domesti- 
. city. He thus kept himself aloof from all entanglement 
and compromise when the accredited diplomatic angler 
approached the official estuary of this Foreign Minister of 


State, to cast Lis hook into a pretended clear stream, 
his lordship suffered him to fondle with his line under 
water. Full play was allowed before the last jerk was 
given to the hook, which invariably returned to the morti- 
fied angler without either the bait (all swallowed) or the 
prize, leaving behind only aslight quiver oh the water, as 
if it were merely a smile. The fact is, that in all that 
Viscount Palmerston undertook to handle and carry to a 
conclusion satisfactory to himself, he considered his own 
judgment preferable to that of the best man, nor ivould 
anything make him deviate from it, though his resistance 
was so managed as never to be mistaken for mere 
obstinacy. ' 

To this peculiarity of character may be attributed more 
than one great failure in his , lordship's foreign policy. 
Carried into private life the same characteristic feature has 
produced disastrous results. Oae glorious opportunity of 
immortalizing his name Lord Palmerston liad had thrown in 
his way, by sharing in the bold and original device of an 
Italian state minister whom Sir Robert Peel, in addressing 
the House of Commons in June, 1861, considered to have 
been the most conspicuous statesman that ever directed the 
destiny of any nation on the Continent in the path of con- 
stitutional liberty. Lord Palmerston, ignoring, or affecting 
to ignore, the difiSculties and dangers which encircled the 
course of the great Italian minister, Cavour, questioned 
his policy, and censured his conduct. The magnificent 
scheme of the regeneration of twenty-five millions of long- 
enslaved Italians was too grand in my lord's conception, 
that it should be permitted to emanate from any other than 
his own brain. Hence all his friends in the House, 
whether liberal or indifferent, taking the hint from their 
leader, who had bestowed the damaging praise of a faint 
approbation on Sir Robert Peel's proposed commendation of 

VOL. II. - B B 




Cavour^s genius and sagacity, proceeded to abuse the 
Italian cause as it was proceeding steadily under the 
councils of that long-headed statesman and the troops of 
Charles Albert, the constitutional soverjeign of the north of 

He was " a treacherous and midnight assassin ; " " the 
Piedmontese robber ; '' '^ the violator of Austrian rights 
made sacred by old and solemn treaties ;" at the same time 
the Italians were declared to be incapable of enjoying poli- 
tical liberty ! Brougham, Smythe, e tutti quanti, joined in 
sneering at the great work going on, perfectly ignorant of 
Italian history, or perverting its pages for a pui-pose, as I 
demonstrated in my second letter addressed through the 
press to Viscount Palmerston.* 

However, the question was beyond the cavils of parlia- 
ment, hesitating ministers, or blundering politicians. A 
provincial government in my own native city had already 
broken the Austrian yoke, declared allegiance to Charles 
Albert as he was passing downwards into Italy and stopped 
at Pavia to receive a royal address. His Majesty declared 
that he was determined to conduct the military operations 
with the utmost activity until Italy was completely freed 
from the foreign yoke. And so Italy is. What a marvel- 
lous result! what other analogous example in ancient or 
modern times can history offer to our admiration, and how 
deeply and for all time to come will those born* in my 
fatherland declare themselves indebted to that Savoyard 
prince, who risked his whole to rescue us Italians from a 
jpng-enduring and shameful thraldom that had rendered 

• " The Italian Question : a Second Letter to Lord Palmerston, G.C.B., M.P., 
&c., witli a refutation of certain misrepresentations by Lord Brougham, Mr. 
Disraeli, and * The Quarterly Keview ' respecting the rights of Austria and the 
Lombardo Venetians," 1848. A former letter, addressed equally to Lord Pal- 
merston, was intitled ** On the Formation and Constitution of a Kingdom of 
Upper Italy." 1848. 



our name a political cypher, our country a geographical ex- 
pression, a mere accident, our own nationality a mere by- 
word for scholars, Artists, and antiquaries, unacknowledged 
as of any weight whatever in the political balance of Europe! 
But now there is a kingdom of Italy ! What green cloth 
shall again invite the heads of European puissances around 
it, to determine on the fate of any one other member of the 
European congress and throw aside or affect to take no 
account of the majesty of Italy ? Into hoW many combina- 
tions or alliances shall not my native land be asked or 
invited to enter henceforth with the influence, the weight, 
and the prestige of a first-rate ruling power ? She, poor, 
dear, beloved country, whose name we, her unfortunate 
-helots, were almost ashamed to pronounce! Oh, the 
glorious change ! Thanks to the Divine Disposer of worldly 
events, and next, to those staunch, inflexible, sharp-witted 
patriots who knew how to bring about those events which 
had been so often dreamt of but never attempted in serious J 

To Vincenzo Clioberti, a professor of the Turinese Uni ver - 
sity, and afterwards President of Council and .Minister for 
Foreign Affairs, appertains the glory of having first struck 
the right spark that was to fire the pent-up combustible. 
It is remarkable how quickly a group of earnest patriots 
who had determined to begin were able to bring about im- 
portant results. History will tell more in detail all the 
transactions through which the actual roots of the Italian 
kingdom were planted. 

In a mere record of my own doings in this world I need 
only refer briefly to those political transactions herein alluded 
to which were in connection with the glorious cause I took 
a part in, and in which I can justly exult. The very 


moment I learned that "La Societsi per la Confederazione 
Italiana " had been established, and that the opening of its 

B to 2 




first congress would take place on the 10th of October, I 
addressed a letter of adhesion to the president of the 
society. My letter, after other matters, called the atten- 
tion of the assembly to certain publications in England 
which have reference to Italy, especially in a publication by 
Mr. Whiteside, barrister, entitled " Italy in the Nineteenth 
Century,'' and also in the " Quarterly Review," which 
attaches much importance to the work. 

Matters went -on after the meeting of this assembly in a 
steady manner, until an actual constitution was set up and 
a house of deputies elected, who accepted an hereditary 
monarchy with responsible ministry in the royal family of 
Savoy, as I had all along advocated and maintained in 
every one of my public writings. 

That once accompUshed, it became me as a new subject 
of Charles Albert, from choice and free will, though not by 
born allegiance, to submit to the sovei-eign the expression 
of my adhesion, as I had done in the case of the spon- 
taneous popular assembly which had proclaimed the 
independence of my native country. I therefore addressed 
a first letter to his Majesty, placing myself entirely at his 
disposal, and when circumstances had called me again, a 
month later, to defend with my pen the rights of Italy to 
independence, not less than the just claim she had to choose 
her own sovereign, I did not hesitate to repel the pretended 
. arguments of certain false and ill-informed politicians " in 
England, by addressing to the English Minister for Foreign 
Affairs my second letter, a copy of which the Italian 
minister in London, Count de Revel, forwarded to Charles 
Albert, from whom, as well as from the president of the 
Parliament, I received appropriate acknowledgments and 

r owe it to myself in an affair of such weight and from 
which such important consequences have resulted, to leave 


a record of the language I considered it my duty to hold 
with the august personage whose political rights I was 
endeavouring to uphold as far as a private individual 
subject could with his pen. My following address to 
Charles Albert on this occasion, the original of which will 
be found in the Appendix, was more explicit : — 

" Sire, — By the courtesy of your majesty's minister, 
the Count de Revel, I had the honour of placing under 
your majesty's eyes about four weeks since the copy 
of a publication I had addressed to the Minister for 
Foreign Affairs in this country, Lord Palmerston, written 
in English, entitled, On the Formation of a Kingdom 
in Italy in the north,, under a constitutional monarch 
selected from your royal house. It is an old favourite 
project from my youth, which I have always had at 
heart and cherished, and on account of which I suffered 
not a little both under the French and Austrian system. 
The pamphlet in question had scarcely appeared, when 
most of the high-placed public men of England set up in 
arms against its principles and recommendations, some 
laughing at the idea of * Italian Independence,^ others 
scouting the notion of the Italians being capable of enjoying 
poUtical liberty ; most politicians contending that the rights 
of Austria to the territory they occupied in the peninsula 
was their own by hereditary and indefeasible law, not fit 
for mediation as proposed between the courts of Turin and 
Vienna. The complete ignorance that prevails in this 
country respecting the true nature and character of the 
Italians on the one hand, and the unceasing machinations of 
Prince Metternich to prop up the Austrian interest on the 
other hand, have tended to keep the English community in 
perfect ignorance as regards the Italian question. With a 
view to mar this species of plot against our rising fortune, 
and expose the errors disseminated by tricky orators and 


paid writers, and on the same occasion to demonstrate the 
right we possessed to a national independence, well merited 
indeed after the noble and arduous efforts due to your 
majesty, I addressed a second epistle to the same lord, a 
copy of which in its original language (which we are aware 
is well known to your majesty) has been forwarded to 
Minister Gioberti, who will probably agree with me that, 

, translated into Italian, the said pamphlet might offer some 

-advantage to the country. 

" May God lead your majesty on to a fortunate issue in 
the noble cause of Italy so wrorthily commenced, checked 
only for a moment, and now again smiling with promises of 
success. Once Lombardy delivered from the stranger, and 
the throne of your majesty, as the sovereign of a united 
kingdom planted in my native city of Milan as the capital, 
I shall hasten from the banks of the Thames to salute the 
national banner, to revisit my paternal Lares, and beg your 
majesty to accept me among the number of your subjects 

• who consider themselves happy to serve so good a king in 
such a great public cause. 

(Signed) " The Chevalier Auguste Bozzi-Granville.'^ * 

* I had before this been made Knight of St. Maurice, as well as of the 
Crown of Wurtemberg and of St. Michael of Bavaria, which latter entitles me 
and my descendants to the prefix of " von " or •* de ** before our name, which, 
however, I have never taken. 



A journey to Russia — Icebound — ^Reception by Prince TczemichefF — Society 
in St. Petersburg — A Russian christening — The Waterloo medal —Its 
acceptance by the Emperor^ and singular disappearance. 

In the midst of the movement and bustle which the 
intrusion of the Italian news and commotion had occasioned 
in my tranquil menage^ I had a hint given me that it was 
possible my presence on the Continent might soon be 
required on professional business, and that if I took a 
decidedly partisan side in political questions of such high 
interest I might be made to suffer personally, considering 
how unscrupulous and revengeful the foreign police were 
acting under superior orders. The hint was not thrown 
away, for it so happened that just about that time (we were 
then in the spring of the year 1849) I had received from 
the Princess Tczernicheff, the wife of the Russian Minister 
of War at St. Petersburg, a proposition for me to proceed 
to the Russian capital in order to attend her in the summer. 
To such an arrangement I could not have any possible 
^objection. With the Russian people my intercourse had 
always been of the most friendly kind, and Ay work on 
St. Petersburg had secured me their good-will. I had 
therefore only to look askance at the chancellerie of Prince 
Metternich and his myrmidons, and keep clear of his 
clutches. This, in the event of my deciding to accept 
any such engagement, was of no difficult accompKshment. 
I had only to choose the sea instead of a land line of com- 
munication with Russia. When, therefore, a dowm'ight 


proposition came from the princess, who was very pressing 
in her request, not concealing her apprehension of danger 
at her own situation, and when the prince himself, as well 
as their friends in England, joined in the solicitation, I 
yielded, and undertook to be in St. Petersburg at the 
appointed time, w^eather and wind permitting. The middle 
of June was the expected period, and for the occasion I had. 
the good fortune of securing the services of one of my best 
nurses, who has remained in the family ever since. 

The arrangement over the water I may say was of the 
easiest ; not so the one on this side, although I was happy 
in finding able substitutes in my profession to undertake the 
charge of ordinary patients, no engagement of the same sort 
existing on my list, I having for some time relinquished the 
active practice of that branch of my profession. A series 
of homely letters will best describe my voyage, which 
proved not uninteresting. They were addressed to my 
wife and youngest daughter Paulina, the only one of our 
children left to us, the others being grown up and scat- 
tered about the world. I sailed from Hull on Sunday, the 
6th of May. 

" At sea. Tuesday, 8th May, 1849. — My dearest Mary 
and Lina, — Not knowing whether we shall be admitted for 
a long stay at Copenhagen or not (as there appears to be 
some ill-feeling towards the English on the part of Denmark), 
and as they may subject us to the recently established 
quarantine in their ports on account of the cholera, I com- 
mence my letter while on our slow, slow way to that 
capital through a rough sea, and with the wind, which has 
been incessant, directly in our teeth; so, that instead of 
ten or twelve miles an hour, the utmost of our progress 
through the water is five and a half miles.' At this rate we 
shall not get to Copenhagen in a hurry. The weather is 
extremely fine overhead, the sun shining brightly. You 


may judge by my handwriting whether Tarn tossed u^ and 
down and fi'om one side to the other while I am inditing 
this letter, it being a matter of difficulty to write steadily or 
it all. All the passengers more or less, except three or 
four of us, have been ill all along, but especially on the 
first day, Sunday. The City of Aberdeen is a splendid ship 
for size and its accommodation, but she is a horrible sea 
boat, rolling and pitching ten million times more than our 
old Batavier. The effect on myself on Sunday was to make 
me heavy in the head, muzzy, and very sleepy. I did no- 
thing but sleep on a sofa, and it was all I could do to keep 
up and awake during prayers, which were read, and after 
them a sermon, very impressively by Captain Knocker, who 
is a lieutenant in the navy on half-pay. He and I were in 
the same English- fleet at the capture of the Russian fleet at 
Lisbon at the end of 1807, and went together at that time 
from the Tagus to Spithead, when I was promoted to a full 
•surgeon and soon after fell in love with a certain young 
lady who shall be nameless, with whom I have been well 
acquainted and happy ever since. Can you, Mary, re- 
member the circumstance ? The only passenger of any note 
on board is the gentleman whom you saw in the same^ 
carriage with me in the train, a most gentlemanly man, 
acquainted of course with all my acquaintances and many 
of my patients, being a brother of Mr. Cox of Hillingdon. 
We had a long chat together. What an appalling death 
that of Horace Twiss ! While you and I were standing on 
the platform together that morning, I held in my hands the 
dismal article in the journal which gave an account of that 
sudden disappearance of our friend. Such is hfe ! And how 
true it is that we ought, always to be prepared to quit it ! 

" 10th May : in the Kattegat. You Londoners can hardly 
form an idea of the serenity, beauty, and softness of the air 
we are enjoying at this moment, with a sea calm and blue 



as a sapphire, the sun warm ^md brilliant, though the wind 
is cold still. I feel invigorated already. . . . 6 p.m. 
We have just arrived safe, with splendid weather and in 
the best health, at Copenhagen, anchored opposite the 
Marine Promenade, which is full of beaux and belles staring 
at us. We remain the night, and probably to-morrow.'' 


From the same to the same. 

"Off Copenhagen. 11th May, 1849.— I broke off my 
letter suddenly last evening on our arrival before the 
capital, that I might avail myself of the opportunity of a 
Danish passenger going on shore immediately to post it, 
with the chance of its going off the same evening, so that 
it will reach you about the 15th — the very day we expect 
to reach St. Petersburg, that is, two days later than we 
calculated on reaching that place had not the wind been all 
along dead against us ; for although a steamer makes its 
way despite of wind and sea andj I may now add from 
experience, icebergs, its onward progress is much retarded 
when all those impeding elements are to be overcome. 
Copenhagen makes no show on the sea-side, especially at 
that part by which we approached it from the north. 
There are so many advanced batteries and fortified isles and 
wet docks which mark the city, that you might fancy your- 
self before any indifferent military maritime town. The 
expanded and extended view which most important cities of 
sea-board display along the shore, Copenhagen offers only 
(and that in a moderate degree) when you have passed it a 
little way further south as you proceed into the Baltic, as I 
had occasion to verify this afternoon, when we left our 
anchorage at 3 o'clock under the most charming sky, with 
a fresh breeze and a warm sun, and started upon the second 
half of our adventurous voyage.. Copenhagen is unquestion- 
ably seated in a most unfavourable aspect, presenting its. 



whole face to the broad, blighting east and the chilly north, 
the sun in its meridian scarcely warming the interior of its 
streets and squares, and in the western descent lighting up 
its suburbs and fortifications only on th'e land side. It 
stands, moreover, on an island, and these circumstances 
combined give it a doubtful character for health. I felt the 
chilling and depressing efiects of this combination of unlucky 
physical features soon after our arrival ; for having remained 
on the paddle-box for an hour or so, to watch the approach 
to the town, and on our coming to an anchor under the gaze 
of thousands of eyes surveying us from the ' Lange Linie/ 
a species of marine promenade, I was not long in experienc- 
ing the untoward effects of the chilling atmosphere, which 
made me beat a retreat below in the saloon, where I en- 
deavoured to restore again the natural heat I had lost by 
donning my wraps and getting near the fire till tea-time, 
though I did not escape the almost inevitable and usual 
result of such an exposure, viz., a severe cold in the head 
within the twenty-four hours, which has plagued me the 
whole evening after and to this moment of writing. A 
great treat, which indeed I had forgotten to expect on 
visiting Copenhagen, and which I enjoyed most intensely, 
was the inspection of what is called the Thorwaldsen 
Museum.' You recollect we saw at Munich, in churches, 
in the king's palace, and at the' Glyptothek, some of this 
sculptor's magnificent productions. These are all here 
reproduced, whether in their original marble or in plaster, 
besides some hundred originals by the same indefatigable 
sculptor, who was a Dane by birth, and died in this city at 
the age of seventy-four, after having resided in Rome the 
best part of his life, where he acquired an immense fortune 
and an imperishable name. When it became known that 
he had settled to return to his native place, his countrymen 
determined to give him a triumphant national reception. 


As Thorwaldsen approached Copenhagen (this occurred ten 
or fifteen years since, I believe), hundreds of boats in pro- 
cession went out to meet him, headed by the principal people 
of every rank and station and profession. Nothing could 
equal, they say, to this day the splendour of such a recep- 
tion, which moved the good old man to tears. On the 
outside wall of this Thorwaldsen Museum, which has been 
erected by subscription since his death, in shape, size, and 
architecture resembling a great Egyptian temple, the repre-- 
sentation of the marine procession in all its stages, the 
landing of Thorwaldsen, and his reception by the king, has 
been painted in fresco with figures of the ' size of life. 
Altogether I may say that this visit to the receptacle of 
the works of one of the greatest sculptors of modem days 
is worthy the laborious voyage to the revered cradle of the 
artistr As I spent Inost of my time in the museum (and it 
was too short), you may imagine that we had Httle spare 
time left to go anywhere else. Our time was limited to 
four hours, but with the aid of one of the heavy one-horse 
flys — somewhat like those at Brussels — we, Mr. Cox and 
I, under the escort of a valet de place^ while the vessel was 
taking in seventy tons of coal, contrived to see the interior 
of the principal royal palaces, stables, and the Frei Kerche, 
or principal Lutheran church, to the top of which we 
ascended to survey the city and take in a panoramic view 
of its streets, squares, principal edifices, and the surrounding 
country. The general view is not more striking or impres- 
sive than was the survey of its interior. The country is 
not pretty, nor is the aspect of the inhabitants, male or 
female, very prepossessing. I saw no indication of wealth, 
still less of luxury. The ladies appeared to wear dresses of 
the fashion prevailing among us ten or fifteen years ago. 
The appearance of the men, even the bourgeoisie and better 
^classes, with clothes of coarse materials, ill-made, and the 


absence of all clean linen about the face was very unfavour- \ 
able.- The men are bulky, with round, thick waists, almost all 
alike, short-necked, bull-headed, red-faced, light hair, with 
peculiarly blue eyes — a very distinct race, decidedly, from 
other European people. The ladies not particularly attrac- 
tive. The general aspect of the capital is by no means ugly. 
It is remarkable for large wide streets flanked by extremely 
lofty houses several stories high. The shops are placed on 
what would be the first floor, opening on the streets, with 
many steps to get to them. Under these are lesser shops, 
level with the street — 'the Oster Gade,' for example (a 
sort of Regent Street) — which are tolerably splendid. 
But passengers on the pavement have no chance of peering 
into their interiors, and can only judge of their wares by 
what is displayed behind the large panes of glass forming 
the square, flat, ordinary windows of the lower floor of each 
house. In many parts one could fancy himself in some 
large provincial town in France or Belgium ; but in other 
places the streets and squares have a physiognoipy entirely 
their own. They consist of rough-hewn stones without pave- 
ments ; and along each side of the street deep gutters or 
open sewers convey the entire drainage from the houses. Over 
a few of these drains a wooden covering is laid, movable at 
pleasure, for the convenience of carts or foot passengers. 
In many parts they are left uncovered, and then besides the 
stench which is generally prevalent in consequence, there is 
the disgusting sight of all that falls out of sinks and wash- 
tubs to proceed in streams down to the port, with the water 
of which it mingles to scent the landing-place, not very 
sweetly even for such deadened olfactory nerves as the 
chlorine gas has left me. 

" May 12th, .1 o'clock, p.m. — We are running fast, steam- 
ing northward to reach the Gulf of Finland. Various 
reports reached the captain as regai'ds the state of the ice, 


the upshot of which is that we shall not find the sea free 
from ice at Cronstadt before the 15th or 16th. 

"May 13th, Sunday. — ^We are yet 350 miles from Cron- 
stadt, entirely owing to the contrary winds and the slow 
steaming power of the vessel. It is not likely that we shall 
reach our destination before Tuesday afternoon. On awaken- 
ing this morning at my usual hour of six o'clock, I found 
it was snowing very hard, and the wind blowing fresh, the 
prospect all around us very dismal. But soon after breakfast 
the sun again came forth to cheer us, and by the time we 
had congregated together in the saloon, the first as well as 
the second class passengers with the crew, for divine ser- 
vice, the weather became moderate and serene. We had 
an excellent sermon from a young chaplain who is pro- 
ceeding to St. Petersburg to relieve the Rev. Edward Law, 
brother of my friend and patient, William Law. Soon after 
the sea began once more to swell, the sky to be cloudy and 
threatening, and we were again tossed about finely, when 
in your imagination I dare say you concluded I had reached 
my destination. I have never suffered so much from cold 
as I do now, and am not prepared with any clothing to face 
the quarter deck. Still I go up to it for the sake of a walk, 
but I invariably come down with a fresh cold in my head, 
and sneezing and coughing. I have often longed for my 
Greek capote. 

" 14th, Monday. — The weather became less boisterous 
in the night, and it is now twelve by the sun (not 10.30 
with you). We are going to our luncheon, and you, I 
suppose, have not long finished breakfast. The cheerful 
sun and a moderate breeze have raised our spirits, my own 
especially, for I cannot divest myself of the anxiety I expe- 
rience at every apparent delay at the heavy responsibility 
I incur. We observed in the distance two large vessels 
coming down the Gulf of Finland, full sail, looking as if 


they had just left Cronstadt, and we augur from it that as 
we approach that port to-morrow morning we shall find an 
open sea ; if so, we hope to be at anchor by two o'clock, 
and unless detained by official forms we may be at the 
Palais Tczernicheff by dinner time to-morrow, the 15th. 

" 11 o'clock at night.— It is truly remarked that the tide 
of human life never runs smooth, and the same may be 
said of the sea. We were rejoicing at the prospect of 
gomg through clear water, having at sunset made the 
port of Revel, not more than 150 miles from Cronstadt 
The sunset was most brilliant, when, whilst writing, a ter- 
rific thump on the side of the vessel, which stopped the 
engmes, made us all rush upon deck" one after another 
I cned out, 'A touch, a touch,' thinking only that we 
might possibly have got on one of the numerous shoals 
or sandbanks with which the gulf is strewed on either 
shore. But on reaching the deck we discovered that the 
great thump had been occasioned by a huge iceber<r 
running against the side of the vessel, fortunately not at 
right angles. The spectacle before us at this moment 
was grand in the extreme. The twilight, which at this 
time of year never ceases in these latitudes, threw a warm 
and picturesque light on the scene, and showed us as far 
as the eye could extend a field of frozen water of dazzlinc^ 
white and blue tints, broken up into huge masses, each o^f 
the size of our two drawing-rooms put together, floating 
sometimes together, at other times apart, through which 
our brave Ctiy of Aberdeen made her way, breaking, crack- 
ing, pushing, and dispersing the various pieces of ice,' which 
as they rattled passing along the side of the ship, produced 
a solemn, rumbling noise, like that of subteiTanean thunder 
But we soon became accustomed to both sound and sight 
except the one we should have wished to prolong, that of 
some groups of two or three seals or of pome single indi- 


vidual, all in every stage of age and development, present- 
ing themselves in a variety of graceful attitudes on some 
iceberg here and there, viewing us pass unmoved, or 
tumbling headlong into the pool of water by their side with 
something like a baby cry. Nothing was more charming 
than this impromptu comedy, or' more impressive, than the 
notion it suggested that these interesting creatures, with 
their smooth, well-chiselled forms and intellectual eyes, 
were at that moment working within their well-rounded 
cranium a problem as to what this catalysis in their king- 
dom could mean or portend. I had determined to remain 
up all night and contiaue on deck to enjoy this grand new 
and striking scene, but at three o'clock I got veryxiold, 
and went to lie down, dressed, on one of the sofas in the 
saloon. At four o'clock Mr. Gox came down to tell me we 
had broken both paddle-wheels. We were standing motion- 
' less : not a vestige of blue water was to be seen ; the sun 
was up, huge icebergs or ice fields indeed encompassed us, 
and the vessel lay immovable, giving us^ not inaptly^ though 
but a faint specimen of that much more awful scene in which 
poor Sir John Franklin has possibly found a grave at the 
North Pole. 

"15th May. — On examination it was found that the 
iron circle of one of the wheels was torn asunder. Whilst 
proper artificers were set to mend it, the captain took 
/counsel with us principal passengers as to the best and 
most prudent course to adopt as soon as the damage should 
be repaired ; whether to endeavour to continue onwards, or 
to retrace our way through the free channels we had come, 
and take shelter in the port of Revel. You may easily 
imagine, dearest Mary, that this state of hesitation to me, 
who am the only "passenger tied to time, was a consideration 
of great anxiety. On the supposition that the captain 
would really go back to Revel, I made up my mind to land 



and set off post to St. Petersburg in a gentleman's carriage 
then on board, which would have been intrusted to me. 
The distance is two hundred miles, and I could post it in 
twenty-five hours. But even our way back to Revel was not 
free from danger of the ice we passed since eleven o^clock 
last night, so the point was finally determined in favour of 
going on to Cronstadt. Fortunately, the wind becoming 
somewhat favourable, we were able to set some of the 
sails, and with them (putting out the fires, the paddles con- 
sequently fixed) we broke at a slow, solemn pace the sur- 
rounding fields of ice, noticing at the same time that most 
of it, from its dirty surface and the marks of footsteps, must 
have been detached from land, and consequently showing 
that further up towards the land we were bound to, the mass 
of ice must have moved and given way to come down into 
a wider sea. Be that as God may please, we are again, 
and have been for som6 hours, in the direct track.^ Some 
ice is seen on our left far off, but we avoid its course, and 
trust in Providence not to be further impeded, still less to 
be made fast or jammed in the midst of icebergs. Of course 
all chances of reaching Cronstadt this evening are done 
away with, too fortunate and happy if we do so to-morrow. 

" 16th May, 12 p.m. — Another twenty-four hours are 
gone, and not only are we not at Cronstadt, but at break- 
fast time this morning so fast beset and bound all round 
by thick ice, that we trembled for the safety of the ship. 
In attempting to push through, as we beheld clear water a 
long way ahead of us, the flimsy wooden floats of the 
paddles kept snapping off one after another like glass. 
Near us we knew lay a shallow shoal, on to which we 
feared being drifted irresistibly by the ice. A little beyond 
on our right were three small desert isles, and between 
them and us a seal disporting himself in the sun on the 
hard ice, his natural region, in mockery as it were of our 



distress and presumption in intruding upon his domain. At 
breakfast all was dejection. The captain said nothing, but 
looked unutterable things. My fellow passengers gazed at 
each other. I felt for the disappointment of my waiting 
patient But the fear for life soon silenced that sensation. 
Thank God! the repaired paddles backed us out of the 
midst of the ice, and we were once more in clear water ; 
and after making two more attempts to see if we could dis- 
cover a fresh opening in the ice to carry us into the living 
water we beheld before us, we gave up for the present all 
further attempts, and are now lying-to afloat, waiting the 
chance of a change. You can easily imagine, dear ones, 
whether at this moment I feel at all happy or at my ease 
' as I think of the anxiety of the princess and her family. 
The luncheon bell has jtist sounded. I leave oflf writing, 
but shall not partake of the repast. 

**Four o'clock, p.m. — At last the attempt has proved 
successful, thanks to the great heat of the sun, whicK fortu- 
nately shone forth in all its splendour, and the wind also, 
which became stronger and favourable. We chose the 
weakest point we could discover in the ice, broke through 
cautiously where it was stronger, and aimed at reaching a 
very distant spot on the horizon, which through our spy- 
glasses looked Ijke blue or living water. After meandering 
for three hours through this maze or labyrinth of icebergs, 
we did at length emerge into the clear waves, all the sea 
open before us, the lighthouse of Cronstadt in sight at this 
moment, seven o'clock, p.m. At nine we shall be at anchor, 
but we shall not move oflf up the Neva till to-morrow, 
making exactly two weeks since we left London. 

*' Cronstadt, Friday, 18th May. — Embarked in a small 
steamer for St. Petersburg, and at the landing-place oppo- 
site the English commercial hall* was an oflficer of the Etat 
Major waiting to inquire if I was on board the steamer. 


Upon showing myself he instantly galloped off to announce 
my arrival, and presently young Prince Leo, with his mili- 
tary tutor, appeared on the mole. I stepped on shore, and 
was soon driven to the prince's palace with the young 
prince, where I was most warmly and cordially received by 
the princess, her daughter, and Prince Tczernicheff himself. 
I was soon installed in a most sumptuous apartment in 
connection with the princess's extensive rooms, where 
I dressed and diiled. Gdt into a most comfortable bed, 
slept over all my voyaging troubles, and here I am quite 
well, 19th May, after breakfast, concluding my long epistle, 
which must be in the post-office vid France within an 
hour. God bless you both, and return me as good news as 
I send you. — A. B. G." 

On reading over these epistolary records of my life in 
the Russian capital, revisited for an occasion that required 
particular and precise attention, I find the reality of 
" things as they were '* so perfect that if I am to say what 
I did during the summer months of 1849 in that city, I 
cannot adopt a clearer or more straightforward .line of nar- 
rative than the preceding letters represent. I shall there- 
fore continue to hold the same course awhile longer, until 
I have accomplished the important object for which I had 
been called a second time to the banks of the Neva. 

" This day last week I posted my first letter, a 
journal, in fact, of my proceedings fi:om the day we left 
Copenhagen to the moment of my arrival and installa- 
tion in this magnificent palace. I shall follow the same 
plan in this and any subsequent letters until I start 
for Ejssingen or home. As I told you, every preparation 
to lodge me in the most luxurious manner possible had 
been made. Bed-room and dressing-room, and an adjoin- 
ing salle in which my writing-table is placed, provided 
with every species of stationery, a profusion of secretaires 

o c 2 


and drawers, and a large breakfast table, couches and set- 
tees, a splendid French clock on the chimney-piece, and 
flowing drapery at the, windows to exclude dt bed-time the 
wandering horizontal sunshine. Here I receive my visits, 
several of which, from medical men high in the army, I 
have already had. The aspect of my rooms is excellent, 
and as we have no night, or darkness at all events, from the 
first to the last of the twenty-four hours, my rooms look 
perpetually gay, whether I am going to bed or getting up. 
For although I feel quite ready and do go to bed between 
eleven and twelve o'clock, the day is already begun, and I 
can read plainly without my excellent carcel-lamp, which 
is lighted as a matter of course in the evening, and left 
burning, though I am never in my rooms till bed-time. 
This being the Hotel du Ministre de la Guerre (the post 
my princely host occupies), is furnished, warmed, lighted, 
and served .throughout the year at the expense of the 
government, and consequently everything is done with pro- 
fusion and well. On the day of my arrival we dined at 
home. In the evening the Grand Duchess Constantino 
came with her husband, and remained to play cards till 
twelve. The. princess told me privately that Her Imperial 
Highness intended consulting me about her own health 
before I left for England. 

" Upon having my first serious conversation with my 
patient last Saturday, the princess told me she proposed 
that the expected event .which had summoned me from 
England should take place at a country house about one 
hour distant from town, on one of the islands in the Neva, 
lent to her by the emperor for the occasion. This informa- 
tion rkther disappointed me, but as I am to visit the said 
country house in company with the prince, to see if I 
approve of it first, the question remains suspended for the 
present. There was a grand dinner here to-day, which 


took place in the state apartments on the first floor; a 
splendid suite of rooms like those, Mary, you and I re- 
member in the Tuileries. There were present, Countess 
Nesselrode, Prince and Princess ' Bariatinsky , General 
Boutourline and his lady. Princess Sherbatoff, Oeneral 
Baron Wrewsky, aide-de-camp to the emperor, Baron de 
Loevenstein, my old friend Doctor Ardnt with his bride 
(Miss Chillingworth), who has exchanged her situation as 
governess in Madame Boutourline's family for that of the 
wife of the first civil physician in the capital, full of wealth 
and honours, master of a magnificent hotel of his own in 
one of the most fashionable streets near the court. He is 
an excellent man, with a European reputation, and lived 
most happily with his first wife, whom I knew well. The 
present wife may be about twenty-six years of age, whilst 
he admits to be sixty-three, though in appearance he 
might really pass for forty. He is now undergoing the 
routine of fifteen dinners, which it is the fashion to give to 
a recently-wedded pair for the first half of the honeymoon 
by the families most intimate with the husband, and as the 
doctor is known to almost all the higher families, at the 
houses of many of whom I have since dined myself, I have 
necessarily met the lady as often, and discoursed with her 
in her native tongue. She speaks excellent French, but 
not one word of Russ. The prince introduced me to the 
English charge daffaires and to all his principal guests, 
who dispersed in about half an hour after dinner was over, 
such being the practice here as well as in France and 

" Sunday, 20th May. — The prince sent me his carriage 
to go to church and fetch me fi:om it, for which I was very 
thankful, as the English church is some distance, and the 
sun intolerably hot. After service I had a short conversa- 
tion on the state of the English colony in the capital, and 


on certain rumours concerning the emperor, who is still 
absent in Hungary. In the afternoon a carriage fetched 
me to see Princess Bariatinsky's baby 

" The family went to the Russian play, which I declined, 
being Sunday, and I spent the evening pleasantly with the 
prmcess and a few relations. 

" Monday 21st. — After my daily visit to the princess, I 
walked oiit with young Prince Leo, who comes regularly 
every morning after breakfast to ask me to walk with him 
for Jialf an hour or so. He took me to see some of the 
new public buildings erected since my last visit. St. 
Petersburg has doubled in extent and fine edifices during 
the last twenty-one years. The prince had put his carriage 
and four at my disposal for the entire morning, that I 
might go and pay my visits of etiquette^ especially to the 
leading doctors, and also to one or two English families. 

" On Tuesday we dined at Madame Boutourline's. 'After 
dinner Dr. Pellican, the chief physician of the army, and 
Dr. Ardnt, both in attendance on the youngest child of 
the handsome mistress of the house, requested me to visit 
her with them in consultation, which took place at once in 
presence of the father and mother and the English nurse. 
The emperor had unfortunately left for the army two days 
before my arrival, and the empress had gone into the country 
the same day I arrived, and all the grand duchesses are 
out of town likewise. In the evening I escorted some of 
the ladies to the French play in one of the thedtres de la 
cour, and to-day we have been to visit the country house 
offered for the use of the princess, and report upon it. 
The prince had the admiralty state barge ordered, steered 
by nine pairs of oars and escorted by a colonel of marines, 
flags ^t the fore and abaft, &c., in which style we rowed up 
the Neva and down by a smaller branch for a short 
distance, a succession of most splendid views of St. Peters- 


burg before my eyes, such as I had never imagined to 
find there, and I wonder how the Russians can be at all 
astonished at our river and its banks,* or at the sight of 
Venice or even Constantinople. I know nothing equal to 
the panoramas I witnessed this day. I can well understaud 
the thrill of pleasure with which the fair partners of the 
worn-out ministerial or government employes hear their 
husbands ♦ propose a summer * avx Isles ! ' The house I 
went to see is not in a fit state to receive the princess, and 
I am not at all disposed to approve of it. It is far from 
ready, and appears damp. On our return in the afternoon 
we dined with Princess Bariatinsky, a most gorgeous 
banquet, served in princely style. Here I made several 
more acquaintances, and sat by the charming mother of 
the little sick girl I had prescribed for, who was very 
grateful, and in whose carnage I went after dinner to see 
the child, who was now doing well. I gave full instructions 
to the English nurse, who whispered to me, ' You have 
^saved the child, sir.' 

" May 24th. — The physician-in-chief of the army came 
in his carriage to fetch me to visit a new general military 
hospital erected since my first visit to St. Petersburg, and 
which had been suggested by Prince Tczemicheff himself, 
who has superintended the whole construction. We were 
received by about twenty medical officers, all in their 
uniform, as was my guide, and by the colonel-governor of 
the hospital. It is an immense and handsome building, 
capable of containing 1400 patients. I examined several 
patients, and tasted the food prepared for them. Every- 
thing was excellent. The establishment is quite perfect of 
its class, and my commendation of it gave the prince great 
pleasure, as he assured me. We dined quietly at home after 
our fatiguing morning. . 

* This was written, be it remembered, before our embankments were made.. 


" The principal occupation this day (Friday) has been a 
minute and extended visit to what is called here the * Etat 
Major/ an immense establishment connected with the 
administration of the army, something like what we call 
the Horse Guards, but how gigantic ! like every public estab- 
lishment in this wonderful country. I went through every 
branch of the gigantic official development under the 
prince's own guidance. Eight hundred employes of all 
classes live and work together and are fed in the building, 
besides four hundred officers who attend daily at certain 
fixed hours. The sections in which military maps are con- 
structed, fortification drawings effected, designs of military 
encampments devised, besides the department of the portable 
field press, are parts of this great department of the ad- 
ministration of their army of which the Russians are not a 
little proud." 

'' St. Petersburg, May 30, 1849.— Since last Saturday, 
when I posted my second letter to you, nothing particular 
has occurred beyond the ordinary events of a life passed in 
comparative idleness. We are still here, and do not leave 
for the country house before Saturday. I objected to the 
princess's apartment being on the ground floor and exposed 
to the north, and I am therefore to revisit the house and 
make fresh arrangements before the family leave town. 
Last Sunday I dined with my old friend the Countess 
Laval, where of course I met a prince and sundry counts, 
one of the latter son-in-law of the old countess, who has 
just reached the age of eighty-eight years, yet still as brisk 
and intellectual as when I first knew her years ago. We 
had a splendid dinner, and she made me promise to pay 
her frequent visits when I shall be in attendance on Madame 
Tczernicheff, as the house we were about to inhabit was at 
a short distance from her own in the country. I remained 
some time after dinner, and returned home at half-past 


nine and went to my room, as all the family, including the 
princess, had gone to the Russian play. Being Sunday," I 
was glad to spend the rest of the evening by myself. 

" On Monday, the 28th, I went to the Alien Office to pro- \ 
cure my billet de sefour, a permission granted on showing j 
your passport and a certificate of the EngUsh consul of your 1 
identity. I got clear in less than half an hour, but it is I 
impossible to have the faintest conception of all the diffi- 
culties, ceremonies, processes, examinations, papers, which V 
a stranger ha^ to undergo before he can obtain permission ^ 
to remain, even after his admission into the territory at the 
frontiers or at Cronstadt. It is now even more strict than 
ever, owing to the general disturbances on the Continent 
The principal officer asked me whether I had been in 
Russia before. On my answering in the affirmative, he 
inquired at what time, and I said about twenty-one years 
ago, in 1828. * No,' says he, exhibiting a file of papers 
he had brought from an inner room. * Do you know this 
signature ? ' pointing to the comer of a large blue printed 
paper. 'Yes, it is mine.' 'Well, look at the date; it is 
19th November, 1827 ; namely, twenty-one and a half 
years ago, and not twenty-one only since you were here, 
and this is your billet de sefour.' I replied — ' True, you 
are more exact than the police of the ancient R^publique 
de Venise ; ' and I took my leave, paying for my new billet 
de sSjour a tax of eighteen shillings. I shall have many 
more such ceremonies to go through to get away. What a 
country ! 

" During my absence General Boutourline called for the ^ 
second or third time at my rooms to ask me to attend his 
niece, which I find also the princess is anxious I should 
consent to, it being considered from past experience to be 
likely to be a difficult case. I am myself not at all willing 
to attend any case before that of the princess, far less this 


one, as should anything adverse happen, it might have a 
bad efifect upon her. I trust therefore they will not press 
it. I dare not go out in the daytime except to post my 
letters to you, the heat and sunshine are so great. I thought 
this evening I would saunter out along the principal streets 
and the quays of the beautiful canals. This I did from ten 
till twelve, the light of day being scarcely dimmed The 
sight of all these gigantic buildings, swelled even to larger 
proportions by the additional light 'of the njoon, is really 
magnificent. I walked for two hours in ecstasy : neither 
was I a* solitary being in the streets, for thousands of 
droskies and people were on foot. Shops lighted up, 
billiard tables, clubs, palaces in a blaze of light, all showed 
the active life that was going on near and around me. 
There was a little fresh air, but on the whole the night was 
as hot as the following .day. Vegetation bursting around, 
and the trees, bleak and leafless a few days ago, are now 
• out in the luxuriousness of the middle of summer. To-day 
I dined with the Princess Meschersky. The lady had 
arranged the dinner with the view of procuring me the 
pleasure of meeting the principal physician-in-ordiuary to the 
empress, who came from Tzarsco-§elo, where her majesty 
resides. I was much pleased with the man, and found him 
clever, shrewd, and ' intelligent, full of information, well 
acquainted with modem literature — including tho English, 
I showed him one of my works, the famous coloured plates 
on the female constitution, which he admired greatly, and 
regretted the libraries had not a copy of it. The work 
made a great impression on him, as novel and original. He 
had never heard it mentioned among my other works, for 
the plain reason that it was never sold. As you, Mary, 
know, it was published for a limited number of subscribers. 
I imagine this very clever physician of the empress, who is 
covered with stars and resides in the imperial palace when 


in the country, has imperial equipages and servants, receives 
about twelve thousand roubles a year, or four hundred and 
eighty pounds, something like the sum I make in three 
months, with all my liberty and independence. There are 
two English physicians settled here : not one of them is 
knovra even by name in the circles I frequent. They onjy 
practise among the English. In former times none but 
English vyere employed, and preferred ; now the contrary 
is the case. The Emperor Nicholas has been striving to 
make the higher classes really Russians, and nothing but 
Russians or Russian Germans hold the sway. This ex- 
tends even to the nurses. They say the English are too 
extravagant, and that they can procure as good nurses from 
Germany for half the money. 

" It is the dinner hour, and I must dress, but I leave 
this letter open for anything that may occur before Saturday. 

" Thursday, May 3Xst. — I read last night of the atrocious 
attempt made against our queen. Here also there has 
been detected a sort of conspiracy, and about forty young 
officers and civilians have been arrested and are now in the 
citadel to be tried. But not a word of the affair has been 
allowed to trg-nspire in any of the papers. It was a mad 
scheme quite. From what . I hear and read (for we have 
all the papers in the house), it would seem that my pre- 
diction, which you will recollect I told you of last montli, 
is about to be fulfilled. I said that by the end of May the 
whole of Europe would be in arms. Is it not so? Italy has 
now after all a better chance than ever. The emperor is still 
at Warsaw. The guards keep going off from here to different 
parts of the empire. The religious and military ceremonies, 
of state in the Imperial Military Medical Academy, of 
which I am a member, by-the-by, I am to attend in my 
uniform next Tuesday. 

" Friday, 1st June. — A regular engagement to attend the 





countess in question was entered into yesterday, and I saw 
the patient both yesterday and to-day. I am packing up 
for the country house, exactly thirty-five minutes distant 
from town. 

'^ Saturday, 2nd. — ^We are in the very hurry of packing. 
I take but few things, as I shall come to town daily. We 
dine en ville^ en gala ; in the evening to the French play, 
and at ten or eleven (all daylight) set oflF for the villa." 

" Sunday, 3rd June. — After closing and posting my letter 
yesterday, I went into the great cathedral of St. Isaac with 
M. de Montferrand, who has been twenty-five years engaged 
in this gigantic work, has realized a large fortune, and is a 
grand seigneur. One of the most striking features on 
enterii^ the interior of the church (to which no one is 
admitted except on strict business) is the exceedingly beauti- 
ful, strong, yet simple scaffolding by which you may ascend 
to every height of the works, from the pavement to the 
highest cupola, nearly two hundred feet from the ground. To 
all these various parts I ascended with Montferrand without 
being giddy in any place, except perhaps when I looked down 
through the crevices of the boards on which I stood to see 
some of the eminent painters paint their historical figures of 
saints on the ceiling of a chapel one hundred and fifty feet 
above the ground. There was not the smallest vestige of 
danger in any part. It is impossible to describe all I have 
seen of splendour in marble and precious stones and gold 
employed in the decoration of this magnificent temple. 
Montferrand gave me a copy of his great publication of the 
various parts of this immense edifice, which will exhibit 
better than I can do all its marvellous beauty when we 
meet. I went to the grand dinner, and then to the French 
play. The princess's caUche took me afterwards to the 
country house, whither the whole family had preceded me 
a few hours before. It was a most lovely night (day rather, 


sans soletI)y and I enjoyed the sight of the river and islands, 
on which are scattered all the principal villas of the 
seigneurs of St. Petersburg. 

" Monday, 4th June. — I visited Madame 0., whom I 
have agreed to attend, and whom I found had the good 
sense to promise to obey me, and to desist from eating and 
drinking everything to an enormous extent. After, I 
visited the President of the Imperial Academy of Sciences, 
Count Ouvaroff, who since my last visit to this city has been 
appointed Minister of Public Instruction, and hves in the 
house of the Minister e^ which, like that of our prince, is of 
the most gigantic size, and splendidly furnished. Lucky 
'these ministers are besides ; having coals, lights, and many 
servants, all paid for by the crown. He received me most 
cordially as an old friend, and proposed various projects 
of visits, &c., which I declined for the present, until the 
princess is doing well after the event is over. 

" To-day, being Whit Monday, everybody is out, all th^ 
churches full, all the streets crowded, and not a few 
drunkards about. The truly Russian or Muscovite dress 
displayed on the occasion gives animation and interest to 
the scene, but oh ! how ugly both males and females are ! the 
latter more especially. With the exception of the high-born 
ladies I meet at the dinners (and these are not a few), 
I have not seen a good-looking woman on any day or in 
any class of the population. We had a grand dinner at 
home to-day ; people crowd out to see us, and keep their 
equipages waiting, either in the road before the house or (in 
the case of relations) in the great coach-yard behind the 
gardens. They play at whist de pr6f6rence^ for money 
invariably, and set off at eleven or twelve o'clock to return 

" Tuesday, 5th June. — I rose early, to go at ten o'clock, 
by the wish of the prince, who is the head of the establish- 




ment, to see the Medico-Chirurgical College, at which all the 
medical officers for the army are educated from first to last 
for nothing. Dr. Kruber, the secretary to the general who 
commands the Institute, came to fetch me, and I started at 
that early hour in uniform and orders, taking with me the 
great diploma given me twenty-one years ago by order 
of Nicholas, which constitutes me an honorary member of 
the academy. On presenting myself to the President in the 
public theatre, where all the people were assembled at a 
public examination in Latin, I claimed the honour of taking 
my seat among the members as one of them, and not as a 
stranger. They rose and made me take a seat next to the 
President, on his left. After the examination," which was 
conducted in a most creditable manner, I was accompanied 
all over the various parts of the establishment by the 
respective heads of each, and when concluded I found my 
visit had lasted three and a half hours, so that I was 
perfectly exhausted, but at the same time pleased at the 
immense improvement and great changes that had^ taken 
place since my last visit. 

" 6th June. — One of my two anxieties is over. Countess 
0. is safe, and both she and the baby are doing well.- 
Another great dinner to-day, Prince TczernicheflP, Prince 
Dolgoroucky, Prince Gagarine, Prince Meschersky, and 
Prince Bariatinsky, princesses less by two, with the rest of 
the party made up of counts, barons, &c. I left soon to 
run up to my patient at St. Petersburg. 

" Thursday, 7th June. — ^A curious ceremony, at which I 
was present, takes place in all Russian families when a wet 
nurse is to be employed. Madame 0. would not nurse her 
baby herself, and I had to choose a substitute from three 
young women brought from the country. The baby, 
properly dressed, is brought by the head nurse into the 
room and given to the mother ; then the wet nurse is 


introduced, and asked by her if she is willing to take charge 
of her baby. On the nurse answering in the aflfimaative, she 
makes the sign of the cross over her face, and stoops to kiss 
the hand of the mamma, who places a silver coin in the 
hand of the nurse, saying aloud, * I consign this baby to your 
care ; be you as a mother to him,'- and the woman sits 
down and proceeds to the duties of her office. 

" Here nothing is heard of but war and rumours of war. 
All the regiments of guards, foot and horse, are en marche 
for the "frontiers. Every day one or two regiments leave, 
and all the young men of family, who are of course in the 
army, are eager to follow. The husband of the lady I am 
now attending, who is one of the aides-de-camp of the 
Minister of War, hearing that a school-fellow of his. Count 
StrogonoflF, one of the emperor's aides-de-camp, has just 
been killed in a battle with the Hungarians, has petitioned 
the prince to appoint and send him to the field of battle in 
his stead ; and yet he is very fond of his wife and children ! 
Upwards of forty-four thousand men of the guards have left 
town, yet there remain still as many more behind, all lodged 
in most splendid barracks. 

"June 17th, Sunday. — ^I am very anxious about the 
princess. God grant this day may end prosperously for 
her ! 3 o'clock. — The event is over, and a pretty little girl 
is added to the prince's family. Some curious superstitious 
ceremonies were gone through by the Russian attendants 
(unknown to the patient), proving to me how arri6ris this 
people are. At dinner to-day, all the members of the family' 
being assembled, I was thanked, and my health drunk by 
the prince. 

"20th June.— :! went yesterday to the christening of 
Madame O.'s baby. The prince, after the ceremony and 
dSjeuneVj took me home, and again told me, as he has done 
before, with many others, that they wished I would estab- 


'^ lish myself iu St. Petersburg, that I should have an immense 

\ practice. I shall ask the princess immediately to get my 

r name announced in the Qazette, as it requires ten days 

^ beforQ I can go, and I shall drive to the English consul and 

^ get my English passport made out for Germany. I would 

Lnot exchange my English home for all the wealth I could 
be offered here ! 

" The ceremony of private christening I had never seen 
before. It is imposing, and conducted with the greatest 
decorum. Some of the nearest relatives are invited, besides 
the godfathers and godmothers, who by the ceremony 
become relatives as it were, the title being held in great 
regard in Russia and the Church, which forbids marriages 
between them. The priest, who brings a clerk, a man in 
plain clothes, is in his ordinary dress, beard and hair 
dishevelled, and hanging down, having a stole of red 'silk ; 
and subsequently, when most of the prayers are read and 
the real ceremonial part begins, he puts on the more 
pontifical over-tunic of gold brocade. The room is prepared 
for the ceremony : on a table between two windows a little 
altar is dressed, having two chased images and two candles, 
a bottle of oil with a camel-hair brush, a pair of scissors in 
a little red case, and a new shirt and cap. In the centre of 
the room is a portable font, large and deep enough to receive 
the, baby with ease. It has the form of a gigantic egg-cup, 
\ of gold ; on its edge three lighted tapers, in the shape of a 
triangle, are fixed. Before the font the godfathers and 
godmothers stand during the entire ceremony, and in front 
of them the priest nearly the whole time. The father and 
mother, who had previously received their guests in an 
adjoining room, are quitted by the latter and shut into the 
room, as they must never be present at the ceremony. 
Being ranged on one side of the room, the priest reads 
several prayers out of the missal he holds in his hands before 


the altar. Then he reads a prayer in front of the godfathers 
and godmothers. At one period*^ the latter turn their backs 
to him, and then in front again. All this time the infant 
lies in the nurse's arms on a cushion richly covered with 
lace and coverlets. It is already stripped. During these 
prayers the safety of the emperor and every individual 
grand duke and grand duchess, old and young, is prayed 
for in a very long litany, which is the practice at all religious i 
ceremonies and in all churches. The child is then trans- 
ferred on its cushion, and covered, to the godfather. The 
prince who stood as such behaved remarkably graciously 
and well throughout the ceremony, preserving a. devout 
appearance, and holding a lighted taper, as did the god- 
mother, which the priest had previously handed to them. 

" The priest, after reading some other invocations over 
the water (which in this instance I insisted upon should be 
warm, though it was against the rules), crosses it with his 
hand over the surface three times, breathing at the same 
moment the sign of a cross with his mouth over the surface. 
This being done he takes the baby with one hand, while 
with the other he closes the eyes, ears, and mouth, and as 
rapidly as possible plunges the infant in and out of the 
water three times. After the last time, being wiped and 
restored to his cushion on the hands of the godfather, he 
puts on the new shirt and cap, and proceeds to anoint his 
forehead, eyes, ears, &c., with a brush dipped in the 
sacred oil. This is performed on two occasions, more 
prayers are read, and the ceremony is concluded, after 
which the company adjourn to the room where the parents \ 

have been locked up, the godfather and godmother leading \ 

the way, and restoring the baby in the most formal manner j 

to the parents, with many felicitations. In the mean time / 

the nurse, dressed smartly, and followed by a footman .who / 

has a large silver waiter on which is a napkin and several ^ 

VOL, n. D D 


champagne glasses laid down at full length, makes the round 
of the company, beginning with the godfather and godmother, 
oflFering them a glass of champagne, which she pours from 
a bottle in her hand. The glass of champagne drunk, 
with a toast to the new Christian's ' health and long life/ 
the empty glass is returned to the tray, each guest deposit- 
ing at the same time a note of one, two, three, or more 
roubles as a present to the said nurse. A dejeuner follows 
the ceremony, which in this case lasted one hour and a half. 

" I visited Princess Mechersky in the evening, and after- 
wards received a message from the Grand Duke H^ritier." 

Before relating what took place at my interview with the 
Cesarewitch, I must state that a unique copy of the Waterloo 
medal by Pistrucci, struck in soft metal, and richly electro- 
typed in gold by that celebrated artist, had been presented 
to me in lieu of honorarium for many years' attendance on 
him and his family. When I left England I took this 
medal with me, with the intention of oflFering it to the 
Emperor of Russia, whose brother, the Emperor Alexander, 
was one of the four powerful allied sovereigns depicted upon 
it, and to whose united arms the glorious conclusion of a 
war of forty years was due. At that time neither Her 
Majesty Queen Victoria nor any one else was in possession 
of a perfect copy. I had requested to be allowed to present 
it to his imperial highness, the emperor being absent with 
the army in Hungary. The morning of the 21st of June, 
1849, at 12 o'clock, was the time appointed to receive me, 
and it was arranged by Prince TczemicheflF that his carriage 
and four should convey me and Prince Waldimir Bariatin- 
sky, his son-in-law, who was to accompany me to the 
Palais d'Hiver. I took with me the Waterloo medal to 
present to the emperor thrpugh his Imperial Highness the 
Cesarewitch, an intention I had already communicated to 
the whole of the TczemicheflF family, who had ample time to 


admire the medal. On my arrival, the aide-de-camp de 
service, who had been informed by Bariatinsky of my 
coming, and who stood by the door of tKe inner room, 
requested me to wait. In less than three minutes the door 
of the inner room opened, two general officers with red 
cordons came out, and I was desired to enter. The recep- 
tion I experienced was most cordial. His imperial high- 
ness took me by the hand in the most frank manner, saying, 
"I am delighted to see you at St Petersburg, cher 
Monsieur Granville ;'' and he at once inquired after the 
health of Princess Tczemicheff, and " la petite nouvellement 
n^e," both of whom he informed me I had *' treated admi- 
rably." Having satisfied him on these points, I took the 
liberty of asking after the Grand Duchess Alexandrina, a 
sweet child I had admired at Kissingen. 

'* Ah, mon Dieu ! Vous avez done du savoir comme elle 
a ^t^ njalade ? Depuis voil^ k pen pr^s six semaines elle a eu 
la fifevre, et aucun remade ne p^ait lui faire du bien. Vous 
ne la reconnaitriez presque ^ plus si vous la vissiez k 

I expressed my deep regret. A few more observations next 
followed concerning the many improvements I had observed 
in the capital since my first visit in 1827-8, and then I 
said, ** Je tiens en mes mains un objet rare et d'une haute 
valeur comme objet d'art et de politique en meme temps, le- 
quel je ddsirerais presenter k sa majesty Tempereur qui se 
trouve dans ce moment absent de St. P^tersbourg, et je ne 
sais de quelle manifere le lui faire parvenir. J'esp^rais 
cependant que son altesse imp^riale, une fois qu'elle aurait 
su et approuv^ cet objet, voudrait bien se charger de la mettre 
en mon nom aux pieds de son auguste p^re." 

I then opened the box and explained to his imperial 
highness that it was the first complete copy of the famous 
Waterloo medal, which the English government had caused 

D D 2 


to be executed by the celebrated Pistrucci of Rome, whose 
name was doubtless familiar to his imperial highness. 

I first showed the grand duke the obverse side of the 
medal (which was handsomely framed in choice wood, and 
under glass, having a pivot in order to facilitate the exami- 
nation of both sides without touching the gilt surface), ex- 
plaining to his imperial highness the various symbols and 
allegorical figures ; and afterwards the side on which the 
heads of the four allied sovereigns are sculptured in relief, 
whom the grand duke at once recognized and named. 
While looking at the obverse of the medal, his imperial 
highness admired the splendid display of art in the eques- 
trian figures of Wellington and Bliieher. But more particu- 
larly was he struck by those groups of Titans precipitated 
from heaven by the thunder of Jupiter Tonans, which repre- 
sents the universal defeat of all the bad genii of revolution, 
demagogic, and anarchy. 

" Oui, oui ! " exclaimed the grand duke suddenly, " c'est 
trfes-beau ; et ce qui est plus, c'est tr^s-vrai ! Malheureuse- 
ment c'est tout h, recommencer! Ainsi, Monsieur Gran- 
ville, vous voudriez ofirir cela ^ Tempereur ? " 

*' Voil^ pr^cis^ment quel serait mon d^sir." 

"Eh bien, je m'en charge. C'est vraiment tr^s-beau, 
et Tempereur I'approuvera beaucoup ; et vous en aurez des 


From that hour to this in which I ain writing these words, 
I have never had one word of official acknowledgment 
that the medal had ever been received ; though, through 
Prince Tczernicheff, I learned before I left Russia that the 
Emperor Nicholas on his return had expressed great admi- 

• "Yes, yes ! it is very fine ;-an<i what is more, very true. Unforttmately 
it has aU to be done again. And so, Mr. Qranville, you wish to present thia 
to the emperor ? " ** That is exactly my wish." " Well then, I will imder> 
take it It really is very fine ; the emperor will highly approve of it, and you 
wiU hear about it.*' 


ration of the medal, which he accepted as a present, and 
had given directions to the Ministre des Apanages dirigeant 
le Cabinet de sa Majesty Imp^riale, who was Prince Pierre 
Volkonsky, to acknowledge its acceptance, that is to say, 
with a token of the emperor's munificence, as is customary 
at the court of Russia. Be that as it may, nothing ever 
reached me ; and this is not all, for on making inquiries 
several years afterwards as to the fate of the medal, I learnt 
that it is not to be found, either in the late Emperor 
Nicholas's collection, in that of the reigning emperor, or in 
that of the Imperial museum of the Hermitage ! 

I leave my readers to draw their own conclusions from 
these facts, by which it would appear that the emperor and 
his successor have been deprived of a magnificent object of 
art, estimated by the best authorities to be worth some 
hundreds of pounds, as a copy issued from the eminent 
artist's own hands, stnick in metal, and I have lost the 
honour of an acknowledgment from the emperor by this 
example of ministerial morality in Russia, a.d. 1849. 




It has fallen to my lot to close the autobiography of my 
father. I wish the task could have been undertaken by 
abler hands ; but it being considered that as the only one 
of his surviving children who remained with him to the last 
moment of his life, I should be the one best suited to such 
a duty, I have undertaken it with mixed feelings of satis- 
faction and diffidence, well aware of my inability to do 
full justice either to the manuscript left in my hands, or 
to the notes and journals from which these concluding pages 
are partly taken. 

, After the interview with the Cesare witch, just described, 
my father was called in consultation on the case of the 
Grand Duke Michael, brother of the Emperor Nicholas, 
who had desired to see him. The grand duke had just 
passed in review a train of artillery, which was leaving the 
capital for Hungary, at which review my father was near 
him and witnessed scenes of violence of temper towards 
generals and aides-de-camp hardly equalled in a lunatic 
asylum. It was in this state of mind he found him, and 
advised cupping, a regulated diet, avoidance of exposure to 
the sun or fatigue, the administration of certain medicines, 
and abstention from mineral waters containing steel, of 
which he had, since a visit to Kissingen, partaken of rather 
freely. His physician, the younger Sir James Wylie (who 
has since died suddenly) assented reluctantly, but did 
not carry out the advice. The grand duke, unrelieved by 
any remedial measure, joined the army, rode out in the sun. 


and fell from his horse in an apoplectic fit, from which 
he died scarcely two months after the consultation, aged 

During the time he remained in Russia, my father was 
consulted by many families of distinction, and many propo- 
sitions were made to induce him to settle in St. Petersburg ; 
but he was too thoroughly an Englishman at heart to enter- 
tain for one moment the thought of relinquishing his homo 
in his adopted country, and declined all such oflfers, as he 
had done on, his first visit twenty-one years before, though 
he fully appreciated, as he had done then, the kindness, 
hospitality, and consideration with which he was welcomed 

When the princess was in a fair way towards recovery, 
my father accepted an invitation from General Boutourline 
to accompany him to Moscow before his final departure from 
Russia. Before, however, leaving St. Petersburg, 1 find he 
gave a public lecture in French at the Medico-Chirurgical 
College, and soon after started with the general for a fly- 
ing visit to the ancient capital of the empire. But what 
to many would have proved too short a time for observation 
was sufficient for my father to fill several volumes of notes. 
When travelling, it was his habit to be always pencil in 
Jiand, noting down everything he saw or heard, to be 
stored away for future siftings. Thus he gathered during 
a stay of a few days only, sufficient information for a con- 
templated second work on Russia, to be entitled " The Two 
Russian Capitals, or Sketches of the Present State oi St. 
Petersburg and Moscow.'^ This proposed work, however, 
which, from the headings of the chapters now before me, 
was likely to have proved of great interest, never went 
beyond a rough sketch, in consequence of Mr. Henry 
Colburn, who by a clause in the agreement for "St. 
Petersburg " had boimd my father not to write a second 



work upon Russia, refusing his permissioH except on inad- 
missible terms, although the former work was then out of 
print. For this reason the book was never written. 

It was during this visit to Moscow that his attention 
was drawn to a new stimulant, used with much success as 
a vigorous excitant, which he afterwards introduced into 
England, writing a small volume upon the subject, which 
was published in 1858, under the title of " The Sumbul,. a 
New Asiatic Remedy.'' 

Upon his return to St. Petersburg he remained but a few 
days to take leave of his numerous friends and give his 
parting instructions for the benefit of his patient. He 
always retained feelings of the greatest esteem for the 
family with whom he had resided, and kept up an unin- 
terrupted friendship with them to the end of his life, which 
closed twenty-one years later, only one month before the 
princess died at Rome, a widow, in the arms of the 
daughter at whose birth he had been present. 

I cannot dismiss this subject without recording what I 
find my father has written as a tribute to the memory of 
Prince Tczemicheff : " He enjoyed the most universal 
popularity that a man in his station has ever enjoyed. 
Everyone esteemed and loved him, and gave him a most 
exalted character for uprightness, excellency of heart, good- 
ness and kindness to all his dependents and officers, always 
glad to do good and render service." 

On the 14th of July, 1849, my father took his final leave ^ 
of St. Petersburg, reaching Cronstadt by steamer, then on 
to Stettin and Berlin, and so to Kissingen, where he 
arrived on the 21st, to find many of his English patients 
awaiting him. After remaining here a few weeks he set 
out for London, which he reached on the 1st of September, 
when my mother and I met him, and drove him to his 
house in the country where we resided in the summer* . 


The next ten years of his life were not unmarked by many 
trials and many sorrows, aU of which he bore with that 
true spirit of Christian fortitude and resignation which was 
ever conspicuous in his character. His industry and perse- 
verance in all he undertook were indefatigable, and I have 
never known him to be for one moment without mental 
occupation of some sort, even when not engaged in his pro- 
fession. Taking always a keen interest in political events, 
it will be easily imagined that the state of Europe in 1853 
greatly occupied his attention. The policy of English 
ministers, as regarded the Eastern question, then beginning 
to agitate Europe, he considered to be founded upon wrong 
premises, knowing' as he did the state of the emperor's 
health, which had been no secret while my father was in 
Russia. The discussions carried on with Nicholas were 
shaped on the usual metaphysical grounds : my father con- 
sidered that ministers should have been guided instead by 
a knowledge of the physical condition of the disputant, and 
it was in the hope that the prognosis of an experienced 
physician might put them on their guard, by revealing the 
undoubted state of the case, that he addressed the following 
confidential letter to Lord Palmerston from Kissingen, 
whither he had gone at the end of June, as was his yearly 
custom : — 

" Kissingen, Bavaria. July 6tli, 1853. 

"My Lord, — Failing in my endeavours to meet with 
your lordship at the appointed interview at the House of 
Commons on the 22nd ult., at which I proposed to make 
a vrud voce commuDication of some importance to the 
government, as I thought, concerning the present political 
discussions with Kussia, I stated in a second note, written 
at the moment of my departure from England for this place, 
that I regretted the disappointment, inasmuch as the subject 
of the intended communication, from its delicate nature, did 


not admit of being committed to paper. I think so still. 
But, on the other hand, the necessity of the government 
being put in possession of the communication appears to 
me to become every day so much more urgent, that if it is 
to be of any use it must, be made at once, or it will fail to 
direct ministers in time, as I think the communication is 
capable of doing, in their negotiations with Russia, and in 
their estimation of the one particular element which, I 
apprehend, has first provoked, and is since pushing on, the 
emperor in *his present reckless course. Mine is not a 
political, but a professional communication, therefore 
strictly confidential. It is not conjectural, but positive, 
largely based on personal knowledge, and partly on im- 
parted information accidentally obtained. It is not essen- 
tial 1 should say from whom, for I take the whole respon- 
sibility upon myself, inasmuch as the whole but confirms 
what I have myself observed, studied, or heard on the spot. 
The western cabinets find the conduct of the Emperor 
Nicholas strange, preposterous, inconsistent, unexpected. 
They wonder at his demands ; they are startled at his state 
papers ; they cannot comprehend their context ; they 
recognize not in them the clear and close reasoning of the 
Nestor of Eussiari diplomacy, but rather the dictates of on 
iron will to which he has been made to affix his name ; 
they view the emperor s new international principles as ex- 
travagant ; they doubt if he be under the guidance of wise 
counsels. Yet they proceed to treat, negotiate, and speak 
as if none of these perplexing novelties in diplomacy existed 
on the part of a power hitherto considered as the model of 
political loyalty. The western cabinets are in error. The 
health of the czar is shaken. It has become so gradually 
for the last "five years. He has been irritable, passionate, 
fanciful, more than usually superstitious, capricious, hasty, 
precipitate, and withal obstinate — all from ill health, un- 


skilfully treated ; and of late deteriorating into a degree of 
cerebral excitement, which, while it takes from him the 
power of steady reasoning, impels him to every extrava- 
gance, in the same manner as with his father in 1800 ; as 
with Alexander, in Poland, in 1820 ; as with Constantine, 
at Warsaw, in 1830 ; as with Michael, at St. Petersburg, in 
1848-9. Like them, his nature feels the fatal transmission 
of hereditary insanity, the natural consequence of unno- 
ticed and progressive congestion of the brain. Like them, 
he is hurrying to his fate — sudden death from congestive 
disease. The same period of life, between forty-five and 
sixty years of age, sees the career of this fated family cut 
short. Paul, at first violent and fanatical, a perfect lunatic 
at forty-five years of age, is despatched at forty-seven in 
1801. Alexander dies at Taganrog in December, 1825, 
aged forty-eight. For five years previously his temper 
and his mind had at times exhibited the parental malady 
by his capricious and wayward manner of treating the 
Polish provinces. He died of congestive fever of the brain, 
during which he knocked down his favourite physician. Sir 
James Wylie, who assured me of the fact at St. Petersburg 
in 1828, because he wished to apply leeches to his temples. 
Constantine, eccentric always, tyrannical, cruel, dies at 
Warsaw suddenly in July, 1831, aged fifty-two years, after 
having caused rebellion in the country by his harsh treat- 
ment of the cadet officers. I saw and conversed with him 
on the parade and in his palace at Warsaw in December, 
1828. His looks and demeanour sufficiently denoted to a 
medical man what he was, and what his fate would be. It 
has been said that he died of cholera ; again, that he had 
been despatched like his father. The physician-in-chief of 
the Polish military hospitals assured me some years after 
that he had died apoplectic; and in a rage. Michael, after 
many years of suflFering fi-om the same complaints which 


affict his only surviving brother, became, in 1848-9, in- 
tolerably irritable, violent, and tyrannical to his own officers 
of the artillery and engineers, services of which he was 
supreme chief. In July, 1849, he consulted me at St. 
Petersburg. ... To complete this disastrous picture 
of the grandchildren of Catherine, their mother, Maria of 
Wurtemberg, a most exemplary princess, died apoplectic in 
November, 1829, scarcely more than sixty-five years of age. 
The attack, mistaken for weakness, was treated with stimu- 
lants and bark by her physician. Buhl, and bleeding was 
only had recourse to when the mistake was discovered — but 
too late to save. . . . During my second sojourn in 
St. Petersburg, in 1849, for a period of ten weeks^ what 
the opinion was of the emperor's health, what acts of his 
came to my knowledge which bespoke eccentricity, what 
were the sentiments of his physician. Dr. Mandt, who, 
homceopathist as he is, and exercising a most peremptory 
influence over his master, leaves him, nevertheless, un- 
relieved, except by mystical drops and globules-^what 
transpired of political doctrines and opinions, or, in fine, 
what I gathered afterwards at Moscow on all co-equal 
points, must be left to your lordship's conjecture — ^not 
difficult after all I have divulged. To go further would be 
like a breach of trust, and of that I shall never be guilty. 
In all I have related there is nothing that has been com- 
mitted to me as a privileged communication ; while the 
imperative requirements of the moment calling for its im- 
mediate divulgement, I hesitate not to make it under the 
firmest conviction that my fears and anticipations will be 
surely realized. If so, then the method of dealing with an 
all-powerful sovereign so visited must difier from the more 
regular mode of transacting business between government 
and government. For this purpose it is, namely, to put Her 
Majesty's ministers on their guard accordingly, that I have 


determined to place in your lordship s hands the present pro- 
fessional information, which must be considered as so strictly' 
confidential that I shall not sign it with my name. That I 
have selected your lordship as the channel of my communica- 
tion, rather than the Minister of Foreign Affairs, to whom 
more properly it should have been addressed, will at once 
appear natural to your lordship. In my capacity of once and 
for some years your lordship's physician, . . / your lord- 
ship has known me personally, and is convinced that what 
my pen commits to paper may be taken as coming from an 
honourable man and your obedient servant." 

By return of post an acknowledgment was received in 
Lord Palmerston's handwriting : — 

*'lltli July, 1853. 

" My DEAR Sir, — Your letter of the 6th has been duly 

"Yours, . . . . :^ 

But this timely professional warning was unheeded, as 
events but too truly showed. Who knows how many 
thousand lives and millions of money might have been 
saved if, on receipt of the above warning, instead of con- 
tinuing for months together all sorts of unprofitable argu- 
ments, peremptory language and peremptory action had 
been employed, leaving no time to the imperial and real 
" sick man " for the infliction on his own people, and those 
of the three nations allied against him, of that irreparable 
mischief which by the Crimean war he was suffiered to 
perpetrate ? It was thus that Pitt dealt with Paul. But — 
there was no Pitt then. This I find was so firmly my 
father's, conviction, that at an interview with Lord 
Palmerston subsequently, on the 23rd of February, 1854, 
on matters of a private nature, in answer to his lordship's 
question before they separated, as ta whether he still 


adhered to his opinion and prediction about the Emperor 
of Kussia, he replied, that before July, 1855, when the 
emperor would be fifty-nine years old, what he anticipated 
would have happened. " Let but a few reverses overtake 
the emperor,'' he added, ** and his death will be like his 
brother's — sudden." Alid so it proved : Alma, Inkermann, 
Balaklava, shook the mighty brain. Eupatoria completed 
the stroke, which anticipated my father's prognosis by only 
a few weeks. The prediction of the pathologist was accom- 
plished. On the 2nd of March, 1855, the Emperor Nicholas 
expired, and my father's^ letter to Lord Palmerston, dated 
Kissingen, July 6th, 1853, had become an historical docu- 

Having previously acquainted hi^ lordship on the 3rd of 
March of it« intended publication, the letter appeared in 
the "Times" of March the 5th, and was copied by a 
large number of daily and weekly journals. As it may be 
supposed, this letter was a nine days' wonder. Everyone 
was full of it, and on referring to my father's journal I 
find he was for a time beset by people stopping him in the 
street and addressing him at the club, whilst many 
frightened patients came to tell him their parents had died 
apoplectic at the fated age, and they wished to consult him 
as to their own chance of life ! 

This prediction, as it was, or foresight, as it should have 
been called, was merely the result of careful study of a 
subject which had long occupied him, and which resulted 
in the book he published in 1854, entitled "On Sudden 
Death." This important statistical work cost him many 
weary months of incessant labour, turning over the " Black 
Book " in the Registrar General's Ofiice in Somerset House. 
It was a subject of deep interest to him, involving as it 
did so much of the study of life, so much of the result of 
disease. The work, which was very generally and favour- 


ably reviewed, he had intended should be followed by a 
second volume to be entitled " On Longevity," some of the 
unpublished manuscript of which is in my possession. 

In 1859 my father s last work on mineral waters appeared, 
^'The Mineral Springs of Vichy,'Vthe result of a rapid 
excursion from Kissingen in the summer of 1858. Nothing 
had then been written in England upon those waters, and 
he thought an account of them might not prove unaccept- 
able in a country where patients were beginning to seek 
relief at those springs. The book was written in his usual 
easy and popular style, fitted for the perusal of all, con- 
tained much matter of general interest, from actual personal 
investigation of one who had for years made his inde- 
fatigable study those " stupendous gifts of Providence for 
the relief of human bodily sufi'ering,'^ which he was wont 
to consider all mineral waters to be. 

It was whilst at Kissingen, in July, 1859, that my father 
received the news of Mr. Hamilton's death, the early friend 
who through so many years had ever proved his staunchest 
supporter, one to whom he had been indebted for many 
acts of sincere friendship, and for whom he long and 
deeply mourned. Sorrows were now indeed coming on 
apace. My mother's health, which had been failing for 
some time, began utterly to give way, and after two years 
of great suflferings this devoted wife and most exemplary 
mother to our inexpressible grief died almost suddenly, on 
the 1st of November, 1861. My father never seemed quite 
himself after this blow. The world began from that 
moment gradually to lose its interest for him. At times 
he rallied, but it was always to return to the same idea, as 
to the probable time of his own death, and re-union with 
those "not lost, but gone before." He went about his 
usual occupations, attending to his old patients, some 
of more than forty years' standing, but he relinquished 


by degrees his profession in London, continuing only at last 
his practice at Kissingen, to which Spa I invariably accom- 
panied him. It was soon after the death of my mother that 
he again had great pecuniary losses from the failure of a firm 
in which he had embarked large sums of money for the estab- 
lishment of one of his sons. One great satisfaction, which 
he has himself alluded to, was yet in store for him, this 
was the opening and consecration, in August, 1862, of the 
English Church of All Saints in Kissingen, the first 
Anglican Church in Roman Catholic Bavaria, which owes 
its existence entirely to my father's unremitting zeal for a 
number of years in overcoming all difficulties with the 
Bavarian government, and in securing by his untiring 
exertions the subscriptions of those through whose munifi- 
cence the church was built, and finally, after failing in the 
y offer made to the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel, delivering it over in 1868, free of debt, into the 
hands of the Colonial and Continental Church Society, who 
since his death have erected a brass tablet to his memory 
in the sacred edifice as the founder of the church. 

Of the last few years of my father's life but little now 
remains for me to say. His last published work appeared 
in 1865, at the most critical period of the great London sani- 
tary question of the day — of water, sewage, and manure, and 
has already been mentioned in these pages. It was written 
with the desire to do justice to a departed man of genius, 
whose plan for effectually freeing the Thames from pollution 
and of applying the polluting matter as a source of profit 
to the land, the Metropolitan Board of Works have adopted 
without the smallest reference or allusion to him, or to 
those patriotic individuals who early came forward with 
their money and infiuence to support and, if possible, bring 
to a happy issue so original and national a scheme, under- 
taken by them in the form of an intended joint^stock 


company, of which my father was one of two managing 
directors, and was the loser of a considerable sum of money, 
that company undertaking more than thirty-five years ago 
to carry out every one of the measures which the Metro- 
politan Board of Works have now all but accomplished 
" piece meal," as their own architect has declared before 
Lord Robert Montagu's committee. 

In 1863 my father completed his eightieth year, and 
until then, as he has often assured me, he had never felt 
an old man. From that date age seemed to creep upon 
him fast. His bright clear intellect was undimmed, but 
his bodily health became enfeebled, though he was able to 
continue his summer visits to Kissingen as late as the year 
1868, when he had a most brilliant season, surrounded by 
numbers of his old patients, amongst whom were the 
Russian family he had gone to St. Petersburg to attend in 
1849. All seemed to have come to Kissingen to consult 
him for the last time. 

On our return to England he determined never to leave 
it again, and having finally relinquished practice he com- 
menced writing his autobiography. Amongst his immense 
bulk of diaries and correspondence he soon became so 
absorbed in memories of the past as to lose almost all 
interest in passing events, except only as they might affect 
his friends or his children. And so the time passed quietly 
in London, but the end was drawing near. His mind, 
always imbued with a deep sense of religion, began to 
dwell much on that other world to which he wa« fast 
hastening. Simple and childlike was his faith. He would 
never allow that the deepest scientific researches ever con- 
duced to scepticism : he saw the hand of God in every- 
thing, and as rapidly increasing infirmities came upon him 
he seemed only the more patient, waiting for the time 
when he should be summoned to his rest. 

TOL. n. £ B* 


In 1871 we left London to spend the winter at Dover, 
hoping that the sea air might give him strength, which at 
first it did ; but he was not able to write for so long 
together as formerly, or to read aloud to me as was his 
custom, and it is to this circumstance I owe being in any 
way in a position to finish the work he had begun, for in 
anticipation of never completing it himself, he would relate 
to me as we two sat alone in those long winter evenings 
how he would wish me to proceed with the book when he 
was gone. 

Soon after the New Year of 1872, the first symptoms of 
his last illness showed themselves;* palpitations of the 
heart, and great difiiculty in breathing, quickly followed by a 
bronchial attack, the progress of which he himself watched 
as he would hav« done one of his own patients in con- 
junction with that able Dover practitioner, Dr. Sutton, 
whose kindness and attention were unfailing to the last. 
But my father, with all his experience and scientific know- 
ledge, knew the end had come, and it was with difficulty he 
could be induced even to take nourishment. " The end has 
come," he would repeat ; and so it was. After five weeks' 
intense suffering, with a heart prepared for the great change, 
he passed away on Sunday, March 3rd, without a sigh, 
conscious to the last, and whispering in my ear, " Light, all 
light," as he most truly fell asleep in Jesus. . . . 

My task is done! To dilate upon my father's cha- 
racter, which to the most refined and polished manners 

* Whilst going through that portion of my father's manuscript which gives an 
account^of his state of health when as a young man he was leaving England to 
study in the Paris hospitals in the year 1816, 1 cannot but be struck with the 
extraordinary resemblance of the symptoms, identical in every i-espect with 
those of his last illness. It would almost seem that his youth, his wonderful 
determination and energy had power to overcome and keep in abeyance 
throughout his long life a malady which once more asserted itself when age 
had come— the mainspring of life, the desire to live was gone, and the iiat had 
gone forth that it was his " Time to die." 

THE END. 419 

united a n(^ture all nobleness and kindness^ incapable of 
retaining a resentment, would be a labour of love, but it 
would be but a daughter's tribute to a loved and revered 
parent's memory. I prefer quoting in conclusion portions 
of a letter from Sir Charles Douglas, one of his oldest 
patients and friends, the words of which may, I think, yet 
find an echo with many who are still living : — " I have 
known your father above forty-eight years ; during the last 
forty-two, very well I had the highest admiration for his 
talents and learning, and in my experience (long and varied) 
of the most renowned medical men, I never knew one of 
whose powers, resources, skill, attention, and care in illness, 
chronic or acute, I could compare with his. To his long 
experience in the most varied practice he added to the last 
all the vigour of youth, combined with the safety resulting 
from the most profound knowledge of his profession. It 
has for many years been a saying of mine, ' If Dr. GranvUle 
cannot cure, no human aid can avail,' and I have always 
entertained a grateful sense of the value of his medical 
advice to and care of me and mine, 'l . . Within a week 
I said to my medical attendant, who was urging me to 
leave town, * I will go down to Dover and see the dx)ctor ; 
he alone can do me good.' I hope his book will be 
published. You have the consolation that he lived to a 
good old age, and was, as a medical man, a blessing to 
thousands. I know he employed much time in still higher 
thoughts, and that must now afford you greater consolation 
than all. I will only add my own poor prayer, 




SiRBy — Per gentilezza di qnesto signor Ministro Conti di Revel, presi 
la liberta gia da qnattro settimane di porre sotto gli occhj di Y. M. xm 
esemplare d' una prima lettera scritta in jnglese e indirizzata a Mylord 
Palmerston, Ministro degli AfFari Esteri, "Sulla Formazione d'un 
Regno deir Alta Italia" govemato da un R^ constitnzionale della Real 
Famiglia di Yostra Maest^ 

E desso nn antichissimo mio projetto ch' io ebbi mai sempre a cnore e 
in favor del quale scrissi molto e molto sofrii, si dai Francesi che 
dai Tedesclii; onde poi preferii Y Esiglio in questo paese al vivere 
sotto il dominio dell' Austria. Appena comparve 11 detto opuscolo 
che fiiori si scatenarono nei giomali gli fautori delr Austria de- 
ridendo il progetto nostro ; negando i diritti dei Lombardi all' 
indipendenza ; chiamando imbecilli gl' Italiani come non atti alia 
liberta ; biasimando altamente tutto ci5 che a &vor di essa avea V. M. 
eseguilo ; e finalmente dichiarando che 1' Austria possedea il territorio 
dell' alta Italia per diritti iDdisputabili, sia pervetusta eredita, che per 
Yirtd dei trattati del 1815 sinegava al tempo stesso che vi fosse luogo 
a una qualsisia mediazone fr^ vostr^ Maest^ e la corte di Vienna. ' 

Da un lato 1' ignoranza totale che qui regua circa V indole ed il vero 
carattere degli affari dell' Italia ; e dall' altro lato il gran desiderio di 
sostenere il partito Austriaco che varie persone altamente poste e fre- 
qiienti commensuli del Principe di Metternich, esprimono in discorsi 
in scritti e colle stampe, tendono a manteuere il popolo Inglese in 
generale, nell' inganno sii di ogni cosa riguardante la questione 

Onde Bventare unacosl iniqua trama cdhtro la causa nostra; far cessar 
gli errori confondere i dolosi scrittori ed Oratori ignari ; dimostrar la 
validita dei nostri diritti alia nazionalitk ed a un tempo stesso la leal 
condotta di vostra Maest^ nella presente nobile ma ardua intrapresa ; 
lo mi misi a scrivere una seconda lettera al detto ministro degli affari 
esteri Mylord Palmerston nella quale assumendo, per cosl dire la 
carica di negoziatore a nome dell' Italia mi son fatto un dovere di 
trattare 1' intiera questione di maniera a non lasciar pih addito alle 
soperchierie di quei molti che ci son nimici in Inghilterra. 


Forse questo secundo sforzo che parimenti depongo davanti V. M. 
meriter^ quell' accoglienza che lo spiritx) almeno, ee non V esecuzione dell' 
opera sembrerebbe richiamare da V. M. Oserei credere che voltato senza 
indugio nell' Italiana fayella, potrebbe qucBta seconda Epistola eseer di 
qualche vantaggio al nostro paese. 

Faccia Iddio che T. M. possa condarre a felice cBito la nobil cansa 
degli Italian! cos) degnamente incomminciata per nn sol ^instante 
infelice^ ma ben tosto rendnta ad nn piti fortnnato aYYenire Pnrgata la 
Lombardia dai Forestieri e piantato il Trono di Y. M. come sovrano del 
Regno Unito nella mia natia citt& di Milano, io correrei di bnona 
Toglia a salutar il Yessillo, a rivedere i miei patrii Lari ed intercedere 
da vostra Maest^ il privilegio di esser posto nel numero di qnelli che ci 
stimano felici di scrvir nn tal Principe nelle cose pnbbliche. 



1812. Critical Observations on Six of the Principal Characters repre- 

sented BY John Kembls at the Theatre Rotal, Manchester. 

1813. li Itauco : a Literary, Scientific, and Political bi-monthly publication. 

Supported by the English Government. 

1814. Il* Patriota Italiano. 

1814. An Appeal to the Emperor of Russia on Italy. Written in three 

1817. An Account of the Life and Writings of Baron Quyton db 
MoRVEAU, the Reformer of Chemical Nomenclature. 

1818.' Report on the Practice of Midwifery at the Westminster 
General Dispensary. 

1819. Further Observations on the Internal Use of the Hydrocyanic 
■ (Prussic) Acid in Pulmonary Complaints, &c. 

1819. On the Plaque and^ontagion, with reference to the Quarantine 
Laws : in a Letter to the Right Hon. F. Robinson, M.P. 

1819. On A new Compound Gas from Dropsy. Read at the Royal Society. 

1820. An Historical and Practical Treatise on the Internal Use of 

Hydrocyanic Acid in Diseases of the Chest. Second Edition. 
Much enlarged. 

1820. A Case of Protracted Headache cured by Carbonate of Iron. 

1820. Reply to Professor Brand's Critique on Prussic Acid. 

1823. Prooress of Medical Science in the year 1822, English and 

1825. An Essay on Egyptian Mummies, with Observations on the Art of 
Embalming among the Egyptians, &c. 

1825. Letter to the Right Hon. Mr. Huskisson, M.P., President of the 
Board of Trade, on the Quarantine Laws. 

1825. Evidence before Parliament on the Thames Improvement. 

1828. St. Petersburgh : a Journal of Travels to and from that Capital through 
Flanders, Prussia, Poland, Silesia, Saxony, &c 2 vols. 

1830. Reform in Science, or Science without a Head^ and the Royal 
Society dissected. 


1831. The Catechism ot Health, or Simple Rules fob the Preserva- 
tion OF Health and the AthTainment of Long Life. 

1833. Graphic Illdstrations of Abortion, with Prolegomena of the 
Development of the Auman Ovum. 

1835. Report on the Thames Improvement Company, with many original 


1836. The Royal Society in the 19th century, being a Statistical 

Summary of its Labours during the last 35 years. 

1836. Report on Martin's Plan for Improving the Thames, &c. 

1836. Report of a Journey through Central Europe for Agricultural 


. 1837. The Spas of Germany. 2 vols. 

1837. Report on Arsenicated Candles. 

1837. Medical Reform : being the First Oration read before the British 

Medical Association. 

1838. Counter-irritation, its Principles and Practice : illustrated with 

One Hundred Oases cured by External Applications. 

1841. The Spas op England and Sea-bathing places. . 3 vols. 

1843. The German Spas revisited. 

1846. KissiNGEN, its Sources and Resources. 

1848. On the Formation of a Kingdom in Italy. First Letter to Lord 


1849. The Italian Question. Second Letter to Viscount Palmerston. 
1849. Letter to the Duke of Wellington on the Nelson Column. 
1849. Description of a Rostral Column to Lord Nelson, with a Design. 
1854. Sudden Death ! 

1858. The Sumbul, a new Asiatic Remedy, 

1859. The Mineral Springs of Vichy : a Sketch of their Chemical and 

Phynical Characters, and of their Efficacy iu the Treatment of Disease. 

1860. Dr. Todd and the late Member for Ashton. 

1861. Obstetrical Statistics of the Industrial Classes of London, 
1865. The Great London Question of the Day : Sewage v. Gold. 



Abd-kr-rahman II., i., 222, 223 
Abercromby, i., 88 
Achmet, Sultan, i., 151 
^Adelaaio, Count, i, 352 
Adomi, Cavaliere, i., 205, 206, 207, 208, 

211, 268 
^schylus, i., 184 
Agesander, i., 200 
Aglid, Count d', i., 857, 484 
Aglietti, ProfoBflor, i., 69 
Albany, Countess, d', i., 401, 402 
Albergati, Marcheee, i., 65 
Albrizzi, Countess, i., 70, 72 
Albrizzi, Joseph, i., 70 
Alexander, Emperor, ii., 85, 402, 419 
Alezandrina, Grand Duchess, ii., 403 
Alfieri, Victor, i., 29, 70, 401 
Ali Bey, i., 174 
All, Mehemet, i., 197 
AU Pasha, i., 85, 87, 88, 89, 95, 97, 98, 

99, 100, 108, 105, 107 
Alphonso II., Duke, i., 63 
Ambrogio, Padre, i., 19 
Anacreon, L, 206 
Andrea, Padre, i., 180, 182 
Angeloni, Signer, i., 358, 409; ii., 41, 138 
Angerstein, J. J., i., 251 
** Annales de Ghimie," ii., 24 
"Appello,"i., 376 
Arago, Dominique Fran9ois, ii., 65t 66, 

115, 116" 
Arago, Madame, ii., 115 
Ardnt, Dr., ii., 389, 890 
Arejula, Professor, i., 215, 230, 234, 235 
Argeidlaus, i., 117 
Ariosto, Lodovico, i., 63 
Armstrong, Dr., ii., 113 
Arrighi, Duke, ii., 319, 324 
Artaxerxes, i., 202 
Aspasia, i., 57, 128, 133 
Assemblee Constituante, ii., 101 

Athenseus, i., 138 
Athenodorus, i., 200 
Auckland, Lord, ii., 287, 283 
Augereau, General, i., 17 
Ayrton, W., i. 841 
Azeglio, Massimo d', i., 87 

Babingtoit, — ., ii., 126 

Bacciochi, Prince, ii., 820 

Baillie, Dr., i., 380; U., 51, 126, 194, 195, 

Baker, F., ii., 272 
Balbi, Count, i., 878, 429 
Balmaine, .Count, i., 898 
Bandettini, Signora, i., 425 
Banks, Sir Joseph, i., 828, 830, 889 ; ii., 

80, 31, 87, 109, 111, 115, 117 
Bariatinaky, Prince, ii., 889, 391, 898, 

402, 408 
Bariatinsky, Princess, ii., 889, 890 
BaroniuB, i., 807 
Barrow, John, ii., 257, 822 
Barruel, Antoine Joseph, ii., 61,, 77, 78 
BasU, St., i., 869 
Bauer, F., ii., 206 
Bazdre, ii., 206 

Beauhamais, Marquis de, i., 251 
Beaulieu, General, i., 28 
Beauveau, — , ii., 98 
Bell, John, ii., 277 
Bellegarde, Count de, i., 304, 356, 419, 

426, 427, 431 
Bellonio, Dr., i, 112 
Bembo, Cardinal, i., 194, 195 
Benincasa, Cavaliere, i., 426 
Bentham, Sir Samuel, i., 2^0 
Bentinck, Lord William, i., 309, 351, 356, 

386, 396, 420, 430 
Benvenuti, Signer, i., 383 
Bermudes, Cean, i., 243 
Berthier, General, i., 17 



Beasborough, Countess of, i, 845, 448; 

a, 129, 139, 231 
Bettinelli, Xavier, i., 194 
Beudanti — , ii., 65 
Beiut, Baron, ii., 358 
BeuBt^ Baroness, ii., 358 
Biot, Jean Baptiste, L, 44 ; ii., 65 
Billing, Dr., u., 38 
Billington, EUzabeth, L, 70 
Birkbeck, Dr., ii., 294 
Bimie, Sir Richard, ii., 123, 124, 203, 

Blake, WilUam, i., 299 ; u., 114 
Blanca, Count Florida, i., 220, 224, 235 
Blane, Sir Gilbert, ii., 51, 114, 126, 291, 

Blick, — , L, 389 
Blizard, Sir William, i., 389 
Blttcher, Field-Marshal, iL,_35, 404 
Boccaccio, i., 211 
Boliyar y Ponte, General, L, 288, 289, 

Bonaparte, Caroline, i., 37 
Bonaparte^ Charles, ii., 810 
Bonaparte, Joseph, i., 250, 852 ; ii., 810, 

311, 819 
Bonaparte, Lucien, ii., 318 
Bonaparte, Madame Patterson, ii., 155 
Bonaparte, Napoleon, i., 3, 16, 17, 28, 31, 

67, 91, 177, 178, 259, 262, 289, 868, 

894, 895, 4*24; ii., 21, 66, 102, 810, 

811, 813, 820, 826 
Bonelli, Angiolo, i., 250; ii., 30, 31, 32 
Borda, Professor, i., 69, 868 ; ii., 114 
Borgo, Pozso di, ii., 266 
Borromeo, St. Charles, I, 3, 4, 5, 22 
Bosius, or Botius, i., 4 
Botta, Carlo, L, 858, 859, 406, 407, 409, 

Boutourline, General, il, 887, 393, 417 
Boutourline, Madame, u,, 890 
Bowles, Admiral, ii., 204 
Bo wring, Sir John, ii., 863 
Boys, Captain, i., 280, *i81, 282 
BozBi, i., 3, 4, 20, 419 ; il, 810, 311 
BoEzi, Bartolomeo, i., 5 
Bozoi, Carlo, i., 1, 8 
Bozzi, Conte Giovanni, i., 4 
Bozziano, Museo, i., 4 
Bradley, Dr., i., 826 
Brancas, Due de, ii., 138 

Brande, Thomas, L, 880; iL»20, 22, 23, 

Brdme, Marquis de, L, 876 
Brera, Professor, L, 89, 69, 868 
Brewster, Sir David, i, 880 
Bright, Dr., u., 126 
Brinkley, Dr., ii, 110 
Brione, Antonio, I, 299 
Brisbane, Sir Charles, i, 882 
Brisbane, Sir Thomas, ii., 865 
Brodie, Sir Benjamin, i, 444 ; ii., 21, 22 
Broglie, Duo de, ii., 882 
Brogniart, — , ii, 65 
Brooks, — , i, 389 
Brougham, Lord, i, 880; ii., 286, 287, 

288, 289, 290, 291, 298, 294, 295, 296, 

298, 322, 868, 870 
Brown, Dr. John, i, 42 
Brown, Robert, i, 829; ii., 31 
Brune, General, i, 150, 152 
Brunetti, Coimt, i., 884 
Buchanan, — , i, 250 
Buckingham, Marquis of, ii, 19 
Bulgari, Countess, i, 79 
Bullock, Captain, i, 299 
Bulwer, Sir E. Lytton, ii, 279 
Bulwer, Sir Henry, i., 79 ; ii., 201 
Burdett, Captain, i, 298, 295, 297, 803 
Burdett, Sir Francis, ii., 19 
Burnett, Dr., i, 304 
Burrows, Dr. Man, ii., 46 
Byron, Lord, i, 71, 425 

Caius Licinius, i, 15 

Calder, Sir Robert, i, 316 

Callicrates, i, 121 

Calonne, i., 224 

Caluso, i, 430 

Campbell, Colonel Neil, i, 860, 374, 889, 

891, 393, 399 
Campbell, Lady XHiarlotte, i, 437, 444 
Campbell, Lord, ii., 88, 189 
Campomanes, Don Pedro Rodriguez, i., 

Candolle, Augustin Pyramus de, 1., 830 
Canino, Prince de, ii., 328 
Canning, Mrs. Stratford, ii., 154 
Canning, — , . ii., 119 
Canova, Antonio, i, 70, 865; ii., 80, 85, 

37, 88, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44 
Cantie, — , i., 391 



Capo dlatria, Count, ii., 240 
Capuron, ~, ii., 64, 60, 291 
Ca^tsay, Marquis de, 1., 418 
Cardelli, Professor, i., 68 
Carlisle. Sir Anthony, i., 820, 827 ' 
Carlos III., i., 286 
Carlos IV., i., 286 
Carlotta, Princess, ii., 811 
Carthew, Captain, i., 286, 287, 288 
Casse, Colonel du, ii., 809 
Castlereagb, Viscount, i., 80, 844, 847, 
849, 851, 874, 889, 891, 899, 418, 418, 
422, 424; ii., 88, 40, 41,148 
Castoldi, — , i., 13 
Catalani, Madame, i., 841^ 
Catherine of Russia, ii., 202 
Cattaneo, — , i., 29, 74, 858 
Cayallo, Tiberius^ i., 45 
Caventon, — , ii., 78 
Cavour, Camille, Marquis de, i., 869, 878, 

879 ; ii., 869, 870 
Caees, Due de, ii.~, 60 
Cazzaitti, Pietro, i., 72 
Celami, Madame, i., 897 
Cellini, Benvenuto, ii., 28 

Celsus, i., 48 
Cervantes, i., 242 

Cesarewitch, The, ii., 402 

Cesarotti, Melchior, L, 70, 371, 435 

Chamberlain, Dr., ii., 824 

Chambers, Captain, i., 279, 282; ii. 126 

Championet, General, i., 80, 82 

ChampoUion, Jean, i., 882 

Chandler, Richard, i., 888 

Chapel, Lieut., i., 815 

Chappelle, Abb^ la, i., 18 

Charles Edward, i., 401 

Charles III., i., 220, 224 

Charles X., ii., 249 

Charles Albert, i., 802, 377, 379 ; ii., 872, 

Charleville, Countess of, i., 57 

Charlotte, Princess, ii., 121, 197 

Charlotte, Queen, ii., 48 

Chartres, Due de, i., 802 ; ii., 60 

Ch&teaubriand, Fran9oiB, Yicomte de, ii., 

Ch&teauneuf, — , i., 837 

Chausaier, Francois, ii., 54, 291 

Chenier, Andr^ Marie de, i., 17 

Chilver, — , ii., 122 

Choiseul, Due de, i., 122, 183 
Church, Lieut., i 286 
Ciampi, Professor, L, 890, 404, 405, 406 
Cicero, L, 19, 75 
Cimera, Dr., i., 77 
Cimon, 1., 121 
Clanoarty, Earl, i., 888 
Clark, Sir James, ii., 255 
Clarke, Dr., L, 116, 183, 191; ii., 126, 237 
Clarke, Sir Charles Mansfield, ii, 804 
Clarke, — . U., Ill, 112, 125, 198 
Clifford, Sir Augustus, a, 279 
Clift, — , ii., 47 
aifton, Waller, ii., 256 
Coates, ThoB., ii., 288, 290 
Cobbett's Register, I, 806 
Cocsstelli, Count, L, 82, 85 
Cochrane, Sir Alexander, i, 288, 285 
Cockbum, Sir George, ii., 272 
Code Napoleon, ii., 96 
Colbum, Henry, ii, 249, 250, 407 
Cole, Lady Frances, ii., 135 
Cole, Sir Lowiy, a, 135, 138 
Collard, Roger, a, 98 
College of Surgeons, IL, 47 
CoUetti, General, ii., 20 
Colonna, — ^, ii, 811 
Combe, Andrew, ii., 865 
Comolli, — , i., 407, 408, 409 
Cond^, Josef, i., 280 
Confalioneri, — , i., 174, 421 
Conneau, Dr., ii., 824 
ConoUy, Dr., ii, 277 
Constantino, Grand Duke, ii, 81, 247, 
888, 411 

Contarini, The, i, 68 

Conway, Field Marshal Henry Seymour, 
ii., 194 

Cooper, Sir Astley, i, 41, 380 ; ii., 79 

Copland, J., ii., 804 

Comaro, Caterina, i, 194 

Comaro, Marco, Doge, i, 194 / 

Cornelia, i., 208 

Comeo, La Signora, i, 23, 24 ; ii., 194 

Cosway, Mrs., i., 425 

Cotton, Sir Charles, i, 208, 263, 269 

Courtenay, Thomas P., ii, 235, 268 

Coutts, Miss Burdett, ii, 322 

Couvenoff, Count, i, 892 

Cr^mieuz, Isaac Adolphe, ii, $20, 823, 



Criani, — , i., 22 
Croffc^ Sir Richard, iL, 121, 126 
Croker, John Wilson, ii., 252 
Crosse, — , ii^ 278 
Cruikshank, — , L, 41 
CuUen, William, i., 42 
Currie, Dr., i., 281, 282 
Cuvier, Baron, ii., 24, 62, 74, 76, 78, 116, 
117, 118, 291 

Dalton, John, i., 291, 818 • 

Darner, Hon. Ann Seymour, ii., 174 

Damiani, Signer, L, 177, 179 

Daniel, William, ii., 78, 114 

Dante, ii., 84 

D'Arcy, Colonel, ii., 198 

Darwin, Erasmus, L, 48 

Darwin, W., ii., 76 

Daubenion, — , ii, 62 

Davis, Dr. ii., 289 

Davy, Dr.; John, L, 444, 446, 446, 447 ; 

ii, 17, 28, 26, 26, 78, 84 
Davy, Lady, i., 880, 482, 433, 484, 486, 

437, 438, 440, 446 ; u., 17, 48, 99 
Davy, Sir Humphry, L, 44, 46, 146, 283, 

426, 432, 433, 484, 436, 486, 438, 440, 

444 ; ii., 18, 22, 48, 49, 79, 114, 291 
DefiUpi, Dr., a, 237 
Demoethenes^s Lantern, 1., 124 
Denbigh, Barl of, ii., 824 
Depr^, — , iL, 148 
Desfontaines, — , u., 62 
Desgenettes, Dr., L, 216 
Dettolbach, •— , I, 21 
Deveux, — , ii., 61 
Diderot, Denis, i., 21 
Dill Arum, ii., 198 
Disraeli, Benjamin, il, 368 
Djeezar Pasha, i., 169, 174, 175, 17«, 184, 

190, 191 
Dodwell, Edward, i., 183 
Dolgorousky, Prince, ii., 898 . 
Dolomieu, D^odat Quy Silvain Tancr^e, 

ii., 62 
Donaldson, Lieut, i., 313 
Donaldson, Professor, i., 126 
Doratt, Dr., ii., 149,160 
Douglas, Marquis of, i., 426 
Douglas, Sir Charles, ii., 419 
Dousmany, Countess, i., 79, 80 
Draz, — , ii., 344 


Du Barry* Madame, i., 238 
Dubois, — , ii., 65 
Dulong, — ;iL, 24 
Durazzo, — , ii, 84 
Durham, Admiral, ii, 165 
Dyke, Dr., ii, 278 

Earle, — , ii., 264 

Eckhard, Baron von, i, 866, 366, 867, ^ 

418, 419, 420, 428 
Edheim' Bey, ii., 366 
Edmonstone, Sir Archibald, ii, 207 
" Egyptiaca," i, 84 
Elgin, Earl of, i, 79, 91, 96, 119, 120 
EUbo, Princess, i, 883, 893, 394, 895, 896 
EUenborough, Lady,ii, 87,139, 142, 143, 

144, 149, 160, 162, 166, 156, 157, 281 
EUenborough, Lord Chief Justice, i, 7 f 

ii, 87, 88, 91, 93, 96, 96, 189 
EUenborough, Lord, u., 148, 160, 166, 167 
EUis, Sir Henry, i, 380 
English, Captain, i, 316 
Ercolani, Princess, i, 378, 426 
Escolquiz, Don Juan, i, 244 
Esperado, Don Ramires, i, 228 
Eequirol, Dr., il, 76, 90, 92 
Esterhazy, Prince, ii., 360 
Esterhazy, Princess, ii, 869, 360 
Eugene, Prince, i., 363, 884 
Eus^bius, i, 113 
Euston, lEarl of, ii., 279, 288 
Eutimio, Papa, i, 106 


Fabre, Francois Xavier Pascal, i, 401 
F^bbrichesi, Signer, i, 69, 68, 66 
Faraday, Michael, i, 44, 433, 438, 439 ; 

ii., 18, 217, 232 
Famborough, Lord, ii, 108 
Farquhar, Sir Walter, u., 17, 49, 60, 61, 

58, 66, 60, 87, 111, 122, 128, 126, 128, 

130, 136, 283 
Fauvel, — , i, 226 
Federici, CamiUo, i, 66 
Ferdinand, Emperor of . Austria, i, 7 ; 

ii, 369 
Ferdinand TIL, i, 226 
Ferdinand IV., i, 809 
Ferdinand VII., i., 260 
Ferroni, — , i., 380 
Fielding, Henry, i, 273 
Finch, Hon. and Rev. — , i, 426 



Finlaifion, AIex.» il, 236, 268 
« Fitzgerald, Colonel Edward, i., 837 
Flmdera, Captain, I, 329 
Foley, Admiral, i., 269, 270 
Foley, Lady, i., 270 
Foreeti, Count Spiridion, i., 79, 91, 99 
FoBoolo, Ugo, i., 26, 29, 858, 859, 397, 426 
Fouch^, Joseph, L, 32 
Fowler, Dr., ii., 198, 199 
Francis, Archduke, L, 425 
Francis, Emperor of Austria, i., 29, 61, 

885, 894, 395 
Frank, Joseph, i, 27, 89, 48 ; il, 114 
Franklin, Sir John, il, 384 
Frederick the Great, I, 65 
Freeling, Sir Francis, I, 8 
Fresia, Lieut-Oeneral, I, 879 
Freycinet, Captain, il, 99 
Fumagalli, The, l, 52 
Furia, Signor, 1,881 

GaeTano, Don, l, 114 

Gagarine, Prince, il, 897 

Galeii, l, 42 ; ii., 855 

Galvani, Aloisio, I, 45, 46 

Gardner, Alan Legge, il, 283 

Garibaldi, Giuseppe, l, 56, 289 

Gavazzi, La Signora, l, 80 

Gay-Lussao, Joseph Louis, i., 44 ; ii., 24, 

25, 48, 62, 66, 77 
GeU, Sir William, I, 183 
Geminiani, Francois, I, 214 
Generali, — , i., 28 
GenUs, Madame de, I, 802 
Geological Society of London, ii., 45, 62,' 

70, 72, 78 
George, King, i., 82 
George IV., King, I, 803 
George, Prince of Wales, L, 302 
Gerald, Dr., l, 292 
Gerard, Le Baron Fran9ois, il, 70 
Giannini, Professor, I, 868 
" Gibraltar Chronicle," 1, 229 
Giflenza, Lieut-General, l, 879 
Gioberti, Vincenzo, I, 369, 879, 429, 480; 

ii., 371, 874 
Giorgione, I, 71 
" Giomale senza titolo," I, 29 
Girardin, Madame de, I, 805 
Qiustiniani, Signor, i., 198 
Glaisher, — 1, 104 

Gobbes^Dr., I, 133, 137, 138, 141, 147 
164, 167 

Goderich, Viscount, ii., 261, 267 

Godoi, Don Miguel, l, 234, 285, 286 

Goethe, J. W. von, il, 249 

Goldoni, Carlo, I, 59, 65 

Goldsmid, Isaac Lionel, il, 279 

Gooch, Dr., il, 198 

Gordon, Captain, I, 867 

Graham, Sir James, il, 254, 255, 257 

Grant, Captain, I, 258 

Grant, Consul, I, 895, 896, 899, 400 

Granville, Augustus Bozzi, ii., 22, 24, 25, 
40, 46, 61, 70, 71, 79, 88, 114, 124, 
180, 142, 201, 204, 215, 225, 231, 235, 
256, 257, 258, 270, 282, 288, 290, 295, 
323, 874, 408, 404, 419 

Granville, Bevil, 1, 5 

Granville, Lord, ii., 249 

Granville, Maiy Ann, il, 69 

Granville, Rosa, I, 5 

Granville, Walter Long, ii., 108 

Grassi, Joseph, I, 427, 430 

Gh-assini, Giuseppa, l, 70 

Greaves, — , ii., 154 

Greenhow, — , il, 362 

Gregoire, Henri, Ev^ue de Blois, il, 
98, 99, 100, 101, 102 

Grey, Lord,il, 118 

Grimaldi, Princess, I, 2 

Grimm, Dr., il, 857, 858 

(Jrote, G^rge, I, 133 

Grfinewald, Count, I, 252 

Gunthorpe, — , il, 187 

Hadji, Ali, I, 129 

Hadrian, l, 325 

HaUord, Sir Henry, I, 274 ; ii., 51, 213, 
220, 224, 227, 291 

Halpin, — , ii., 844 

Hamilton, Admiral, I, 887 

Hamilton, Dr., il, 280 

Hamilton, Duke of, I, 888 

Hamilton, Mrs. Anthony, ii., 17 
.Hamilton, Rev. Anthony, il, 49, 99 

Hamilton, William Richard, I, 64, 80, 88, 
85, 103, 106, 111,116, 117,119,120. 
123, 135, 198, 208, 296, 816, 319, 323, 
325, 828, 331, 882, 884, 335, 336, 388, 
842, 344, 847, 848, 849, 355, 858, 888, 
391, 899, 422 ; u., 27, 30, 32, 38, 41, 



43, 44, 48, 53, 56, 59, 70, 73, 87, 99, 

102, 114, 124, 415 
Hardy, Captain, i, 804, 811, 812, 814 
Hardy, Mrs., L, 814 
Hare, ProfesBor, i., 887 
Harris, — , u., 204 

Harrison, Dr., L, 445, 446, 447 j iL, 28 
Barrowby, Earl of, L, 123 
Hauy, Abb6, ii, 62 
Bead, Sir Francis, ii., 836 
Hebreard,— , ii^-276 
Helena, St., i, 181 
Henry, Dr., i., 292 
BlBrbert, Dr., ii., 121 
Herbert, Hon. Sidney, ii., 199, 200, 237, 

Hemandes, Dr., i., 215 
Herodotus, i., 183, 168 ; ii., 209 
Herrara, Ferdinand, L, 226 
Herschel, William, L, 22, 224, 830 
Hertford, Marquis of, ii., 19^ 
Hertslet, Lewis, L, 844 
Hill, Lord, il, 840 
HiU, Sir Rowland, i., 8 
HiU, — , i., 480 ; u., 277 
Hippocrates, L, 167, 202 ; -ii., 365 
Hobhouse, John Cam, L, 91 
Hohenthal, Count von, ii., 368 
Holland, Sir Henry, i., 91 ; ii, 114 
Holland, Lord, L, 846 
Holme, Dr., i, 292 > 

Home, Sir Eyeraid, i, 830, 839 ; ii., 77, 

110, 206, 291 
Homer, L, 70, 206 
Hone, William, iL, 99 
Hook, Theodore, ii., 285, 292 
Hope, Dr., L, 269, 260 
Horace, i., 16, 19 
Homer, Leman, i, 880 
Hortense, <2ueen,iL, 314 
Hughes, — , i., 91 
Humboldt, Baron, i., 830, 337; u., 70, 

71, 108, 109, 116, 117 
Hume, Joseph, iL, 21 4 
Hume, Sir Abraham, iL, 107 
Hunter, John, L, 41 
Hussein Pasha, L, 157 
Hutchinson, Dr., ii., 228, 229, 237 
Hydrocyanic Acid, L, 69; iL, 25 

Ibrahim Aoa, i., 101 

Ictinus, L, 121 

Infantado, Duque del, L, 243, 244 

Institute of France, ii., 45 

Institute of British Architects, ii., 59 

" Italian Question, The," L, 377 

ItaUco, L', L, 51, 376 

Ivemois d', Francis, L, 481 

Jason, L, 118 

Jerome, King, L, 829 ; iL, 313, 319, 320 

Jerome Napoleon, iL, 329 

Jervis, Sir George, ii., 844 

Jeykell, Joseph, iL, 282 

Johnson, Dr. James, ii., 270 

Johnstone, Francis, i., 200 

Johnstone, Sir Alexander, IL, 194 

Jones, Dr. Bence, L, 438 

Jordan, Mrs., L, 845 

Joseph, King, iL, 814, 815, 820, 827 

Joseph Napoleon, iL, 809 

Josephine, L, 17 

** Journal de Science," iL, 40 

*' Journal des Mines,** ii , 77 

** Journal of the Royal Institution,*' ii., 76 

Jovellanos, Gaspar Melchior, L, 236, 243 

Junius, Gallio, L, 224 

Junot, General, L, 262, 264 

Jurine, Dr., i^ 155 

Jussieu, — , iL, 62 

Kallimaohi, Constantine, L, 144 

Eantsow, — de, L, 268, 255 

Kaunitz, Wenceslas Antolne, Prince, L, 

29, 224 
Kemble, Fanny, L, 62 
Eemble, John, L, 292 
Kennedy, Captain, i., 209, 261, 270, 276 
Kennedy, Mrs., L, 276 
Kerr, Joseph, L, 278 
Khir Bartholom^. L, 185, 186, 187 
Khosreus Pasha, L, 196 
Killmayer, Professor, ii., 116, 117 
Kirkpatrick, Sefior, L. 218 
" Kissingen ; its Sourpes and Resources," 

iL, 860 
Knight, Richard. Payne, ii., 30. 81, 32 
Knighton, Su- William, iL. 61, 122, 126 
Knocker, Captain, ii., 877 
Korai, Adamantiiis, L, 1G7, 108 
Kossuth, Louis, L, 289 
Kourt Pasha, L, 97 



Ember, Dr., ii., 898 
Kyr Stavro Zoannj, i., 89 

Labarraque, Antoine Germain, ii., 205 
Lafolie, Charles Jean de, i., 848, 849 
Lafolie, Madame de, i., 348 
Laine, Joseph Henri Joachim, Yioomte 

de, iL, 88, 99 
Lamb, Lady Caroline, iL, 128 ' 
Lambert, Sir John, iL, 185 
Lambertini, La Signora, L, 51 
LampadiuB, William Augustus, iL, 26 
Lannes, Qeneral, L, 17, 28 
Lansdowne, Marquis of, i, 880 ; iL, 287, 

Laplace^ Pienre Simon, Marquis de, ii., 

102, 108 
Larrey, Dominique Jean, Baron, L, 195; 

u., 824, 826 
Lasoaris, Augustin, Marquis de, L, 878 
LasceUes, John, IL, 288, 284 
Latham, Dr., ii., 112, 127 
Lattanzi, i., 50, 51 
Laumont, Gillet de, iL, 73 
Lauraguais, Count, ii., 188 
Layal, Countess, iL, 892 
Layater, Jean Qaspard, L, 89; iL, 144 
Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent, ii., 97, 100 
Law, Hon. — , iL, 158 
Law, Hon. William, ii., 882 
Law, Rev. Edward, ii., 882 
Leach, Lieut, L, 260, 264 
Leake, Colonel, L, 83, 91, 101, 104, 188, 

816, 882; U., 114 
Leochi, General, L, 86 
Le Due, Mdlle., L, 288 
Lee, Dr. Robert, iL, 129, 180, 181 
Legge, Admiral, L, 298 
Leonsthem, — , ii., 820 
Leopold, Grand Duke, L, 861 
Ley, Dr. Hugh, u., 123, 124, 804, 307 
LiaU, -, iL, 237 

Liddon, Captain, L, 294, 303 ; iL, 259 
Livy, L, 12, 15 • 

Licars, Professor, iL,. 204 
Loevenstein, Baron, iL, 389 
Logotheti, Signer, i., 119, 124, 135, 136 
Lomellini di Geiy>a, iL, 31 1 
Londonderry, Marquis of, L, 250 
Long, Sir Charles, ii., 106,. 108, 123 
LouisXV., i., 238; iL, 139 

Louis XVL, L, 12 

Louis XVIII., L, 847 

Louis Capet, L, 802 

Louis, King of Holland, u., 17, 318, 314 

Louis, Prince, u., 314, 816, 319, 821, 

322, 824, 826, 327, 828, 382 
Louis Philippe, iL, 810, 317, 319, 329, 

332, 834 
Louis Philippe Egalit^ L, 802 
Lucca, Duke of, i., 890 
Luochesini, Cavaliere, L, 290 
Lucignano, Jacopo, XIV., L, 194 
Lucius AnnsBus, L, 224 
Ludwig, King, ii., 355 
Lusieri, Signer, L, 119, 124, 125, 126, 

Lyndhurst, Lord, ii., 295, 296, 297, 298 
Lyons, Sir Edmimd, L, 809 
Lysicrates, L, 124 

Macorsoor, Sir James, iL, 841 
Machiavelli, Nicoolo^ ii., 84 
MoGregor, J., ii., 114 
McKinlay, Captain, L, 255, 256, 259 
Mackinnon, Alexander, iL, 279 
^Mackintosh, & James, L, 442 
MoMeekan, — , L, 294, 303 
MacMichael, Dr., ii., 295 
MaoMiohael, ^, L, 263 
Macnamara, Captain, L, 811 
Magendie, Dr., iL, 65 
Magennis, br., L, 259, 260 
Mahmoud, Sultan, L, 98 
Mailliard, — , ii., 809, 810, 313, 320, 330 
Malebranche, Nicolas de, L, 870 
Malcolm, Sir John, ii., 210 
Manchester Literaiy and Philosophical 

Society, L, 291 
Mandelsloh, Count, ii., 320 
Mandt, Dr., ii., 412 
Manfredi, -— , L, 250 
Manzoni, Alessandro, L, 39 
Marc Antony, L, 88 
Marcet, Dr., L, 330; ii., 78, 155 
Marcheei, — , L, 70 
Marcolini, Madame, L, 425 
Marcus, — , ii., 54 
Maria Carolina, Queen, L, 809 
Maria Theresa, Empress, i., 29, 41 
Marie Am^lie, Princess, L, 310 
Mariet, P. M., ii., 114 



Marino Faliero, I, ^ 

Marius AnnsBus, i., 224 

Marius Novatua, L, 224 

Marmont^ Qeneral, i., 74 

Maraigli, — , i., 869 

Martin, John, iL, 279, 282, 283, 284 

Martineau, Harriet, ii., 362 

Martinetti, Cornelia, i,.365, 370, 413, 

416, 417, 426 
Maaoagni, Paolo, i., 382 
Mascberoni, Lorenzo, L, 52 
Maskelyne, Nevil, L, 22 
Maaaena, General, i , 17, 22, 25, 82 
Maton, Dr., il, 126, 291 
, Mauroniati, Nicolai, L, 88 
Maximilian, Archduke, L, 425 
Mazzei, Marcheaa, i., 381 
Mazzlni, Giuseppe, i., 377 
Mazzuchelli, Jean Marie, Comte de, l, 

"M^canique Create," IL, 162, 163 
Meckel, Profeeaor, iL, 248 
« Medical Repoaitoiy," a, 46, 76, 78 
Medico-Chirui^cal Society, iL, 76, 79 
Medwin, Captain, L, 425 
Melbourne, Viscountesa, ii., 128, 231 
MeletiuB, L, 138 
Melzi, — , i, 18, 57 
Milage, Gilles, L, 242 
Mendez, General, i,, 288 
Menou, General, 1, 195 
Meroadante, Saverio, L, 28 
Merriman, Dr., iL, 123, 126, 198 
Mesoheraky, Prince, iL, 398 
Meschersky, Princess, ii., 894, 402 
Metaatasio, L, 341 
Methuon, —, ii , 45, 73 
Mettemich, L, 418; iL, 332, 333, 834, 

858, 878, 875 
Mezzofanti, Giuseppe, L, 866, 867, 869, 

418, 425 
Michael EffendL L, 150 
Michael, Grand Duke, iL, 406, 411 
'^ Milanese Gazette," L, 12 
Milendez, — , L, 286 
Milesi, Bianca, i., 442 
Minto, Earl of, iL, 254 
Mirabeau, Jean Baptiste de. L , 21 * 
Mirza Aboul Hassan Khan, ii., 193, 194 
Mitchell, James, ii., 268, 269 
Mocenigo, Count, L, 78, 80, 268 

Mojon, Dr.,i., 442 

Mombelli, — , L, 70 

Montagu, Admiral Robert, L, 259 

Montagu, Lady Mary Wortley, L, 448 

Montagu, Lord Robert, ii., 417 

Montalembert, Baron de, ii., 60 , 

Montesquieu, Charles de, L, 870 

Montferrand, — de, ii., 896 

Montgomery, Alfred, ii., 296 

Montholon, Comte de, iL, 821 

Monti, — , L, 29, 80, 50, 51, 485 

Monticelli, Abb^, iL, 46, 78 

Montijo, Conde de, L, 218 

MoDtresor, General, L, 422, 423 

Moore, Thomas, iL, 209, 210 

*Moreau, General, i., 80, 348 

Moretus, iL, 148 

Morley, Sir H., ii., 279 

Morghen, Raphael, L, 883 

Morier, John, L, 833 

Morousi, Prince, i., 139 

Morrison, — , ii., 104 

Morrison, Mrs., ii., 104 

Mortibier, Dr., L, 286 

Morveau, Guyton de, L, 286; ii., 45, 46, 

78, 205 
Moscati, — , i., 27, 36, 39; u., 114 
Motta, Cavaliere, i., 300 
Mourouzi, Alexander, L, 144 
Mozart, John C. W. A., i., 214 
Mukhtar Pasha, L, 90, 91 
MUller, Carl. L, 188, 206, 211, 222, 229, 

252, 298 

Mailer, Donna Anna, i., 212, 217, 218, 
220, 232 

Murat, King, L, 17, 57, 225, 892, 894, 

Murat, Lucien, iL, 820 
Murillo, Bartolomd Esteban, L, 226 
Murray, John, iL, 77, 294 
Musignano, Prince, ii., 318 
Mustafa Paaha, L, 107 
Mustafa, Sultan, L, 166 

Napier, Sir Charies, i., 76, 77 
Napoleon 1, See Bonaparte 
Napoleon IIL, i., 196; ii., 319, 326 
Napoleon, Joseph, ii., ^9 
Napoleon, Louis, L, 218 i ii., 311, 316, 

818, 331 
Neale, Sir Harry, i., 295, 296 





Necker, Jacques, i., 482, 435, 440; ii., 

87, 165 
Needham, John Tuberville, I, 89 
Negri, The, i., 5 
NeLson, Admiral Horatio, L, 228, 280; 

ii., lis 
Nesselrode, Coanteas, ii,, 389 
Keumann, — de, I, 304 ; ii., 143 
Nicoolini, Gioyaimi Battista, i., 381, 435 
Nicholas Paulo vitch, Emperor, ii., 895} 

Nicolovitch, Captain, L, 163, 179, 187 ^ 
Nollet) Jean Antoine, L, 45 
Northampton, Marquis of, ii., 222 
Northumberland, Duke of, ii., 124, 304 
Nugent, Count, i., 858, 862, 365, 380, 

392, 893, 419 

O^CoNNELL, Daniel, ii., 279 

Omar Brione, L, 98 

Ouiar Vrioni, i., 91 

Onslow, Countess of, ii., 196 

Onslow, Earl o^ ii., 196 

" On Sudden Death," ii., 414 

Orfila, Matthieu Joseph Bonaventura, 

i., 447 ; ii., 65 
Orleans, Dowager Duchess of, L 800, 808, 

Orleans, Duke of, i., 803 
Orobiofili, CavaUere, i., 7 
Orrery, I/ord, i., 305 
Ortis, Jacobo, i., 25 
Ouseley, Sir Gore, ii., 193, 288, 299 
Ouvaroff, Count, ii. 897 
Ovid, i, 15 
Owen, Professor, ii., 47 

PaKb, Ferdinand, L, 28 
Pallavicini, La bella, i., 56 
Pallavicini,'— , L, 29, 74, 858 
Palloni, Dr., i., 401 

Palmerston, Henry John Temple, 
Viscounty I, 877, 424 ; ii., 87, 38, 187, 
201, 262, 264, 265, 266, 281, 364, 866, 
368, 369, 370, 378, 409, 418, 414 
Panlzzi, Sir Anthony, ii., 810 
Parigi, Abbate, i., 881 
Parini, — , i., 435 
Paris, Dr. John Ayrton, i., 403; il, 113 

Parry, SirEdward,i., 294,801, 803; ii.^269 
passi, Lorenzo, i., 890, 403 


Paul, Emperor, i., 31 ; ii., 418 

Pausanias, i., 183, 168 

Paz, Principe de la, i., 247, 218, 249 

Pearson, — L, 446 

Peel, Sir Robert, i., 290 ; u., 213, 224, 226, 

Pellew, Sir Edward, i., 296,803,311, 314, 

Pellegrini, i., 42 
Pdlican, Dr., i., 390 
Pellico, Silvio, i., 19, 422 
Pemberton, — , ii., 126 
Pembroke, Countess of, ii., 119, 201, 202, 

203, 229, 230, 353 
Pembroke, Eari of, ii., 198, 199 
Pennington, — , ii., 142 
Pepys, — , ii., 78 
Percival, Dr., i., 292 
Pereival, Spencer, i., 290 
Perdiccas, King, i., 202 
Pericles, i., 121, 132, 134 
Perry, James, i., 388 ; ii., 19, 270 
Pestagalli, Pietro, i., 22 
Phidias, i., 121 

I^hilosophical Transactions, ii., 67 
Physicians, College of, ii., 79 
Pictet, Marc Auguste, i., 440, 441 
Pickersgill, — , ii., 280 
Kckford, Captain, i., 286 
Pigioni, Dr., i., 139 
Pinel, Dr., ii., 90, 92, 276 
Pini, Padre Emenegildo, L, 13, 14 
Piaistratus, i., 125 

Pistrucci, Benedetto, ii., 27, 28, 29, 30, 
31, 83, 84, 47, 112, 402, 404 
f Pitt, William, L, 29, 373 ; U., 194, 413 
Pius VL, Pope, i., 50 
Planta, Joseph, i., 334 
Plantin, Christophe, ii., 148 
Plato, i., 870 
Playfair, John, i., 330 
Plutarch, i , 12, 15 
Pole, Wellesley, il, 33 
*' Poligrafo, II," i., 849 
Polybius, L, 15 
Polycrates of Samos, i., 109 
Polydorus, i., 200 
Pombal, Sebastian Joz^ Marquis de, i., 

Pompey, i., 208 
Pond,John, ii, 110 

F F 



Porro, Count, i., 18, 85, 74 

Portal, Dr., ii., 85, 87 

Porter, Dr., L, 267 

Pott, Percival, L, 41 

PouqueviUe, Francois Charles, i., 188 

Prieur Duvemois, Claude Antoine, ii, 101 

Prudhoe, Lord, ii., 865 

PruBaian Blue, ii., 25 

Prussic Acid, it, 25, 46 

Fythagoraa, i., 170 

QoADRi, Profemor, i., 414, 420 


Rab, Captain, i., 808 

Ra£aem, Professor, i., 427 

Bagazzoni, Comtesse de, i., 854 , 

Ragneral, — , de, ii, 60 

Raguse, Due de, i, 74 

Rainier, — , i, 447 

Ramsbotliam, Dr., ii., 126 

Ramsden, Dr., i, 292 

Rankin, Brother, i., 279 

Ransome, — , i., 821 

Rapazzini, Cavaliere, i., 5 

Rapazzini, Maria Antonietta, i., 1 

Raaori, Giovanni, i., 26, 27, 8$, 89, 42, 

43, 74, 426 ; ii, 114, 299 
Ravensworth, Lord, ii., 865 
Red Cross of Sayoy, i, 28 
Reece, Sir Geoi^e, ii., 215 
Regent, Prince, i., 876 ; ii., 49, 107, 108, 

128, 198 
Reichatadt, Due de, ii, 817 
Revel, Count de, ii., 872 
Ricci, Major, i, 79 
Richmond, Rev. Legh, i, 820, 821 
Richini, — , i, 22 
Rienzi, Nicolo, i., 15 
Ripon, Earl of. i, ii., 267 
Bistori,* Madame, i., 80 
Ritchie, J., i, 849, 850 
Robert, Duke of Normandy, i, 199 
Roget, Dr., i, 446 
" Roma, Giornale di," ii., 41 
Romieuz, General, i, 78 
Romilly, Sir Samuel, ii., 119 
Rose, General, i, 101 
Ross, Sir Patrick, ii., 279 
Rossetti, — , i, 892, 396, 897 
Rossini, Giacomo, i, 23 
Rousseau, Jean Jacques, ii., 152 
Royal Academy of Sciences, ii, 77 

Royal CoUege of Surgeons of England, 

a, 64 
Royal Institution of Great Britain, i, 45; 

ii, 28, 62, 65, 77 
Royal Society, ii.,48, 64, 65, 72 
"Royal Society, History of the," ii., 47 
Rubini, Dr., i, 862 
Rubini, Jean Baptiste, i, 341 
Rumford, County i, 839, 840 ; ii., 97 
Rumford, Countess, ii, 97, 98, 99 
Russell, Lord John, ii., 274 
Rutland, Duke of, ii, 279 

Sacchib, Madame, i, 386 

St. Helens, Lord, ii, 107, 284 

St. Hilaire, Geoffrey, ii., 62 

St. John, Dr., ii., 299, 300, 801 

St. Maysan, Marquis de, i, 378 

*• St. Petersbui^," i, 32; ii, 243 

Sala, G. A., i, 194 

Sali Aga, i, 115 

Salisbury, Bishop of, ii., 17 

Salmatoris, Count, i, 378 

Salt, Consul General, i., 332 

Samos, Princess of, i, 170 

San Carlos, Duque de, i, 244 

San Giovanni, Duca di, 375 

Sand, George, i, 69 

Santa, — de Pietra, ii., 310 

Santini, Marohesa, i, 333 

Saussure, Madame de, i, 433 

Scarlatti, Alessandro, i, 214 

Scarpa, Antonio, i, 27, 39, 40, 47, 52 ; 

ii., 114 
Schamp, — ^, ii, 147 
Scherer, General, i, 80, 82 
Schotto, Seflor, i, 229 
Scoresby, Captain William, ii., 100 
Soott, Dr., ii., 144, 145 
Scudamore, Sir Charles, il, 341,842 
S^gur, Comte de, i, 282 
Selim, Sultan, i, 81, 89, 140, 165 
Sellow, —, ii., 214 
Sendel, Camille, i, 443 
Seneca, i, 223 
Serbelloni, Duke, ii, 20 
Serres, Professor, ii, 291 
Serrurier, General, i, 30 
Sforza, Duke Ferdinand, i, 52 
Shaftesbury, Earl of, i, 370 
Shee, Sir George, u., 261, 265 




Sherbatoff, Prinoess, ii^ S89 

Sheridan, Richard Brinsley, L, 345 

Siddons, Sarah, i^ 62, 346 ; il, 131-8 

Sims, Dr., ii., 121, 126 

Siniavine, Admiral, L, 78, 258, 268 

Siamondi, Jean Charles de,i.,440,441,442 

Sixtus v., Pope, i.. 26, 807 

Skittle,— ,iL, 844 

Smith, Sir Sidney, i., 169, 178 

Smythe, Honourable — , ii., 868, 870 

Soemmering, Professor, ii., 249 

Soler, Seflor, i, 299 

Solignac, General, 1., 258 

SoUman II., i., 201 

fioUy, J., ii 114 

Solon, i. 182 

Somerset, Lord Qnmville, 11,271, 278, 840 

Sor, — > L, 218, 214 

Soutzo, Prince Alexander, i., Hi, 147 

Spallanzani, Lazaro, L, 27, 89, 40 

Spanocchi, Count, i., 400, 401, 419 

Spar, Comtesse de, i., 862 

'* Spas of England, The," il., 848, 847 

<* Spas of Germany, The," u., 888, 889, 

841, 342 
Spighi, Signer, i, 401 
Stael-Holstein, Anne Louise, Baronne 

de, i., 70, 845, 482, 486, 437, 442, 444; 

u., 85, 86, 166, 862, 489, 440 
Stahremberg, Count, L, 892, 893, 395, 4i9 
Stataki, Michael, L, 145, 161, 167 
Stataki, Spiridion, L, 146, 148 
Stephanius, i, 92 
Sterling, Edward, L, 884 
Stewart, Dugald, i., 830 
Stewart, General Charles Yane, L, 260 
Stokoe, Dr., i, 419 
Stone,— ,ii., 120 
Strabo, i., 86, 88 
Strogonoff, Count, ii, 899 
Stuart, James, i., 133 
Stuart, Lady Elizabeth, ii, 169, 160 
Stuart, Lord W., i, 297 
Stuart, Sir Charles, i, 348; ii, 69, 120, 

Suchet, General, i, 299 
Suleiman Pasha, i, 104 
Sulivan, Right Hon. Lawrence, ii, 264 
Survilllers, Comte de, ii, 312, 313, 314, 

Sussex, Duke of, ii., 19, 43, 218 

Sutton, Dr., ii, 418 
Suwarrow, General, i, 80, 81, 82 
Sydenham, Dr., i, 43 ; ii, 267 
Sydenham, — , i, 338 
Sydenham, — , ii, 344 

Tacitus, i, 12, 16 

Tadilot, Dr., ii., 291 

Talleyrand, Beneyento, Prince, i, 79, 421; 

ii, 86, 87, 88, 39, 100 
Tahnont, L'Abb^ i, 800 
Tambroni, Signora, i, 870 
Tankerville, Countess of,ii., 864 
Tankerville, Earl of, ii, 864 
Tasso, Torquato, i, 63, 241 
Tcaemicheff, Prince, ii, 387, 391, 898, 

402, 404, 408 
Tczemichefi; Princess, ii, 376, 898, 403 
Teotochi, Count, i, 70 
*' The Journal of Science and the Arts," 

ii, 46 
** The Royal Society in the l^th Century," 

ii, 66 
Themistocl^, i, 117 

Th^nard, Louis Jacques, Baron, ii., 63, 66 
Theophrastus, i, 208 
Thiarks, Dr., i, 380 
Thibaut, — , ii., 820 
Thidbaut de Bemaud, Ars^ne, ii, 138 
Thiers, Louis Adolphe, ii., 832, 334 
Thirlwall, Bishop, i, 332 
Thomson, Dr. Anthony Todd, iL, 46, 79, 

143, 273, 287 
Thorwaldsen, Bertel, ii., 380 
Thugut, Baron, i, 29 
Tiemey, Sir Matthew, ii, 130 
Titian,!., 24; ii., 44 
Titus, Emperor, i, 75, 200 
Tofanelli, — , i, 390 
Tomasini, Professor, i, 362, 868 
Tomline, Bishop, ii., 194 
Tomline, Mrs., ii, 194, 195 
ToseUi, Dr., i, 160, 157, 161, 162, 166, 

171, 191, 192 
Townshend, Lord, i, 345 
Towry, Miss, ii, 144, 149 
Tramezzani, — , i, 341 
Treaties of Paris and Vienna, ii, 36 
Trench, Sir Frederick, ii, 279 
Trenta, — , i, 390 
Trevor, Hon. Rice, ii, 279 



Trollope, Thomas, i., 194 
Tullia, L, 19 
Turgot, — , i., 224 
Twiss, Botwse, ii., 377 
TyndaD, Profeesor, L, 44 

Ulloa, AQtonio, i., 244 
UaiAch, Captain, i, 4^9, 420 

Vacca, ProfesBor, l, 404 ; ii., 158 

Valentla, Lord, i., 832 

Valli, Dr. Eusebio, i., 189, 141 

Vance, — , i., 269, 260 

VaasaUi, — , i., 429 

Vaudry, Colonel, ii., 320, 821 

Vauquelin, Louis Nicolas, ii., 45-6, 61-2 

Velasquez, Diego Rodriguez, 1., 226 

Vely Pasha, L, 90 

Vesalius, Portrait of, ii., 44 

Vicke, Baron, ii., 148 

Victor Emmanuel, i., 877, 878 

Victor, General, i, 17 

Victoria, Queen, ii., 402 

Vidua, Count, L, 357 

Villa, — , I, 29, 36, 74 

Villatta, i., 36 

VillavicioBa^ Conde de, L, 242 

Villaviciosa, Countess de, i., 251 

Virgil, L, 15 

VirginiuB, L, 15 

Volkpnsky, Prince Pierre, IL, 405 

Volta, Alessandro, L, 27, 39, 40, 44, 46, 

69, 139, 426, 435, 489; ii., 114 
Voltaire^ Frangois Marie Arouet de, L, 


Waoneb, — , ii., 125 

Wagner, Mrs., ii., 127 
Wagner, — , i., 214 

Wales, Prince of, i, 336 ; ii., 107 

Wales, Princess of, L, 336 ; ii., 157 
WaUi, Dr., i., 46 

Warren, Dr., ii., 61, 126, 128-81 

Waterloo Medal, ii., 33, 34, 402, 403 

Waters, — i., 341 

Webster, Dr., ii., 274, 275, 278 

Weir, Dr., L, 261 

Weir, J., ii, 258 

Wellesley, Sir Arthur, L, 268, 278 
WeUesley, Marquis of, i., 80, 297, 334 
Wellington, Duke of, i., 250; a, 34, 99, 

103, 250, 322, 404 
Wells, Spencer, ii., 204 • 
Werry, Consul, i., 124, 136, 203-6 
Westminster General Dispensary, ii., 133 
Whewell, Rev. Dr. William, L, 330 
White, Admiral, IL, 272 
White, Blanco, i., 333 
Whiteside, — , ii., 372 
WUkie, David, u., 365 
Wilkinson, Sir Gardiner, ii., 208 
Willcoz, Captain, IL, 193 
Wilson, General Sir Robert, i., 335, 851, 

353, 354, 356, 360, 364, 374, 391, 402, 

419, 431 ; iL, 292 
Windmill Street School, u., 21, 23 
Wollaston, W., i., 330 ; iL, 47, 78, 114 
Wordsworth, Dr., i, 133 
Womum, — , L, 250 
Woronzow, Count Michael, iL, 202, 227, 

228, 238, 239 
Woronzow, Count Simon, L, 421; ii., 202, 

230, 237, 240, 241 
Wortley, — , i., 443 
Wrewsky, Baron, ii., 389 
Wright, — , u., 120 
Wurtemburg. Khig'of, ii, 328 
WyUe, Sir James, ii., 410, 466 

Xerxes, i., 117 

Tacoub-el-Manboub-Kalif, I, 2£7 

York, Cardinal, i., 402 

York, Duke of, a, 123, 204 

Young, Dr. Thomas, L, 330, 332 ; ii., 46, 

47, 85, 87, 114 
YouBoufif, L, 174 
Ypsilanti, Prince^ 1., 152 

Zahbslu, Nicolo, L, 88 
Zanoni, Abb6, 1, 386 
21anotti, Francesco Maria, i., 369 
Zingarelli, Nioolo Antonio, L, 23 
Zuochi, General, i., 36 
Zurbaran, Francisco, i., 226